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* Sound waves are longitudinal waves.
* The term longitudinal wave means that, the motion of particles in the medium is parallel to the direction of wave propagation.
Velocity of sound is independent of frequency & depends primarily on Physical make up of the material through which sound is being transmitted.
Imp characteristics of transmitting medium are 1.COMPRESSIBILITY 2. DENSITY
0004 1.65 Kidney Blood 1560 1570 1.61 Muscle Lens of eye 1580 1620 1.Velocity of sound in some Biological Materials Material Air Fat Water Average Human ST Brain Liver Velocity of Sound 330 1450 1480 1540 1540 1550 Impedance (Rayl x 10 -6) 0.8 .63 NA 1.48 1.38 1.7 NA Skull Bone 4080 7.62 1.
00. .00.000 cycles per sec.000 to 20. * Audible sound has a frequency between 15 –20.000 cycles/sec * The sonic beams that we use in diagnostic imaging have frequencies from 10.* Ultrasound by definition has a frequency of greater than 20.000 cycles per sec.
* Transducer is a device that can convert one form of energy into another. * Ultrasonic transducers are used to convert an electric signal into ultrasonic energy that can be transmitted into tissues. & to convert ultrasonic energy reflected back from the tissues into an electric signal. .
PULSE ECHO .
Based upon the pulse-echo principle occurring with ultrasound piezoelectric crystals. ultrasound transducers convert: – Electricity into sound = pulse – Sound into electricity = echo .
( first described in 1880) The reverse of the piezoelectric effect converts the energy back to its original form.* Piezoelectric effect – Certain materials are such that . . & vice versa.the application of an electric field causes a change in their physical dimensions.
which in turn causes the crystal to change shape. .* Piezoelectric crystals are made up of innumerable dipoles arranged in a geometric pattern. *When an electric field is applied. * Voltage between the plating electrodes produces the electric field. the dipoles realign themselves & in the process there is a mild change in the dimension of the crystal.
* Piezoelectric points. crystals behave as a series of vibrating * Wave fronts are not uniform close to the crystal. . *The distance at which the waves become synchronous depends on their wavelengths.
* Commonly used rate is 1000 pulses /sec. so the transducer is a receiver almost thousand times longer than it is a transmitter.* Between pulses. . Approx one millionth of a sec is devoted to transmission.( range of between 500 – 3000) * At this rate the total time available for each pulse is 0.001 sec. the transducer serves as a receiver.
≠ Near zone increases in length with increasing frequency. component is near zone or Fresnel zone. . ≠ Near zone increases in length with larger transducers.* Intensity * Parallel of ultrasound varies along the length of the beam. * Diverging portion of the beam is far zone or fraunhofer zone.
High frequency Low frequency More penetration Depth resolution is better.Fresnel zone is longer Less penetration Tissue absorption increases with increasing frequency .
Absorption .Reflection 2.Refraction 3.1.
the amount of Reflection is determined by the 1.As sound waves pass from one tissue plane to another. Angle of incidence . 2. Differences in the impedance of the two tissues.
Occurs at small boundaries that occur within tissues. It occurs at tissue interfaces Scatter gives rise to characteristic echo texture of image. .Specular reflection is responsible for bright appearance of boundaries between tissues.
Bending of waves as they pass from one medium to another is called refraction .
. that oppose the motion of particles in the medium.Absorption in ultrasound is a result of frictional forces.
DISPLAY Digital Data is stored / converted For display PULSE GENERATOR AMPLIFIER .
The frequency. f. is the number of cycles of displacements passing through a point in the medium during 1 second (s) The unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz). with 1 Hz being one complete cycle per second .
PULSE =Set Of Frequencies .
Acoustic Impedance The acoustic impedance of a medium is the impedance (similar to resistance) the material offers against the passage of the sound wave through it and depends on the density and compressibility of the medium .
. The shape of the beam will affect the region of tissue that will be insonated and from which returning echoes will be received.Beam shape The shape of the ultrasound beam produced by a transducer will depend on the shape of the element(s). on the transmitted frequency and on whether the beam is focused.
B: When the two media have different acoustic impedances. the majority of the ultrasound will be transmitted across the boundary. some of the ultrasound will be transmitted some will be reflected. most of the ultrasound will be reflected. . A: When the two media have similar acoustic impedances.INTERACTION OF ULTRASOUND WITH SURFACES When the ultrasound beam meets a boundary between two media.
Specular reflections Specular reflections occur at large smooth interfaces (A). . whereas ultrasound is scattered by rough surfaces (B) and small structures (C).
.Learning to use knobs effortlessly is an important part of the art of ultrasonic scanning.
GAIN Controls the degree of echo amplification or brightness of image ZOOM .
reflection & scatter & to show structures of same acoustic strength with the same brightness no matter what the depth. Operator controlled adjustment to compensate for the attenuation of sound as it travels into the tissue .TIME GAIN COMPENSATION ( TGC) Attempts to compensate for acoustic loss by absorption.
60 db 30 db .DYNAMIC RANGE Refers to range of intensities from the largest to the smallest echo that a system can display.
CALIPERS DEPTH .
.*Artifacts related to instrumental problems *Technique dependant artifacts *Artifacts due to the way tissues affect sound.
Main Bang artifact . Artifactual noise 2.ARTEFACTS RELATED TO INSTRUMENTAL PROBLEMS 1. Calibration artifacts 2.
Veiling Artifact 4.Side lobe artifact .3.
TGC problems 3. Contact problem . Noise 2.ARTEFACTS CAUSED BY TECHNIQUE 1. Banding 4.
ARTEFACTS CAUSED BY SOUND TISSUE INTERACTIONS 1. Enhancement artifact .Artefacts from strongly reflective structures 2.
3 Mirror image artifact 4. Reverberation Artifact .
Comet tail artifact .5.
to improve ultrasound signal backscatter is known as contrast-enhanced ultrasound. This technique is currently used in echocardiography.U/S CONTRAST AGENTS microbubble contrast media . and may have future applications in molecular imaging and drug delivery .
height and depth of images in much the same way as 3D movies but no movement is shown. instead of the sound waves being sent straight down and reflected back. In 3D fetal scanning. they are sent at different angles. however. providing three dimensional images of the fetus. allowing one to see width. . The returning echoes are processed by a highly sophisticated computer program resulting in a reconstructed three dimensional volume image of fetus's surface or internal organs. Often these images are captured rapidly and animated to produce a "4D ultrasound".3D ULTRASOUND 3D ultrasound medical ultrasound technique – pregnancy.
 4D baby scans are similar to 3D scans except that they show fetal movement.3D Ultrasound was first developed by Olaf von Ramm and Stephen Smith at Duke University in 1987. .
cheap .US .Advantages Excellent soft tissue contrast resolution Dynamic No radiation Safe in pregnancy Available.
Low intensity pulsed ultrasound is used for therapeutic tooth and bone regeneration. or liposuction.OTHER USES The ability to stimulate bone-growth Potential to disrupt the blood-brain barrier for drug delivery. Doppler ultrasound is being tested for use in aiding tissue plasminogen activator treatment in stroke sufferers. . This procedure is called Ultrasound-Enhanced Systemic Thrombolysis. Ultrasound is used in UAL (= ultrasound-assisted lipectomy).
Acoustic Targeted Drug Delivery High frequency ultrasound (from 1 MHz to 10 MHz) intensities from 0-20 watts/cm2. The acoustic energy is focused on the tissue of interest to agitate its matrix and make it more permiable to therapeutic drugs Enhanced drug uptake .
due to the extreme differences in acoustic impedance. .DISADVANTAGES Trouble penetrating bone. especially in obese patients. The method is operator-dependent. The depth penetration of ultrasound is limited. Performs very poorly when there is a gas between the transducer and the organ of interest. making it difficult to image structures deep in the body.
This effect is very minor as normal tissue perfusion dissipates heat.SIDE EFFECTS Ultrasound energy produces a mechanical pressure wave through soft tissue. This pressure wave may cause microscopic bubbles in living tissues. it can also cause small pockets of gas in body fluids or tissues to expand and contract/collapse in a phenomenon called cavitation . When ultrasound enters the body. With high intensity. it causes molecular friction and heats the tissues slightly. and distortion of the cell membrane. influencing ion fluxes and intracellular activity.
Doppler ultrasound Creation of a color flow image Blood flow and its appearance on color flow imaging Spectrum .
The Doppler effect is the change in the observed frequency due to the relative motion of the source and the observer .Doppler effect Austrian physicist named Christian Doppler in 1842.
DOPPLER EFFECT .
is related to the velocity of the flowing reflectors throught the following equation: . at any instant. fr. θ. A Doppler transducer placed on the skin and aimed at an angle. The transducer emits ultrasound waves of frequency. Δf.g. have a frequency. e. which contains blood flowing with a velocity of u m/s. towards a blood vessel. fo. and echoes generated by moving reflectors in the blood. The difference between these two frequencies. red blood cells.
The detected Doppler shift frequency changes as the angle of insonation changes. .
the received signal is multiplied by the transmitted signal and the product is filtered to remove the high frequencies. The Doppler shift frequency can then be extracted from the received signal by a process known as demodulation. thus providing the Doppler shift frequency. Here. .
and a lower amplitude. owing to attenuation of the signal by overlying tissue. The received signal has a different frequency from the transmitted frequency. once the Doppler shift frequency has been extracted (by demodulation) and amplified. owing to the Doppler effect. As mentioned earlier. it can simply be output to a loudspeaker or investigated using a spectrum analyzer .
This is used to extract the Doppler frequency
The velocity of the blood cells will vary with time, owing to the pulsatile nature of arterial blood flow.
This means that the Doppler shift signal obtained from flowing blood will contain a range of frequencies, due to the range of velocities present, and the frequency content will vary with time.
Overall view of flow in a region Limited flow information Poor temporal resolution/flow dynamics (frame rate can be low when scanning deep) color flow map (diferent color maps) direction information velocity information (high velocity & low velocity) turbulent flows
Factors affecting color flow image Main factors Power: transmitted power into tissue *Gain: overall sensitivity to flow signals Frequency: trades penetration for sensitivity and resolution *Pulse repetition frequency (also called scale): low pulse repetition frequency to look at low velocities. high pulse repetition frequency reduces aliasing *Area of investigation: larger area reduces frame rate *Focus: color flow image optimized at focal zone* .
EFFECT OF PRF .
Spectral Doppler Examines flow at one site Detailed analysis of distribution of flow Good temporal resolution – can examine flow waveform Allows calculations of velocity and indices .
The third axis. . the brightness of the display.e. with time along the horizontal axis and the Doppler shift frequency along the vertical axis. a spectrum is displayed.. the proportion of the blood cells moving at a particular velocity). Spectral analysis can be used to break down the Doppler signal into its component frequencies and to show how these component frequencies vary with time. shows the back-scattered power of the signal at each frequency (i.
Veins often lie adjacent to arteries and so.. CW Doppler is therefore said to have poor range resolution.e. and any flow within this area will be detected. where transmitted and received beams overlap) This region usually covers a depth of a few centimeters.Continuous wave (CW) Doppler Continuous wave (CW) Doppler continuously emits a single frequency while the receiving element continuously detects any echoes from the sensitive region of the beam (i. in many cases. . the CW Doppler will simultaneously detect arterial and venous flow. unable to provide information about the depth from which the Doppler signal is returning.
.Pulsed Doppler The poor range resolution of CW Doppler can be overcome by using a pulse of ultrasound energy and only acquiring the returning signal at a known time after the pulse has been transmitted. pulse of ultrasound is transmitted and the receiver then waits a given time before acquiring the signal over a short period of time.
Power/energy/amplitu de flow Sensitive to low flows No directional information in some modes Very poor temporal resolution Susceptible to noise .
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