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What is version control ? Version control is the management of changes to documents, programs, and other information stored as computer files.
Also known as Revision control, source control or software configuration management (SCM).
Most commonly used in software development though may be used for other activities like reporting, CMS (Content Management Systems).
When the first change is made. termed the “revision number”. and with some types of files. For example. merged. Changes are usually identified by a number or letter code. the resulting set is "revision 2". an initial set of files is "revision 1". and so on. In software development. Changes may sometimes conflict in terms of timing as well as content. Each revision is associated with a timestamp and the person making the change. restored. Revisions can be compared. where a team of people may change the same files. .
OpenOffice Writer. VCS mostly run as standalone applications. VCS is the software application which is actually used to implement version control. OpenOffice Calc CMS – Joomla. WordPress WikiPedia – Uses an advanced VCS . but they are implemented in various other softwares as well Word Processors – MS Word. Drupal. KWord Spreadsheets – MS Excel.
and label them appropriately. Software developers sometimes use revision control software to maintain documentation and configuration files as well as source code. . revision control is any practice that tracks and provides control over changes to source code. developers could simply retain multiple copies of the different versions of the program. In software development. But it is inefficient as many near-identical copies of the program have to be maintained. At the simplest level.
Revision control may also track changes to configuration files. such as those typically stored in /etc or /usr/local/etc on Unix systems. Consequently. Sophisticated revision control that tracks and accounts for ownership of changes to documents and code may be extremely helpful or even necessary in such situations. . This gives system administrators another way to easily track changes made and a way to roll back to earlier versions should the need arise. systems to automate some or all of the revision control process have been developed.
. if you need that App.config file the way it was on May 17. 2008 . so we know whom to give kudos to or ask questions. reviewed or rolled back as needed.no problem Tracking Ownership every change is associated with the name of the person. Collaboration a team of developers (which could be distributed geographically) may be working on the same set of files at once without interrupting each other's work Change Management changes can be inspected.
Working copy local version of files on somebody's machine. It usually contains all the latest changes. Latest (or Head) latest available version of some file or folder. It may contain local unversioned changes. History (or ChangeLog) a list of changes that were done to a file or folder since it was created. . Repository database server that contains all files and their history. Revision another word that means current version of file or folder. Trunk home folder for some project within the repository.
Tracking Evolution every change is associated with a short description.e.: prototyping or developing a fix for the important customer) without disrupting development workflow Continuous Integration ability to split evolution of a software project into incremental changes allows to run all sorts of checks and tests against each incremental change in a continuous manner . so you just need to pull a change log of some class to see how it evolved and who did what Branching it is possible to create a copy (branch) of the entire project for some specific purpose (i.
Commit (or Check In) sending your local changes back to the server. Revert discard all your local changes to the working copy. Check out first operation required to work with any repository. so that other people can get them as well. . It involves creating working copy that mirrors some folder on the server (usually that'strunk). Update updating local working copy to have all the lasted changes that were committed to the server since the last time you've checked it.
Create patch automatically create a file that describes all the changes that were done to the working copy (basically containing all diffs). . Diff (or Change. Then these changes could be reviewed by somebody else and committed to the repository. Delta) differences between two versions of the same file. or an operation involving actually looking up what was changed between two versions.
or a noun representing such a label.to place a human readable label on some revision (i.: when applying a bug fix from some branch to a trunk). Tag .: when releasing a product).e.to fix contradicting changes by reviewing and manually merging them (VCSs can automatically resolve majority of the conflicts). Merge .that happens when somebody else changed the file.to start a separate line of development over some old revision (i.e. .: when fixing bugs for the previously released version). while you were working on it locally.e. Conflict . Branch . Resolve .bringing together changes from different sources (i.
he will edit the file and make changes. as the changes made by Sanket will be lost. Suppose a team of 4 is developing a project. all files are stored on „mca1‟ server. But Rahul is still working on an older copy. not being there in his file.c’ Sanket wants to make some changes to it. . Rahul is working on file „login. All 4 are working from different computers. there can be conflict of interest. So when he tries to save the file after his work is done.
thereby keeping 2 copies of the file. he will use the VCS to merge his changes with those made by Sanket so that no data is lost. then a new version will be created (branched version) which will save his changes. Now. the VCS will flag the file with an ! Icon to suggest that the file on the server has been changed. . In case both have made changes to same part of file. Then.
Clients connect to the server in order to "check out" a complete copy of the project. It is a version control system that has been developed in the public domain beginning in 1986 CVS keeps track of all work and all changes in a set of files. Clients then work on this copy and then later "check in" their changes. CVS uses a client–server architecture: a server stores the current version(s) of a project and its history. and allows several developers to collaborate. . CVS stands for Concurrent Version System.
Both can run on the same machine as well if server is keeping track of local developers. the client and server connect over a LAN or over the Internet. Typically. The server allows changes only to the latest version of the file so that developers don't overwrite each others changes. . Once a check-in is done. the server automatically updates the revision (version) number.
To avoid developers from overwriting each other‟s work. certain methods are used : Atomic operations File Locking Version Merging .
A CVS server stores the modules it manages in its repository. The checked-out files serve as a working copy . . Changes to the working copy will be reflected in the repository by committing them. sandbox or workspace. Programmers acquire copies of modules by checking out. CVS labels a single project (set of related files) which it manages as a module. To update is to acquire or merge the changes in the repository with the working copy.
central repository on which clients synchronize. . each peer's working copy of the codebase is a bonafide repository. Distributed revision control (DRCS) takes a peer-to-peer approach. as opposed to the client-server approach. Bazaar DRCS conducts synchronization by exchanging patches (changesets) from peer to peer. Rather than a single.
called as distributed version control or decentralized version control Distributed revision control (DRCS) takes a peer-to-peer approach. central repository on which clients synchronize. A distributed revision control system (DRCS). . Distributed revision control conducts synchronization by exchanging patches (changesets) from peer to peer. Rather than a single. each peer's working copy of the codebase is a bona-fide repository. as opposed to the client-server approach of centralized systems. keeps track of software revisions and allows many developers to work on a given project without necessarily being connected to a common network.
and reverting changes) are fast. only working copies. communication is only necessary when pushing or pulling changes to or from other peers. reference copy of the codebase exists by default. Each working copy effectively functions as a remote backup of the codebase and of its change-history. because there is no need to communicate with a central server. providing natural protection against data loss. Common operations (such as commits. . No canonical. viewing history. Rather.
Code from disparate repositories are merged based on a web of trust. historical merit or quality of changes. such as development / release branches or a Commander / Lieutenant model. There may be many "central" repositories. Numerous different development models are possible. Network is not involved in most operations. i. allowing for efficient delegation of topical developments in very large projects. .. A separate set of "sync" operations are available for committing or receiving changes with remote repositories.e. Lieutenants are project members who have the power to dynamically decide which branches to merge.
so users can use their revision control system even for early drafts they do not want to publish Avoids relying on a single physical machine as a single point of failure. Still permits centralized control of the "release version" of the project . Allows users to work productively even when not connected to a network Makes most operations much faster since no network is involved Allows participation in projects without requiring permissions from project authorities. and thus arguably better fosters culture of meritocracy instead of requiring "committer" status Allows private work.
Open Source Bazaar CVS Open CVS CodeVille DCVS Proprietary Sun WorkShop TeamWare IBM CMVC AutoDesk Vault .
no client server architecture. Can run on a single system as well as networks. . Developed by Canonical (sponsors of Ubuntu Linux) Is a Distributed VCS.
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