Unlike gravity loads that are transferred in a downward direction. Buildings experience horizontal distortion when subjected to earthquake motion. shear compression. bending or torsion forces. earthquake loads start at the supporting soil and are transmitted to the building. When these distortions get large. the damage can be catastrophic. Causes     Tectonic plate movement Volcanic eruption Nuclear explosion Land Slides . The horizontal and vertical earthquake forces travel in different load paths and may result in tension.Earthquake Earthquake forces can act in all directions.

Techniques to Resist Earthquake          Active & Passive system Shear walls Bracing Dampers Rollers Isolation Light weight material Bands Others .

Active System Active control systems are devices integrated with real-time processing evaluators for improved service and safety. For example: Viscous Dampers . Passive System Passive control systems are conventional devices to resist or absorb the energy produced during Earthquake.

Shear Walls Reinforced concrete (RC) buildings often have vertical plate-like RC walls called Shear Walls (Figure 1) in addition to slabs. These walls generally start at foundation level and are continuous throughout the building height. beams and columns. or as high as 400mm in high rise buildings. Shear walls are usually provided along both length and width of buildings Resists  Gravity Loads  Lateral Loads . Their thickness can be as low as 150mm.

steel cross bracing can increase a building’s capacity to withstand seismic forces. Link Beams Diagonal Cross Chevron Eccentric .Bracing Full-height. Cross bracing can be exterior or interior and is secured to the building at floor level.

Example : Bracing .

fluid or pendulums.Dampers Damping systems use friction to absorb some of the force from vibrations. Active Mass Damper 2. A damping system in a building is large and designed to absorb the violent shocks of an earthquake. Types 1. Tuned Mass Damper 3. the dampers are huge concrete blocks or steel bodies mounted in skyscrapers or other structures. The size of the dampers depend on the size of the building. Tuned Sloshing Water Damper . and moved in opposition to the resonance frequency oscillations of the structure by means of springs. Typically.

Examples of Dampers Tuned Mass Damper Tuned Sloshing Water Damper .

Thus. simply.Concept The concept of base isolation is explained through an example building resting on frictionless rollers. When the ground shakes. . but the building above does not move.Base Isolation . rollers freely roll. the building does not experience the earthquake. no force is transferred to the building due to shaking of the ground.

The forces needed to move the building upwards limits the horizontal or lateral forces which would otherwise cause building deformations. .Spherical Sliding Isolation Spherical sliding isolation systems are a type of base isolation. Since the bearings have a curved surface. The building is supported by bearing pads that have a curved surface and low friction. the building slides both horizontally and vertically. During an earthquake the building is free to slide on the bearings.

which transfers a small amount of force compared to the forces induced by ground shaking experienced by a building built directly on ground. The main feature of base isolation technology is that it introduces flexibility in the structure.Lead Rubber Bearing These are pads which offer resistance against lateral movements. The isolators are often designed to absorb energy and thus add damping to the system .

Springs-with-damper base isolator This is another method of base isolation .

Hysteretic damper Hysteretic damper is intended to provide better and more reliable seismic performance than that of a conventional structure at the expense of the seismic input energy dissipation.[There are four major groups of hysteretic dampers used for the purpose. namely:  Fluid viscous dampers (FVDs)  Metallic yielding dampers (MYDs)  Viscoelastic dampers (VEDs)  Friction dampers (FDs) .

Viscous Fluid Dampers Viscous fluid dampers are similar to shock absorbers in a car. the friction converts some of the earthquake energy going into the moving building into heat energy  . A piston rod is connected to a piston head with small holes in it. As it does this.  When the damper is installed in a building. They consist of a closed cylinder containing a viscous fluid like oil. The piston can move in and out of the cylinder. the oil is forced to flow through holes in the piston head causing friction.

and it uses some of the earthquake energy which goes into building.Metallic Yielding Dampers  Metallic dampers are usually made from steel. X Plate Metallic damper . This permanent deformation is called inelastic deformation. They are designed to deform so much when the building vibrates during an earthquake that they cannot return to their original shape.

. they create friction which uses some of the energy from the earthquake that goes into the building.Friction Dampers  Friction dampers are designed to have moving parts that will slide over each other during a strong earthquake. When the parts slide over each other.

massive girders. the building and the ground move as a unit. are sunk deep into the earth and attached to the stable bedrock beneath. they sink the structure's main support beams deep into the foundation. It is most often used when building on loose. Because of the deep piles. To build a pile foundation. all of the foundation's weight bypasses the loose soil and is transmitted to and supported by the more stable bedrock.  Constructing a pile foundation is another way to anchor a building to its frame. Then. Anchors bolt a building to its foundation. Anchoring fastens the foundation to both the bedrock and the frame of the building. Then.Anchoring Anchoring involves engineers pouring a foundation into stable bedrock. or piles. As a result. gravelly soil because it produces a stable platform on which to assemble a structure.  . the foundation of the structure is poured into the unstable soil around the piles.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful