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Immune system

• Provides nonspecific
defense against
• Epidermis
• Dermis
Bacteria & Viruses
• Important differences between
bacteria and viruses with
respect for their requirement
for growth and replication.
• Body has different responses
to bacteria and viruses.
• Treatment for bacteria is
completely different than that
for viruses.
• Tiny particle
containing genetic
• Invades and
destroys cells
• Body produces
• Treated with an
antiviral drug
• Single-celled living
• Breaks down tissues
for food or releases
• Inflammatory response
• Treated with antibiotic
Immune response
• Defends the body
against specific
pathogens (like viruses
or bacteria).
• Immune System
response to an infection.
• Antibodies are produced
by the body in response
to antigens.
• B Cells: rapidly divide
resulting in large numbers of
B cells that recognize the
• Some B Cells release more
antibodies which are then
carried in the blood and
lymph to the tissues.
• Antibodies bind to specific
• Science Daily
Antibody structure
• Each antibody has a
specific site to bind to
the antigen.
• Once the antigen is
bound to the antibody it
is harmless.
• Pathogen + antibody
can attract _______
which “eat up” the
• After an individual has been
exposed to a pathogen, and
produces antibodies to it, some
B cells “remember” how to
produce the antibodies.
• This reduces the risk of
succumbing to the pathogen
again in the future.
• The ability to resist a pathogen
is called immunity: passive
(natural) and active immunity
• Immunity can be acquired by
• Injection of a weakened
pathogen into an organism to
create immunity.
• The pathogen is too weak to
create disease, but the
antigens present stimulate an
immune response.
Cells of the Immune System
• Phagocytes
• B Cells
• T Cells
• B-Cells • T-Cells
– B cells produce – T-cells provide
antibodies against defenses against
antigens in the bodily antigens in cells such
fluids: humoral as HIV and cancer:
immunity cell-mediated immunity
• Human • Acquired Immune
immunodeficiency deficiency syndrome:
disease: HIV AIDS
– Virus – Disease named by
– Destroys helper T cells doctors in L.A.
– Immune system is – 1983
destroyed – Because it attacks cells
– First discovered when of the immune system
patients were dying it goes undetected
from harmless – See figure 40-15 pg.
organisms. 1046
Transmission of HIV
• Any type of sexual intercourse
with an infected person
• Sharing needles or syringe that
has been used by an infected
• Contact with blood or products
that contact blood
• From an infected mother to child,
either during pregnancy or during
childbirth, or breastfeeding.
Treatment for AIDS/HIV?
• No cure: HIV has evolved and
mutated, evading elimination
• 3 month “Window” of infection
• Education!
• Retro-virals and vitamins
• The HIV carrier rate in the U.S.
is now 1 carrier for every 100 to
200 people.
• More about HIV/AIDS