# ALGEBRA

HISTORY
• “Algebra” was derived from the title of the work of an Arab mathematician, al- Khowarizmi (ca. 825) • This work was entitled “Hisab al-jabr walmugabalah” • “al-jabr” – consolidation when applied to equations

• Algebra started a long time before al- Kwoharizmi • Originated from the Babylonians • Messelman, a mathematician, divided the history of algebra into 3 periods: 1) rhetorical period 2) syncopated period 3) symbolic period • The symbolic period essentially started with Rene Descartes • For a long time, people, including mathematicians, equated algebra with the study of theory of equations => like solving for unknowns

• In 1801, a mathematician, Karl Friedrich Gauss, while playing with the integers, discovered a relations between subsets of these integers. This relation is called a congruence relation • This discovery opened the doors for what is referred to as the branch of mathematics dealing with the study of mathematical systems

Algebra – The Mechanics

• Algebra, like arithmetic, involves numbers on which are performed operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division • In algebra, unlike in arithmetic, we deal with operations on unspecified or unknown numbers that are designated by symbols or letters

Definitions
• A variable is used to represent any element of a given domain • The domain of a variable contains all allowable values of a variable • A constant is a symbol whose domain contains only one element

Definitions
• An algebraic expression is a constant, a variable or a combination of constants or variables involving a finite number of operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, raising to a power, extraction of a root)

Definition
• A polynomial is an algebraic expression involving only nonnegative- integer powers of one or more variables and containing no variable in a denominator • A term of a polynomial is a constant or constant multiplied by nonnegative- integer powers of variables • A coefficient is a factor of the product of two or more variables • If the coefficient is a constant, it is called a constant coefficient

Definition
• A term of a polynomial is a constant or constant multiplied by nonnegative- integer powers of variables • A coefficient is a factor of the product of two or more variables • If the coefficient is a constant, it is called a constant coefficient

Definition
• Terms that differ only by their constant coefficients are called like terms • If, after combining like terms a polynomial only has one term, it is called a monomial; two terms = binomial, three terms = trinomial

Definition
• The degree of a monomial refers to the exponent of the variable. • If the monomial contains more than one variable, the degree refers to the sum of the exponents present in the monomial • The degree of the polynomial is the same as the degree of the term with the highest degree in the polynomial • Because variables are used to represent real numbers, the axioms that apply to real numbers can also be used in variables

Examples
• Determine the (a) type of polynomial by number of terms (b) degree of the polynomial – x2y + 2x3 – 3xy3z2 – 8x4 + 6x2 – 1 – 4u + 3v

Examples
• Simplify the following algebraic expressions – 4x2 – 5x + 6x2 – 2x – -5(6y3 – 4y2 + y – 3) – 3(-t2 + 3st – 2s2) – 2 (7t2 – st – s2) – -(x-9) – 4 [3x – 2 (6+x) – 5]

Examples
• Find the product.
– – – – -3x2 (4x2 – 2x + 7) uvw (uv - 2uw + vw – 8) (a – 6) ( 3a2 – 4a + 2) (2x2 + 4x – 3)(x2 – 6x + 5)