GEOMETRY

http://math.youngzones.org/geom_history.html

From: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569706_6/ Geomet

HISTORY
 Geometry—from the

Greek words geô, “earth,” and metrein, “to measure” – an accurate description of the works of the earliest geometers – concerned with problems such as measuring the size of fields and laying out accurate right angles for the corners of buildings.

Geometry: Timeline
Egyptians  c. 2000 - 500 B.C. Ancient Egyptians demonstrated a practical knowledge of geometry through surveying and construction projects. – The Nile River overflowed its banks every year, and the river banks would have to be re-surveyed. In the Rhind Papyrus, pi is approximated.

Babylonians  c. 2000 - 500 B.C. - Ancient clay tablets reveal that the Babylonians knew the Pythagorean relationships. One clay tablet reads, “4 is the length and 5 the diagonal. What is the breadth? Its size is not known. 4 times 4 is 16. 5 times 5 is 25. You take 16 from 25 and there remains 9. What times what shall I take in order to get 9? 3 times 3 is 9. 3 is the breadth”.

Greeks  c. 750-250 B.C. - Ancient Greeks practiced centuries of experimental geometry like Egypt and Babylonia had, and they absorbed the experimental geometry of both of those cultures.
 Created

the first formal mathematics of any kind by organizing geometry with rules of logic. Euclid's (400BC) important geometry book The Elements formed the basis for most of the geometry studied in schools ever since.

 After the

fall of the Greek and Roman civilizations, Europe entered the Dark Ages.  Advances in geometry were made largely by Muslims in the Middle East and North Africa and Hindus in India.  Most of the works of Greek mathematics were scattered or lost. Some of these, including Elements, were translated and studied by the Muslims and Hindus.

 During

the 12th and 13th centuries Elements was translated from Greek and Arabic into Latin and the modern European languages, and geometry was added to the curriculum of monastery schools. next great stride in geometry was taken by French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes, whose influential treatise Discourse on Method was published in 1637. He introduced a method of representing geometric figures within a coordinate system. His work forged a link between geometry and algebra by showing how to apply the methods of one discipline to the other. This link is the basis of analytic geometry, a subject that underlies much modern work in geometry.

 The

 In

the 18th century, Gaspard Monge, a French professor of mathematics, developed still another branch of geometry, called descriptive geometry. – Descriptive geometry is the science of making accurate, two-dimensional drawings, or representations, of three-dimensional geometrical forms and of graphically solving problems relating to the size and position in space of such forms. Descriptive geometry is the basis of much of engineering and architectural drafting.

Modern Geometry
 Analytic,

projective, and descriptive geometry came into being within the framework of Euclidean geometry.  For many centuries mathematicians believed that Euclid’s fifth postulate of the unique parallel could be proved on the basis of Euclid’s first four postulates, but all efforts to discover such a proof were fruitless. In the 19th century, however, geometries were developed in which Euclid's fifth postulate was replaced by alternative statements. The leaders in developing these non-Euclidean geometries were Carl Friedrich Gauss, János Bolyai, Nikolay I. Lobachevsky, and George Friedrich Bernhard Riemann.

 In

1872 German mathematician Felix Klein used a relatively new branch of mathematics called group theory to unify and classify all the geometries of his time. In 1899 David Hilbert, another German mathematician, published his Foundations of Geometry, which provided a rigorous system of axioms for Euclidean geometry and exerted great influence on other branches of mathematics.

 In

1916 the theory of relativity showed that many physical phenomena could be deduced from geometric principles. The success of the theory gave impetus to studies in differential geometry and in topology.

The Five Postulates of Euclid
 It is possible to draw a straight line from any point to another point.  It is possible to produce a finite straight line continuously in a straight line.  It is possible to describe a circle with any center and radius.

The Five Postulates of Euclid
 All right angles are equal to one another.  If a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the interior angles on the same side less than two right angles, the straight lines (if extended indefinitely) meet on the side on which the angles which are less than two right angles lie.

Point
 Point

– defined by (x,y)
y d
P1 P2

x = abscissa or x – coordinate y = ordinate or ycoordinate

x

Line
 Line

- shortest distance between two points

d

Angle
 The

union of two rays

angle

Plane
 The

union of three noncollinear points

P

 Two

lines are parallel if they are on the same plane and will never intersect(alsohave the same slope). lines are perpendicular if they intersect and the intersection form a right angle(90 degrees).

 Two

 If two

lines do not intersect, then they are either parallel lines or they are skew lines. Parallel lines

 Two

 Two

skew lines( the two lines do not lie on the same plane and which do not intersect)

Triangle Properties
 In

a triangle, the sum of any two side must be greater than the third side.

 In

a right triangle, the sum of the squares of the two legs is equal to the square of the hypotenuse.

Congruence
 Three

well-known criteria for the congruence of triangles sas

 a)

 b) asa  c) sss

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