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lectures on Mst 3

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GEOMETRY

Projective Geometry

enables a clearer understanding of some more

generic properties of geometric objects.

is a non-Euclidean geometry that formalizes one

of the central principles of perspective art: that

parallel lines meet at infinity and therefore are to

be drawn that way.

History

early Italian Renaissance

architectural drawings:

Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446)

Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472)

History

Definition of Terms:

Plane – the imaginary flat surface with

length and width but no thickness, it may

extend indefinitely in any direction.

Station point (SP) – the point where the

observer is supposed to stand while

viewing the object.

Picture plane (PP) – the plane in which the

object is located.

Horizon – the horizontal plane at level.

Vanishing point (VP) – a point wherein the

edges of the object will imaginarily meet.

Vanishing line (VL) – the rays from the

vanishing point from the edges which

serves as the guide in locating the ends

of the object.

Ground plane (GP) – a plane which is in-

line with the eye.

Ground line (GL) – the intersection of the

ground plane and the picture plane.

Basic elements:

Points

Lines

Planes

Basic elements:

Points

Basic elements:

Points

Basic elements:

Points

Lines

Basic elements:

Points

Lines

Planes

Geometric Transformations

Reflections - is a type of transformation where the line

of symmetry is a perpendicular bisector of

corresponding points.

Translations - preserve congruency. This means the

image and pre-image of an object is exactly the same

shape and size as the pre-image .

Rotation - moves all the points of the figure the same

angle around the same pivot point.

Dilations - is a scaled transformation. The distance

from each point in the pre-image to the center is

multiplied by the scale factor to find the distance

along in the same direction to the corresponding image

point.

Reflections

Reflections

The pre-image ABC is reflected onto the image

A'B'C' across the x-axis.

Reflections

Translations

Translations

The pre-image is translated onto the image 4

units right.

Rotations

Rotations

The pre-image ABC is rotated to image A'B'C'

about P(0,0) as the center of rotation and

through 90° as the angle of rotation.

Dilations

Dilations

The triangle is transformed by a dilation with the

center at (0,0) and a scale factor of 2.

Axonometric Projection

the ability to show the inclined position of an

object with respect to the plane of projection.

Kinds:

Isometric – Iso (one or equal) and Metrus

(measures); equal measures.

Dimetric – an axonometric drawing into two angle.

Trimetric – utilizes three different angles.

Axonometric Projection

Isometric Projection

In isometric projection the angles between the

projection of the axes are equal i.e. 120º.

between the projection of the axes that are being

discussed and not the true angles between the

axes themselves which is always 90º.

Isometric Projection

Isometric Projection

Isometric Projection

Isometric Projection

Dimetric Projection

The angles between the projection of the axes in

dimetric projection renders two of the three to be

equal.

To draw the outline of an object in dimetric

projection, two scales are required.

The scales are generated the same as for

isometric.

Dimetric Projection

Dimetric Projection

Trimetric Projection

In trimetric projection the projection of the three

angles between the axes are unequal.

generate a trimetric projection of an object.

method described in isometric and dimetric

projection.

Trimetric Projection

Trimetric Projection

Orthographic Projection

Orthographic projection shows complex objects

by doing a 2D drawing of each side to show the

main features.

Orthographic drawings usually consist of a front

view, a side view and a top view, but more views

may be shown for complex objects with lots of

detail.

Here are three orthographic views of an object.

Orthographic Projection

Orthographic Projection

Orthographic Projection

Perspective Projection

from Latin perspicere which means “to see

clearly”.

is the most attractive type of presenting an

object, the subject appears as it seen by the

naked eye.

It is a photographic or “picture like” result.

Perspective Projection

One Point Perspective

Also called parallel perspective.

Occurs when one of its faces is parallel to

the plane of projection.

Has only one vanishing point used.

One Point Perspective

Even though change in eye position or tilt of

head affects the vanishing point, the view is

still one point perspective.

Even though change in eye position or tilt of

head affects the vanishing point, the view is

still one point perspective.

Two Point Perspective

Also called angular perspective.

If it employs two vanishing points and the

sides are angular with the picture plane.

Two Point Perspective

Three Point Perspective

In oblique perspective, three vanishing

points are employed.

If the projection plane is not parallel to any

principal axis, a three-point projection

occurs.

Only the edges are perpendicular with the

plane of projection and will show its true

dimension.

Three Point Perspective

THE END

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