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PROJECTIVE

GEOMETRY
Projective Geometry
 enables a clearer understanding of some more
generic properties of geometric objects.
 is a non-Euclidean geometry that formalizes one
of the central principles of perspective art: that
parallel lines meet at infinity and therefore are to
be drawn that way.
History
 early Italian Renaissance
architectural drawings:
 Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446)
 Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472)

 invented the method of perspective drawing.


History
Definition of Terms:
 Plane – the imaginary flat surface with
length and width but no thickness, it may
extend indefinitely in any direction.
 Station point (SP) – the point where the
observer is supposed to stand while
viewing the object.
 Picture plane (PP) – the plane in which the
object is located.
 Horizon – the horizontal plane at level.
 Vanishing point (VP) – a point wherein the
edges of the object will imaginarily meet.
 Vanishing line (VL) – the rays from the
vanishing point from the edges which
serves as the guide in locating the ends
of the object.
 Ground plane (GP) – a plane which is in-
line with the eye.
 Ground line (GL) – the intersection of the
ground plane and the picture plane.
Basic elements:

 Points
 Lines
 Planes
Basic elements:

 Points
Basic elements:

 Points
Basic elements:

 Points
 Lines
Basic elements:

 Points
 Lines
 Planes
Geometric Transformations
 Reflections - is a type of transformation where the line
of symmetry is a perpendicular bisector of
corresponding points.
 Translations - preserve congruency. This means the
image and pre-image of an object is exactly the same
shape and size as the pre-image .
 Rotation - moves all the points of the figure the same
angle around the same pivot point.
 Dilations - is a scaled transformation. The distance
from each point in the pre-image to the center is
multiplied by the scale factor to find the distance
along in the same direction to the corresponding image
point.
Reflections
Reflections
 The pre-image ABC is reflected onto the image
A'B'C' across the x-axis.
Reflections
Translations
Translations
 The pre-image is translated onto the image 4
units right.
Rotations
Rotations
 The pre-image ABC is rotated to image A'B'C'
about P(0,0) as the center of rotation and
through 90° as the angle of rotation.
Dilations
Dilations
 The triangle is transformed by a dilation with the
center at (0,0) and a scale factor of 2.
Axonometric Projection
 the ability to show the inclined position of an
object with respect to the plane of projection.

 Kinds:
 Isometric – Iso (one or equal) and Metrus
(measures); equal measures.
 Dimetric – an axonometric drawing into two angle.
 Trimetric – utilizes three different angles.
Axonometric Projection
Isometric Projection
 In isometric projection the angles between the
projection of the axes are equal i.e. 120º.

 It is important to appreciate that it is the angles


between the projection of the axes that are being
discussed and not the true angles between the
axes themselves which is always 90º.
Isometric Projection
Isometric Projection
Isometric Projection
Isometric Projection
Dimetric Projection
 The angles between the projection of the axes in
dimetric projection renders two of the three to be
equal.
 To draw the outline of an object in dimetric
projection, two scales are required.
 The scales are generated the same as for
isometric.
Dimetric Projection
Dimetric Projection
Trimetric Projection
In trimetric projection the projection of the three
angles between the axes are unequal.

Thus, three separate scales are needed to


generate a trimetric projection of an object.

The scales are constructed using the same


method described in isometric and dimetric
projection.
Trimetric Projection
Trimetric Projection
Orthographic Projection
 Orthographic projection shows complex objects
by doing a 2D drawing of each side to show the
main features.
 Orthographic drawings usually consist of a front
view, a side view and a top view, but more views
may be shown for complex objects with lots of
detail.
 Here are three orthographic views of an object.
Orthographic Projection
Orthographic Projection
Orthographic Projection
Perspective Projection
 from Latin perspicere which means “to see
clearly”.
 is the most attractive type of presenting an
object, the subject appears as it seen by the
naked eye.
 It is a photographic or “picture like” result.
Perspective Projection
One Point Perspective
 Also called parallel perspective.
 Occurs when one of its faces is parallel to
the plane of projection.
 Has only one vanishing point used.
One Point Perspective
Even though change in eye position or tilt of
head affects the vanishing point, the view is
still one point perspective.
Even though change in eye position or tilt of
head affects the vanishing point, the view is
still one point perspective.
Two Point Perspective
 Also called angular perspective.
 If it employs two vanishing points and the
sides are angular with the picture plane.
Two Point Perspective
Three Point Perspective
 In oblique perspective, three vanishing
points are employed.
 If the projection plane is not parallel to any
principal axis, a three-point projection
occurs.
 Only the edges are perpendicular with the
plane of projection and will show its true
dimension.
Three Point Perspective
THE END