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• • • • • • • Concept of Motivation Concept of Motives Nature of Motivation Objectives of Motivation Significance of Motivation Role of Motivation Theories of Motivation – Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory – Herzberg’s Two factor Theory – Mc Gregor’s Theory X and Y – McClelland’s Theory – ERG Theory • Motivational Techniques
CONCEPT & NATURE OF MOTIVATION
Motivation – Concept
• Motivation is the complex forces starting and keeping a person in work in an organization. Motivation is something that moves the person at work and continues him in the course of action
- Robert Dubin
desires. Mc Farland . strivings or needs direct. drives. aspirations. control or explain the behavior of human beings. .Motivation – Concept • Motivation refers to the way in which urges.E.
action oriented & providing and energizing thrust toward reaching an incentive INCENTIVES Anything that will alleviate a need or reduce a drive .NEEDS Result from physiological or psychological imbalances MOTIVES Activated need.
or moves (hence motivation).Motive • A motive is an inner state that energizes. and that directs behavior towards goals • Needs Drives Incentives/Goals . activates.
Manipulation & Activity Motives • Affection Motives Secondary Motives • • • • • • Power Motive Achievement Motive Affiliation Motive Security Motive Status Motive Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motive .Types of Motives Primary Motives • Physiological Needs General Motives • Curiosity.
Motivation – Nature • Based on motives • Affected by motivating • Goal-directed behavior • Related to satisfaction • Person motivated in totality • Complex process .
Motivation is Complex • Individuals may not be aware of their needs • One need may result in different behaviors from different individuals • Behavior may emerge as a result of multiple needs • Goal directed behavior may not lead to goal attainment .
.Motivation – Objectives • To ensure EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION by providing them opportunities for fulfillment of their physiological and psychological needs. By this workers would cooperate voluntarily with management and would contribute their maximum towards attainment of the goals of the enterprise.
Motivation – Objectives • To provide EFFICIENCY IN OPERATIONS & ENHANCE PRODUCTIVITY. . Motivated workforce proves to be more efficient on account of constant improvement of their competencies and hence. they are better able to contribute to the progress of the organization.
Motivation – Objectives • To REDUCE LABOR TURNOVER & ABSENTEEISM. • To MAINTAIN CORDIAL HUMAN RELATIONS. • To REDUCE GRIEVANCES .
financial and human resources to accomplish the goals.Motivation – Importance • PUTS HUMAN RESOURCES INTO ACTION Every concern requires physical. . This can be done by building willingness in employees to work. It is through motivation that the human resources can be utilized by making full use of it. This will help the enterprise in securing best possible utilization of resources.
Motivation – Importance • IMPROVES LEVEL OF EFFICIENCY OF EMPLOYEES The level of a subordinate or a employee does not only depend upon his qualifications and abilities. the gap between ability and willingness has to be filled which helps in improving the level of performance of subordinates. – Reducing cost of operations. and – Improving overall efficiency. This will result into– Increase in productivity. . For getting best of his work performance.
– Goals can be achieved if co-ordination and co-operation takes place simultaneously which can be effectively done through motivation. – The employees are goal-directed and they act in a purposive manner. – There is a co-operative work environment.Motivation – Importance • LEADS TO ACHIEVEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS The goals of an enterprise can be achieved only when the following factors take place :– There is best possible utilization of resources. .
This can be done by keeping into mind and framing an incentive plan for the benefit of the employees. – Disincentives for inefficient employees. This could initiate the following things: – Monetary and non-monetary incentives. – Promotion opportunities for employees. .Motivation – Importance • BUILDS FRIENDLY RELATIONSHIP Motivation is an important factor which brings employees satisfaction.
the above steps should be taken by a manager. This would help in: – Effective co-operation which brings stability. – Industrial dispute and unrest in employees will reduce. friendly atmosphere in a concern. .) In order to build a cordial. – This will help in providing a smooth and sound concern in which individual interests will coincide with the organizational interests. – The employees will be adaptable to the changes and there will be no resistance to the change. – This will result in profit maximization through increased productivity.Motivation – Importance • BUILDS FRIENDLY RELATIONSHIP (Contd.
the older the people. “Old is gold” which suffices with the role of motivation here. more the experience and their adjustment into a concern which can be of benefit to the enterprise. The skills and efficiency of employees will always be of advantage to employees as well as employees. . The employees can remain loyal to the enterprise only when they have a feeling of participation in the management.Motivation – Importance • LEADS TO STABILITY OF WORK FORCE Stability of workforce is very important from the point of view of reputation and goodwill of a concern. As it is said. This will lead to a good public image in the market which will attract competent and qualified people into a concern.
The more is the team work and individual employee contribution. • Optimistic and challenging attitude at work place. • More adaptability and creativity. • If an individual is motivated. • Motivation will help in selfdevelopment of individual. .Motivation – Importance Importance to Individual • Motivation will help him achieve his personal goals. • An individual would always gain by working with a dynamic team. he will have job satisfaction. more profitable and successful is the business. the more empowered the team is. Importance to Business • The more motivated the employees are.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory Herzberg’s Two factor Theory Gregor’s Theory McClelland Theory THEORIES OF MOTIVATION .
MOTIVATION THEORIES Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory .
The management can give the deserved employee higher job rank / position in the organization. the managers can give the employees challenging jobs in which the employees’ skills and competencies are fully utilized. and retirement benefits so as to retain them. the managers should give employees appropriate salaries to purchase the basic necessities of life. – As far as self-actualization needs are concerned. Moreover. the managers can appreciate and reward employees on accomplishing and exceeding their targets. safe and hygienic work environment.Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory • Implications – As far as the physiological needs are concerned. the managers should provide the employees job security. Breaks and eating opportunities should be given to employees. – As far as the safety needs are concerned. . – As far as social needs are concerned. the management should encourage teamwork and organize social events. growth opportunities can be given to them so that they can reach the peak. – As far as esteem needs are concerned.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory • Limitations – Individual behaviour seems to respond to several needs .g. the need to interact socially at work) may cause quite different behaviour in different individuals – There is a problem in deciding when a level has actually been "satisfied“ – The model ignores the often-observed behaviour of individuals who tolerate low-pay for the promise of future benefits .not just one – The same need (e.
MOTIVATION THEORIES Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory • Given by Fredrick Herzberg Motivators Satisfaction Hygiene Factors No Dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction No Satisfaction .
etc. Company. Job security. Sense of achievement.Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory • Hygiene Factors – Dis-satisfiers or maintenance factors – Describe the job environment/scenario – Include: • Pay. Meaningfulness of Work & Job Interest . Fringe benefits. • Motivational Factors – Yield positive satisfaction – Motivate employees for superior performance – Include: • Recognition. Physical working conditions. Quality of Supervision. Responsibility. Interpersonal relations. Status. Growth and Promotional Opportunities.
the employees will give credit to themselves for the satisfaction factor at work. Focusing on the motivational factors can improve work-quality. – The two factor theory is not free from bias as it is based on the natural reaction of employees when they are enquired the sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work.• Implications Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory – The theory implies that the managers must stress upon guaranteeing the adequacy of the hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction. • Limitations – The two-factor theory overlooks situational variables. The job must utilize the employee’s skills and competencies to the maximum. they must ensure that work is stimulating and rewarding so that the employees are motivated to work and perform better. This theory emphasizes upon jobenrichment so as to motivate the employees. But the research conducted by Herzberg stressed upon satisfaction and ignored productivity. . – Herzberg assumed a correlation between satisfaction and productivity. Also. They will blame dissatisfaction on the external factors such as salary structure. Also. company policies and peer relationship.
• • • • . A close supervision is required on part of managers. An average employee needs formal direction. or warned with punishment so as to achieve organizational goals. Since the employee does not want to work.MOTIVATION THEORIES McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X • • An average employee intrinsically does not like work and tries to escape it whenever possible. he must be persuaded. Employees generally dislike responsibilities. The managers adopt a more dictatorial style. and they have little or no aspiration/ ambition. compelled. Employees resist change. Many employees rank job security on top.
but they can use self-direction and selfcontrol if they are dedicated and sincere to achieve the organizational objectives. Their logical capabilities should be fully utilized. They exercise their physical and mental efforts in an inherent manner in their jobs. then it will result in employees’ loyalty and commitment to organization. An average employee can learn to admit and recognize the responsibility. resourcefulness and innovative potentiality of the employees can be utilized to solve organizational problems. external control and coercion to work. If the job is rewarding and satisfying. • • • • . In fact. he can even learn to obtain responsibility. the creativity. Employees may not require only threat.MOTIVATION THEORIES McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory Y • Employees can perceive their job as relaxing and normal. In other words. The employees have skills and capabilities.
It implies that employees are reluctant to organizational changes. Employees should be given opportunities to contribute to organizational well-being. Theory X encourages use of tight control and supervision.McGregor’s Theory X &Theory Y • Implications – Quite a few organizations use Theory X today. teamwork and participative decision making in an organization. Theory Y searches and discovers the ways in which an employee can make significant contributions in an organization. Theory Y encourages decentralization of authority. it does not encourage innovation. Theory Y implies that the managers should create and encourage a work environment which provides opportunities to employees to take initiative and self-direction. It harmonizes and matches employees’ needs and aspirations with organizational needs and aspirations . – Many organizations are using Theory Y techniques. Thus.
McGregor’s Theory X &Theory Y THEORY X Assumes workers are inherently distasteful towards work Emphasizes that people have no ambitions and avoid responsibility People have little capacity for creativity Motivating factors are lower level needs People lack self-motivation and require external control THEORY Y Assumes that for human beings. work is as natural as play Emphasizes that people are ambitious and like taking responsibility Capacity for creativity is widely distributed in the population Motivating factors are high order needs People are self-directed and prefer self-control Emphasizes centralization of authority Emphasizes decentralization o & participation Emphasizes autocratic leadership Emphasizes democratic leadership .
MOTIVATION THEORIES McClelland’s Theory • David C. McClelland • Three types of needs: – Need for power – Need for affiliation – Need for achievement .
Alderfer • Three Needs: – Existence needs. getting public fame and recognition.These include need for selfdevelopment and personal growth and advancement. it includes an individual’s physiological and physical safety needs. – Relatedness needs.These include the aspiration individual’s have for maintaining significant interpersonal relationships (be it with family. – Growth needs. Maslow’s social needs and external component of esteem needs fall under this class of need. . peers or superiors).These include need for basic material necessities. In short.MOTIVATION THEORIES ERG Theory • Clayton P. Maslow’s self-actualization needs and intrinsic component of esteem needs fall under this category of need.
Motivation – Techniques Financial Techniques • Wages and salaries • Bonus • Insurance • Medical allowance • Housing facilities • Retirement benefits Non-Financial Techniques • Status • Job security • Performance feedback • Praise • Growth opportunity • Participation and empowerment • Career development plan .
htm .management-hub.Job Enrichment • http://www.html • http://www.managementstudyguide.com/job-enlargement.com/hr-enrichment.
fellow workers. denoting the strong emotional elements associated with attitudes. Attitudes express what the individuals think and feel about their jobs. working conditions. The emphasis is on how employees feel. superiors. . It is a concept that describes the level of favourable or unfavourable attitudes of the employees collectively to all aspects of their work. the company.Morale • Morale is basically a group phenomenon.the job. and so on. their tasks.
Morale & Productivity .
Morale & Productivity Individual Factors Morale Satisfaction Productivity Attitudes Organizational Factors .
Factors affecting Morale .
Morale – Evaluation • Morale Survey • Indices of Morale – – – – – – – – – – – – Employee turnover Productivity Absenteeism Fatigue and monotony Grievances Need for discipline Quality record Reports of counseling Exit interviews Training records Medical records Suggestion and complaint boxes. • Other Sources of Information . etc.
Use of Morale Information • • • • • Understanding the level of morale Ensuring communication Creating better feelings in employees Assessing training needs Creating morale consciousness .
Morale Building/Improving Morale • • • • • • • Sound manpower management Human relations approach Management of attitudes Organization structure Participation Job enrichment Conflict handling .
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