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MATERIALS Classification, Properties and Applications

Dr. G. Sakthinathan Associate Professor Department of Automobile Engineering MIT, Anna University

Classes of Materials
Metals Strong, deformable and impact resistant, hard and

do not break readily under high stress Electrical conductors Always opaque Ceramics Strong but not deformable, brittle, high hardness, stable at high temperatures Insulators Can be transparent Plastics Made of hydrocarbons (carbon and hydrogen atoms), softer, cannot be shaped, cannot be used at high temperatures Insulators Can be transparent

Structure of Atom
Atom Small, positively charged nucleus,

surrounded by electrons Nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons Neutral Atom same no of protons and electrons Ions due to imbalance of protons and electrons Atomic number Number of protons in nucleus Proton and neutron are 1840 times heavier than electrons Atomic Mass No of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom Isotopes Different numbers of neutrons

Binding energies
Electrons bound to the positively charged nucleus by

Coulomb attraction Electrons - waves or particles, placed in concentric shells by the principal quantum number n Binding energy work done to remove electrons from the atom K Shell Principal quantum number n = 1, contains only one orbital of symmetry 1s; l = 0 L Shell n=2, one 1s orbital and three p orbital (2p); l = 1 and m = -1, 0 and +1 M Shell n = 3, one 3s orbital, three 3p orbital and five 3d orbital N Shell n = 4, one 4s, three 4p, five 4d, and seven

Valence and Core Electrons


Valence Electrons
Electrons with the lowest binding energies have

largest orbital and interact with other atoms to form chemical bonds Core Electrons Atoms in the inner shells are tightly bound Binding energies Absorption or emission of X rays or by photoelectron emission Elements with similar occupation of their outermost shell have similar chemical properties
For eg all elements have one s electron in their higher shell,

namely hydrogen, lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium show chemical behavior.

Valence and Core Electrons contd..


Elements with similar occupation of their

outermost shell occupy a column in the table First column contains the alkali metals which possess one s electron in the valence shell Second shell contains the alkaline earths with two s electrons IIIB contains boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium which have two s and one p electrons

Energy Bands
Bands closest to the atomic nucleus, called Core

levels Furthest band from the nucleus that has electrons in it, called the Valence band, all keep their electrons tightly in place. Next band out from that is called the Conduction band and there, the electrons are free to roam around freely. In Metals - Valence band and a conduction band overlap, and electricity flows freely and easily through them. Insulators - Wide gap between the valence band and the conduction band, making it almost impossible for an electron to get excited enough

Energy Bands Contd..


Materials that have a narrower gap between the two

bands, and they are called Semiconductors. Sometimes they can act like metals, sometimes they can act like insulators, and sometimes they can have properties in between. When first discovered, they were considered useless because of their erratic, variable behavior until physicists figured out the mystery of the bandgap. When electrons get excited (by getting heated, or by being hit with a particle of light, known as a photon), they can jump across the gap. If an electron in a crystal gets hit by a photon that has enough energy, it can get excited enough to jump from the valence band to the conduction band, where it is free to form part of an electric current.

Energy Bands Contd..


When light strikes a solar cell, results in flow of

electrons. Silicon, a semiconductor, is the material of choice for solar cells in large part because of its bandgap. Silicons bandgap is just wide enough so that electrons can easily cross it once they are hit by photons of visible light. The same process also works in reverse. When electricity passes through a semiconductor, it can emit a photon, whose color is determined by the materials bandgap. Thats the basis for light-emitting diodes, which are increasingly being used for displays and

Energy Bands and Chemical bonds


In a solid, valence electrons are shared among all

the atoms Their energy levels are spread into an energy band that can fit exactly two electrons per atom Average energy of the valence electrons is lower than in the isolated atom. This difference forms the chemical bond. Solid with a partially empty valence band presents the characteristic properties of a metal All levels of the valence band are occupied by electrons, the solid has the properties of a ceramic or a polymer Energy gap is large Insulator

Strength
Ability of a material to resist deformation.

Strength of a component is usually considered

based on the maximum load that can be borne before failure is apparent. Strength of a material is also the maximum nominal stress it can sustain. Nominal stress is referred to in quoting the "strength" of a material and is always qualified by the type of stress, such as tensile strength, compressive strength, or shear strength.

Strength-Contd..
For most structural materials, the difficulty in finding

compressive strength can be overcome by substituting the tensile strength value for compressive strength. This substitution is a safe assumption since the nominal compression strength is always greater than the nominal tensile strength because the effective cross section increases in compression and decreases in tension. Slip - When a force is applied to a metal, layers of atoms within the crystal structure move in relation to adjacent layers of atoms. The smaller the grain size, the larger the grain boundary area. Decreasing the grain size through cold or hot working

Stress
When a metal is subjected to a load (force), it is

distorted or deformed, no matter how strong the metal or light the load. If the load is small, the distortion will probably disappear when the load is removed. The intensity, or degree, of distortion is known as strain. If the distortion disappears and the metal returns to its original dimensions upon removal of the load, the strain is called elastic strain. If the distortion disappears and the metal remains distorted, the strain type is called plastic strain.

Stress
When a load is applied to metal, the atomic

structure itself is strained, being compressed, warped or extended in the process. The atoms comprising a metal are arranged in a certain geometric pattern, specific for that particular metal or alloy, and are maintained in that pattern by interatomic forces. When so arranged, the atoms are in their state of minimum energy and tend to remain in that arrangement. Work must be done on the metal (that is, energy must be added) to distort the atomic pattern. (Work is equal to force times the distance the force moves.)

Stress is the internal resistance, or counter force,

of a material to the distorting effects of an external force or load. These counter forces tend to return the atoms to their normal positions. The total resistance developed is equal to the external load. This resistance is known as stress. Although it is impossible to measure the intensity of this stress, the external load and the area to which it is applied can be measured. Stress (s) can be equated to the load per unit area or the force (F) applied per cross-sectional area (A) perpendicular to the force as shown in the Equation below

Types of Stress
Residual Stress
stresses are due to the manufacturing processes

that leave stresses in a material. Welding leaves residual stresses in the metals welded.
Structural Stress
stresses produced in structural members because

of the weights they support. The weights provide the loadings. These stresses are found in building foundations and frameworks, as well as in machinery parts.
Pressure Stress
Pressure stresses are stresses induced in vessels

containing pressurized materials. The loading is provided by the same force producing the pressure.

Flow Stress
stresses occur when a mass of flowing fluid induces

a dynamic pressure on a conduit wall. The force of the fluid striking the wall acts as the load. This type of stress may be applied in an unsteady fashion when flow rates fluctuate. Water hammer is an example of a transient flow stress.
Thermal Stress
stresses exist whenever temperature gradients are

present in a material. Different temperatures produce different expansions and subject materials to internal stress. This type of stress is particularly noticeable in mechanisms operating at high temperatures that

Fatigue Stress
Stresses are due to cyclic application of a stress. The stresses could be due to vibration or thermal

cycling. The importance of all stresses is increased when the materials supporting them are flawed. Flaws tend to add additional stress to a material. Also, when loadings are cyclic or unsteady, stresses can effect a material more severely. Additional stresses associated with flaws and cyclic loading may exceed the stress necessary for a material to fail. Stress intensity within the body of a component is expressed as one of three basic types of internal load. They are known as tensile, compressive, and shear.

Stresses

Stress
Tensile Stress
type of stress in which the two sections of material

on either side of a stress plane tend to pull apart or elongate


Compressive Stress
reverse of tensile stress. Adjacent parts of the

material tend to press against each other through a typical stress plane
Shear Stress
Shear stress exists when two parts of a material

tend to slide across each other in any typical plane of shear upon application of force parallel to that plane

STRAIN
Whenever a stress (no matter how small) is

applied to a metal, a proportional dimensional change or distortion must take place. Such a proportional dimensional change (intensity or degree of the distortion) is called strain and is measured as the total elongation per unit length of material due to some applied stress. The equation below illustrates this proportion or distortion.

Types of Strain
Elastic Strain
Elastic strain is a transitory dimensional change that

exists only while the initiating stress is applied and disappears immediately upon removal of the stress. Elastic strain is also called elastic deformation. T The applied stresses cause the atoms in a crystal to move from their equilibrium position. All the atoms are displaced the same amount and still maintain their relative geometry. When the stresses are removed, all the atoms return to their original positions and no permanent deformation occurs.

Elastic Deformation
When applied stresses are not too large, elastic

deformation occurs. Stress is proportional to strain Hooke's law (applicable to both tension and compression) Elastic deformation is reversible When material is compressed in one direction, it usually tends to expand in the other two directions perpendicular to the direction of compression. This phenomenon is called the Poisson effect. Poisson's ratio is a measure of the Poisson effect. Poisson ratio is the ratio of the fraction (or percent) of expansion divided by the fraction (or percent) of compression, for small values of these changes.

Elastic Deformation
The Poisson's ratio of a stable, isotropic linear elastic

material cannot be less than 1.0 nor greater than 0.5. Most materials have Poisson's ratio values ranging between 0.0 and 0.5. A perfectly incompressible material deformed elastically at small strains would have a Poisson's ratio of exactly 0.5. Most steels and rigid polymers when used within their design limits (before yield) exhibit values of about 0.3, increasing to 0.5 for post-yield deformation (which occurs largely at constant volume.) Rubber has a Poisson ratio of nearly 0.5. Cork's Poisson ratio is close to 0: showing very little lateral expansion when compressed. Some materials, mostly polymer foams, have a negative Poisson's ratio; if these auxetic materials are stretched in one direction, they become thicker in perpendicular directions. Some anisotropic materials have one or more Poisson

Elastic Deformation
Elastic deformation occurs due to the elasticity of

the chemical bond The bonds between the atoms acts like springs. When tensile load is applied, the interatomic spacing between atoms increases in the direction of the stress, so does the length of the body When compressive load is applied, the interatomic spacing between atoms decreases in the direction of the stress, so does the length of the body

Plastic Deformation
dimensional change that does not disappear when the

initiating stress is removed. It is usually accompanied by some elastic strain. The phenomenon of elastic strain and plastic deformation in a material are called elasticity and plasticity, respectively. At room temperature, most metals have some elasticity, which manifests itself as soon as the slightest stress is applied. Usually, they also possess some plasticity, but this may not become apparent until the stress has been raised appreciably. The magnitude of plastic strain, when it does appear, is likely to be much greater than that of the elastic

Metals are likely to exhibit less elasticity and more

plasticity at elevated temperatures. A few pure unalloyed metals (notably aluminum, copper and gold) show little, if any, elasticity when stressed in the annealed (heated and then cooled slowly to prevent brittleness) condition at room temperature, but do exhibit marked plasticity. Some unalloyed metals and many alloys have marked elasticity at room temperature, but no plasticity.

Ability to be deformed plastically is a valuable quality

of metals. Most metallic objects are manufactured by plastic deformation- bars and sheets are made by rolling, car bodies by stamping, bottles and pans by deep drawing, wires by drawing. Cutting and turning using a cutting tool The state of stress just before plastic strain begins to appear is known as the proportional limit, or elastic limit, and is defined by the stress level and the corresponding value of elastic strain. For load intensities beyond the proportional limit, the deformation consists of both elastic and plastic strains.

Stress-Strain Test
specimen

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machine

Tensile Test

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Mechanical Properties from a Tensile Test


Young's Modulus
This is the slope of the linear portion of the stress-strain

curve, it is usually specific to each material; a constant, known value.


Yield Strength
This is the value of stress at the yield point, calculated by

plotting young's modulus at a specified percent of offset (usually offset = 0.2%).


Ultimate Tensile Strength
This is the highest value of stress on the stress-strain

curve.
Percent Elongation
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This is the change in gauge length divided by the original

Elastic Deformation
1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload

bonds stretch return to initial

F
Elastic means reversible.
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Plastic Deformation (Metals)


1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload

F
linear elastic
linear elastic

Plastic means permanent.


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plastic

Typical stress-strain behavior for a metal showing elastic and plastic deformations, the proportional limit P and the yield strength y, as determined using the .2%strain offset method (where there
is noticeable plastic deformation).

P is the gradual elastic to plastic transition.


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Plastic Deformation (permanent)


From an atomic perspective, plastic deformation

corresponds to the breaking of bonds with original atom neighbors and then reforming bonds with new neighbors. After removal of the stress, the large number of atoms that have relocated, do not return to original position. Yield strength is a measure of resistance to plastic deformation.

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Localized deformation of a ductile material during a tensile test produces a necked region. The image shows necked region in a fractured sample

Permanent Deformation
Permanent deformation for metals is accomplished by

means of a process called slip, which involves the motion of dislocations. Most structures are designed to ensure that only elastic deformation results when stress is applied. A structure that has plastically deformed, or experienced a permanent change in shape, may not be capable of functioning as intended.

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Yield Strength, y
tensile stress,

engineering strain,

p = 0.002

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Stress-Strain Diagram
ultimat e tensile UTS strengt h yield strengt h y
2 Plastic Region 3 Strain Hardening necking

Fracture 5

E
E
1

Elastic Region 4

Elastic region slope =Youngs (elastic) modulus yield strength Plastic region ultimate tensile strength strain hardening fracture
) (DL/Lo)

y 2 1

Strain (

Stress-Strain Diagram (cont)

Elastic Region (Point 1 2) - The material will return to its original shape after the material is unloaded( like a rubber band). - The stress is linearly proportional to the strain in this region.

- Point

or

Stress(psi) :: Elastic modulus (Youngs Modulus) (psi) E : Strain (in/in)

2 : Yield Strength : a point where permanent deformation occurs. ( If it is passed, the material will no longer return to its original length.)

Stress-Strain Diagram (cont)


Strain Hardening - If the material is loaded again from Point 4, the curve will follow back to Point 3 with the

same
Elastic Modulus (slope). - The material now has a higher yield strength of Point 4. - Raising the yield strength by permanently

Stress-Strain Diagram (cont)


Tensile Strength (Point 3) - The largest value of stress on the diagram is called 0 Tensile Strength(TS) or Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) - It is the maximum stress which the material can support without breaking. Fracture (Point 5) - If the material is stretched beyond Point 3, the stress decreases as necking and non-uniform deformation occur. - Fracture will finally occur at Point 5.

The stress-strain curve for an aluminum alloy.

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Stress-strain

behavior found for some steels with yield point phenomenon.


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T E N S I L E

P R O P E R T I E
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Yield Strength: Comparison

Room T values
a = annealed hr = hot rolled ag = aged cd = cold drawn cw = cold worked qt = quenched & tempered

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Tensile Strength, TS
After yielding, the stress necessary to continue plastic deformation in metals increases to a maximum point (M) and then decreases to the eventual fracture point (F). All deformation up to the maximum stress is uniform throughout the tensile sample. However, at max stress, a small constriction or neck begins to form. Subsequent deformation will be confined to this neck area. Fracture strength corresponds to the stress at fracture.
Region between M and F: Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts. Ceramics: occurs when crack propagation starts. Polymers: occurs when polymer backbones are aligned and about to break.

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In an undeformed thermoplastic polymer tensile sample, (a) the polymer chains are randomly oriented. (b) When a stress is applied, a neck develops as chains become aligned locally. The neck continues to grow until the chains in the entire gage length have aligned. (c) The strength of the polymer is increased
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Tensile Strength: Comparison

Room T values
Based on data in Table B4, Callister 6e.

a = annealed hr = hot rolled ag = aged cd = cold drawn cw = cold worked qt = quenched & tempered AFRE, GFRE, & CFRE = aramid, glass, & carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites, with 60 vol% fibers. 50

Resilience
Ability of a material to absorb and release strain

energy This is usually measured by the modulus of resilience, which is the strain energy per unit Resilience volume required to stress the material from, zero stress to the yield stress.

Toughness
Total energy per unit volume the material can

absorb before it fractures.


Toughness

Engineering Stress
Tensile stress, : Shear stress, t:

Ft Ao
original area before loading
Stress has units: N/m2 or lb/in2
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Ductility, %EL
Ductility is a measure of the plastic deformation that has been sustained at fracture:

% EL

l f lo lo

x100

A material that suffers very little plastic deformation is brittle.

Another ductility measure:

% AR

Ao Af Ao

x100

Ductility may be expressed as either percent elongation (% plastic strain at fracture) or percent reduction in area. %AR > %EL is possible if internal voids form in neck.
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Toughness is the ability to absorb energy up to fracture (energy per unit volume of material). A tough material has strength and ductility.

Toughness
Lower toughness: ceramics Higher toughness: metals

Approximated by the area under the stress-strain curve.

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Toughness
Energy to break a unit volume of material Approximate by the area under the stress-strain curve.
smaller toughness (ceramics)
larg er toughness (metals, PMCs) smaller toughnessunreinforced polymers

Engineering tensile stress,

Engineering tensile strain,

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Linear Elastic Properties


Hooke's Law:

=E
n x/y

Poisson's ratio: metals: n ~ 0.33 ceramics: n ~0.25 polymers: n ~0.40

Modulus of Elasticity, E: (Young's modulus)

Units: E: [GPa] or [psi] 57 n: dimensionless

Engineering Strain

Strain is dimensionless.
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Axial (z) elongation (positive strain) and lateral (x and y) contractions (negative strains) in response to an imposed tensile stress.

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True Stress and True Strain


True stress The load divided by the actual cross-sectional area of the specimen at that load. True strain The strain calculated using actual and not original dimensions, given by t ln(l/l0).

The relation between the true stresstrue strain diagram and engineering stress-engineering strain diagram. The curves are identical to the yield point.

Stress-Strain Results for Steel Sample

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Youngs Moduli: Comparison


Metals Alloys
1200 10 00 800 600 400

Graphite Ceramics Polymers Semicond


Diamond Si carbide Al oxide Si nitride Si crystal
<100>
<1 11>

Composites /fibers

E(GPa)

200
10 0 80 60 40

Tungsten Molybdenum Steel, Ni Tantalum Platinum Cu alloys Zinc, Ti Silver, Gold Aluminum Magnesium, Tin

Carbon fibers only

CFRE(|| fibers )*
Aramid fibers only

Glass -soda

AFRE(|| fibers )*
Glass fibers only

G FRE(|| fibers )* Conc rete GFRE* G raphite CFRE * G FRE( fibers )* CFRE( fibers ) * AFRE( fibers) *

10 9 Pa

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10 8 6 4 2
1 0.8 0.6 0.4

Polyes ter PET PS PC PP HDP E PTF E LDPE

Composite data based on reinforced epoxy with 60 vol% of aligned carbon (CFRE), aramid (AFRE), or glass (GFRE) fibers.

Epoxy only

Wood(

grain)

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0.2

Strain Hardening
An increase in y due to plastic deformation.

Strain Hardening (n, K or C values)

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Mechanical Behavior - Ceramics


The stress-strain behavior of brittle ceramics is

not usually obtained by a tensile test.


It is difficult to prepare and test specimens with specific geometry. 2. It is difficult to grip brittle materials without fracturing them. 3. Ceramics fail after roughly 0.1% strain; specimen have to be perfectly aligned.
1.

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The Bend Test for Brittle Materials


Bend test - Application of a force to the center of a bar that is supported on each end to determine the resistance of the material to a static or slowly applied load. Flexural strength or modulus of rupture -The stress required to fracture a specimen in a bend test. Flexural modulus - The modulus of elasticity calculated from the results of a bend test, giving the slope of the stress-deflection curve.

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

The stress-strain behavior of brittle materials compared with that of more ductile materials

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

(a) The bend test often used for measuring the strength of brittle materials, and (b) the deflection obtained by bending

Flexural Strength
Schematic for a 3-

point bending test. Able to measure the stress-strain behavior and flexural strength of brittle ceramics. Flexural strength (modulus of rupture or bend strength) is the stress at fracture.
See Table 7.2 for more values.

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MEASURING ELASTIC MODULUS elastic, with brittle failure. Room T behavior is usually
--tensile tests are difficult for brittle materials.

3-Point Bend Testing often used.

Determine elastic modulus according to:

L3 4bd 3

L3

12 R 4
circ. cross section
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rect. cross section

MEASURING T strength. STRENGTH 3-point bend test to measure room


cross section

F
L/2 R L/2

d
rect.

circ. location of max tension

Flexural strength:
fail fs m

Typ. values:

1.5Fmax L bd 2 rect.

Fmax L R 3

Material

fs (MPa) Si nitride 700-1000 Si carbide 550-860 Al oxide 275-550 glass (soda) 69

E(GPa)

300 430 390 69

Data from Table 12.5, Callister 6e.

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Stress-Strain Behavior: Elastomers


3 different responses:
A brittle failure B plastic failure C - highly elastic (elastomer)

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--brittle response (aligned chain, cross linked & networked case) --plastic response (semi-crystalline case)

Hardness of Materials
Hardness test - Measures the resistance of a material to penetration by a sharp object. Macrohardness - Overall bulk hardness of materials measured using loads >2 N. Microhardness Hardness of materials typically measured using loads less than 2 N using such test as Knoop (HK).

Nano-hardness - Hardness of materials measured at 1 10 nm length scale using extremely small (~100 N) forces.

Hardness is a measure of a materials resistance

Hardness

to localized plastic deformation (a small dent or scratch). Quantitative hardness techniques have been developed where a small indenter is forced into the surface of a material. The depth or size of the indentation is measured, and corresponds to a hardness number. The softer the material, the larger and deeper the indentation (and lower hardness number).
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