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# Deviations from the fundamental frequency sine

## wave and expressed as additional sine waves with

frequencies that are multiples of the generated
frequency

Example:
In other words...Fourier Series

=
=
n
t jn
n
e D t f
0
) (
e

< +
=
>
=

0 ) (
2
1
0
2
1
0 ) (
2
1
0
n ib a
n a
n ib a
D
n n
n n
n

Harmonics are caused by non-linear loads such
as:

LTI loads such as transformers and incandescent lighting
can also cause harmonics

Inverters
DC converters
Switch-mode power supplies
AC or DC motor drives

Increased heat generation in transformers,
capacitors, and motors
Miss-operation of electronic equipment which
rely on voltage zero crossing
Interference with telephone circuits
etc

Passive Filters (e.g. Tuned LC circuits)
Inductive Reactance (e.g. Isolation Transformer)
Active Filters
Multiphase Converters (e.g. 12 or 18 Pulse rectifier)

Say that we want to get rid of the 3
rd
order
harmonics present on a 60Hz fundamental sin
wave. This means that we want to filter out
anything at 180Hz. Using the equation

Example of a tuned LC circuit (Parallel
LC filter)
LC
f
r
t 2
1
=
we can calculate the values of L and C to give a
resonant frequency of 180Hz

How the filter works:
The impedance of the circuit is given by the parallel
impedance equation

How the filter works:
The impedance of the circuit is given by the parallel
impedance equation
1
1
1
2

=
+
=
=
=
LC
L j
Z
C j L j
C L
Z
C j
Z
L j Z
C
L
e
e
e e
e
e
example contd.
) 1 )( 1 ( LC LC
C j
Z
+
=
e e
e
Poles:
Harmonics are inherently complex and from
the presentation it can be concluded that
complex analysis is a fundamental part of
harmonic domain analysis and filtering in
power systems.