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August 23, 2012

Why Projects Fail


Lack of senior management commitment Inadequate project planning (budget, schedule, scope, etc.) Absence of user involvement New or unfamiliar technology Lack of defined, clear, or concise requirements
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Why Projects Succeed

1. Sound project management processes. 2. Senior management commitment. 3. Detailed requirements. 4. Realistic schedule. 5. Good stakeholder relationships. 6. Empowered project manager. 7. Skilled and appropriate team members with defined roles and responsibilities.
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Modern Project Management

Project Management Institute.


Established in 1969 Global Organization Headquartered in Newtown Square, Pennsylvania USA Codified best practices in Project Management as PMBOK guide

Knowledge Area Time, Scope, Cost Quality,HR,Communication Procurement, Integration


Process Group Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring and Controlling Closing

Tools and Techniques

Based on PMBOK

PMBOK-Project Management Body Of Knowledge.


Guide that possess standards for project management - explains about project management processes, tools & techniques - published by PMI in 1996 as first edition - updated once in 4 year - latest publication is 2008

Certificate Exams
PMP -Project Management Professional

CAPM

-Certified Associate in Project Management

What is a Project?

Temporary Unique products or services A PROJECT is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create unique products, services or result.

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Application of

Skills Tools and Techniques

Project Management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.
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Managing a Project means

Identifying Requirements Setting Clear and Achievable Objectives Balancing TRIPLE Constraints
The TRIPLE CONSTRAINTS are SCOPE, TIME and COST
TIME

SCOPE

QUALITY

COST

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Portfolio Management Program Management

Organization

Project Project Project Management Management Management

Other Work

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Program

A Program is a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. Program management focuses on interdependencies of projects and describes the best approach to achieving program objectives
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Portfolio
A Portfolio is a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of the work to meet strategic business objectives. Portfolio management is an approach to centralized management of collection of programs, portfolios and other work, to achieve organizational goals.
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Project S c o p e
Projects have defined objective, Scope is progressively elaborated throughout the project life cycle

Program
Programs have a larger scope and provide more significant benefits

Portfolio
Portfolios have a business scope that changes with the strategic goals of the organization

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Project C h a n g e
Project Managers expect change and implement processes to keep change managed and controlled.

Program
The program manager must expect change from both inside and outside the program and be prepared to manage the changes

Portfolio
Portfolio manager continually monitor changes in the broad environment

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Project P l a n n i n g
Project Managers progressively elaborate highlevel information into detailed plans throughout the project life cycle

Program
Program managers develop the overall program plan and create high-level plans to guide detailed planning at the component level

Portfolio
Portfolio managers create and maintain necessary processes and communication relative to the aggregate portfolio
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Project

Program
Program Managers manage the program staff and the project managers, they provide vision and overall leadership

Portfolio
Portfolio Managers may manage or coordinate portfolio management staff

M a n a g e m e n t

Project Managers manage the project teams to meet the project objectives

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Project S u c c e s s
Success is measured by product and project quality, timeliness, budget compliance and degree of customer satisfaction

Program
Success is measured by the degree to which the program satisfies the needs and benefits for which it was undertaken

Portfolio
Success is measured in terms of aggregate performance of portfolio components

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Project

Program
Program Managers monitor the progress of program components to ensure the overall goals, schedules, budgets, and benefits of the program will be met

Portfolio
Portfolio Managers monitor aggregate performance and value indicators

M o n i t o r i n g

Project Managers monitor and control the work of producing the products, services or results that the project was undertaken to produce

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Market demand Organizational need Customer request Technological advancement Legal requirement

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Project Management Office


Coordinates resources Develops Project management methodologies, best practices and standards Repository of project templates and documents Monitoring quality of projects

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PMO

Application area knowledge, Standards & regulations

General Management skills

Project manager

Understanding project
environment

Interpersonal skills

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Application Area Knowledge General Management Skills


IT Skills Budgeting Skills

Standards and Regulations of the Area

Project Environment
Cultural and Social International and Political Physical (Ecology)
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Interpersonal Skills
Communications Skills Organizational and Planning Skills Conflict Management Skills Negotiating and Influencing Skills Leadership and Motivating Skills Team Building Skills Problem Solving Skills

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Project life spans through

Initiating Starting the Project

Planning

Executing

Monitoring & Controlling

Closing Closing the Project

Organizing & Carrying out the Project Preparing for Work the Project

Phases
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Characteristics are
Phases are sequential Cost and Staffing

Low at the Start High in Intermediate Low at the End


Cost and Staffing

Start

Intermediate

End

Time
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Characteristics are

Level of uncertainty

High Uncertainty Stakeholders influence

Stakeholders influence

High at the Start Drop to minimum at End

High at the Start Low at the End


Low Project Time

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Characteristics are

Cost of Changes

High

Low at the Start Increases to maximum towards End

Cost of Changes

Low

Project Time

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Deliverable
A DELIVERABLE is a measurable, verifiable work product

Phase
The completion and approval of one or more deliverables characterizes a PROJECT PHASE

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1. 2. 3. 4.

Phases are sequential Work differs from one to another End of each phase, a deliverable is produced Phase end deliverables are reviewed whether to continue or to abort the phase / project

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Both

Performed by people Constrained by limitations Planned, executed and controlled


Temporary Unique
Performed by people Operation Constrained by Ongoing limitations Repetitive Planned, Executed & controlled

Differ by

Project Unique Temporary

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Identify Stakeholders Determine requirements and Expectations Influences


Positive Negative

Project Stakeholders are individuals and organizations who are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project execution or successful completion
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Project Sponsor Project Manager Project Management Team Project Team Portfolio Manager Project Stakeholders

Project

Other Stakeholders

Customer

Program Manager

Operational Management Vendors & Partners

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Key Stakeholders are:

Customer Project Manager Performing Organization Project Team Project Management Team Sponsor Influencers (Positive and Negative)

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Key Stakeholders are:

PMO Operational Management Vendors & Partners Program Manager Portfolio Manger Other Stakeholders

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Organizational culture will have a direct influence on the success of the project Organizational culture includes: Values Organizational policies and procedures View of authority relationships Work ethic and work hours

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Types of Organization
Functional Matrix

Weak Balanced Strong


Projectized

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Chief Executive

Project Coordination

Functional Manager

Functional Manager

Functional Manager

Staff1

Staff4

Staff7

Staff2

Staff5

Staff8

Staff3 Assigned to Project

Staff6

Staff9

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Project Managers Authority

Resources Availability

Little and known as Project Coordinator / Project Expeditor Little

Control of the Project


Project Managers Role
Part-Time Functional Manager

Project Management Admin Staff Part-Time

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Clear reporting relationships Highly specialized expertise Drive for technical excellence Hierarchical decision and communication processes Employee development opportunities limited PM is dependent on his personal influence Limitations to customer satisfaction and influence

Advantages

Disadvantages

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Project Coordination Project Manager

Chief Executive

Project Manager

Project Manager

Staff1

Staff4

Staff7

Staff2
Assigned to Project

Staff5

Staff8

Staff3

Staff6

Staff9

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Project Managers Authority Resources Availability Control of the Project Project Managers Role
Full-Time Total

Total

Project Manager

Project Management Admin Staff Full-Time

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Advantages
Clear accountability Decision making Customer relationships

Disadvantages
Focus on technical competence reduced Project Manager may be technical/nontechnical Project team is dissolved at the completion of the project

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Chief Executive

Functional Manager

Functional Manager

Functional Manager

Staff1

Staff4

Staff7

Staff2

Staff5

Staff8

Staff3 Assigned to Project

Staff6

Staff9

Project Coordination
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Project Managers Authority

Resources Availability Control of the Project


Limited

Limited and known as Project Coordinator

Project Managers Role


Part-Time

Functional Manager

Project Management Admin Staff Part-Time

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Chief Executive

Functional Manager

Functional Manager

Functional Manager

Staff1

Staff4

Staff7

Staff2

Staff5

Staff8

Project Manager Assigned to Project

Staff6

Staff9

Project Coordination
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Project Managers Authority

Resources Availability Control of the Project Project Managers Role


Full-Time Low to Moderate

Low to Moderate

Mixed

Project Management Admin Staff Part-Time

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Chief Executive

Functional Manager

Functional Manager

Manager of Project Managers

Staff1

Staff4

Project Manager

Staff2

Staff5

Project Manager

Staff9 Assigned to Project

Staff6

Project Manager

Project Coordination
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Project Managers Authority Resources Availability Control of the Project Project Managers Role
Full-Time Moderate to High Moderate to High

Project Manager

Project Management Admin Staff Full-Time

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1. Organizational Structure 2. Organizational Culture 3. Governmental/Industry standards 4. Infrastructure 5. Existing Human Resources 6. Personnel Administration 7. Organizations Work Authorization System 8. Marketplace conditions 9. Stakeholders risk tolerance 10. Project Management Information System
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Organizational processes, standards & procedures Templates Organizational communications requirements Financial controls procedures Issues and Defect Management procedures Change control procedures Risk Control procedures Procedures approving and issuing work authorizations 9. Organizational knowledge base

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To Sum up We know what Project is We know what Project Management is We know what a Program and Program Management is We know what Portfolio and Portfolio Management is We know why projects are undertaken We know what Project Management Office is We know w hat are qualifies of a good Project Manager

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To Sum up

We know what Project Life Cycle is We know the characteristics of Project Life Cycle We know characteristics of Project Phase We know differences between a Project and an Operation

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To Sum up We know to identify Project Stakeholders We know the importance of stakeholders in influencing the project We know different types of organizations and their influences on the project We know what Enterprise Environmental Factors are We know what Organizational Process Assets are
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What is a Process?

Activities in pre-defined sequence Inter-related Expected deliverables

A PROCESS is set of interrelated activities that are performed to achieve pre-specified set of products, services or results.

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Project Manager must consider Organizational Process Assets and Enterprise Environmental Factors for every process Organizational Process Assets provide guidelines and criteria for tailoring organizational processes to the specific needs of the project Enterprise Environmental Factors may constrain Project Managers options

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Project Management Processes are grouped into


Initiating Process Group Planning Process Group Executing Process Group Monitoring & Controlling Process Group Closing Process Group

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Initiating Process Group


To define new project and authorizing it

Planning Process Group


Defining objectives and selecting the best action from alternatives for successful implementation of project

Executing Process Group


Coordinating people and resources to implement the plan

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Monitoring & Controlling Process Group


Ensuring the project objectives are met by measuring and monitoring project progress

Closing Process Group


Formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables and bringing it to an orderly end

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Monitoring & Controlling Process Group Planning Process group

Initiating Process Group

Closing Process Group

Executing Process Group

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Level of Process Interaction

Planning Process Group Initiating Process Group

Executing Process Monitoring & Group Controlling Process Group

Closing Process Group

Start

Time

Finish

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Lets identify the activities at the start of a project: Business needs Feasibility study Project objectives defined Alternative approaches Initial Scope Description Authorizing the Project

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Integration Scope Time Cost Quality Human Resources Communication Risk Procurement

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Ensures proper coordination among project management process groups

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Specify timely completion of the project

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Required to manage the completion of the project within budget.

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Process that are involved in getting Quality product

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Recruiting team members

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Bringing about team coordination

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Solving Risk involved in the project by analyzing them

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Managing the resources

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THANK YOU

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