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collection is a term used to describe a process of preparing & collecting data. The purpose of data collection is to obtain information to keep on record to make important decisions , to pass information on to others.




Data Collection:-Secondary data means data that are already available i.e the data which is already been collected and analyzed by someone else. Secondary data is collected through two sources: Internal Data External Data

Inexpensive Easily Accessible Immediate Available Saves time

Frequently outdated Potentially unreliable May not be applicable


Data: Accounting Records Databases Enquiries from Internal experts Sales force report


data: Govt Statistics and agencies Trade associations Research companies Universities/Colleges International Institutions Other DataInternet,magazines,journals,newspapers.

Data Collected for the first time specially for the study and thus happen to be original in character. Primary Research Surveys Personal
(intercepts) Mail In-house, selfadministered Telephone, fax, e-mail, Web


Focus groups Individual depth interviews Observation method Document Review


Survey Mail survey Telephone survey Computer assisted personal Information

Advantages High response rate Great Flexibility Fuller explanations can be given Very Timely data

Disadvantages Relatively expensive Possibility of Interviewer bias Personal nature of questions (age, income) Respondents not relaxed .(on the spot) Time may not be convenient for the respondents.

Advantages Relatively inexpensive No interviewer bias Consistent questions Large no. of respondents can be covered. Choose convenient time to answer

Disadvantages Low response rate Junk mail syndrome personal nature




time consuming Less expensive High response rate


obstructive than mail. Long distance calls are expensive Sample can be biased, people without phone cannot be included.


is a form of personal interview where co brings along a laptop or hand held computer to enter the information directly into the database. This means that the researcher must have computer or typing skills and it is expensive also.


experiment refers to an investigation in which a factor or variable under test is isolated and its effects are measured. In an experiment the investigator measures the effects of an experiment which he conducts intentionally.


groups Interviews Observation Method Document Review Method


group is an interview conducted by a trained moderator in an non structured and natural manner with a small group of respondents. The main purpose is to gain insights by listening to a group of people from the appropriate target market talks about specific issues of interest.


is a technique that is primarily used to gain an understanding of the reasons and motivations for peoples attitudes, preferences or behavior. It can be conducted one to one basis or in group bases.

Advantages Serious approach resulting in accurate information Good response rate Completed Possible in depth questions Can investigate motives and feelings

Disadvantages Embarrassment if asked personal questions Time consuming Can be expensive Respondent biascreate false image Normally need a set of questions.


(fix set of questions with answers being ticked off.) Semi structured (can express him or herself at a length) Unstructured/In depth Interview (encourages the respondent to talk freely)


method is used to get both past and current information. It involves recording the behavioral patterns of people, object and events in a systematic manner. Personal & Mechanical observation Structured & Unstructured observation. Disguised & Undisguised observation Direct & Indirect observation


documents already prepared by conducting research are then reviewed to find out the solutions for the decision makers.


A survey which includes every element of the population is known as Census Survey. Eg :If a researcher is interested in studying the total population of India, he has to obtain information from all households in rural & Urban area.


a sample survey the researcher selects a representative sample as it is difficult to study the entire population. A good sample is smaller than population and is capable of providing accurate information at much lower cost and shorter time. Eg:10% of the agricultural laborers in chandpur district.