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Java Basics (continued)

Mr. Smith AP Computer Science A

Basic Java Syntax and Semantics


Methods, Messages, and Signatures

Classes implement methods, and objects are instances of classes. Objects that share common behavior are grouped into classes. An object responds to a message only if its class implements a corresponding method. To correspond the method must have the same name as the message.

Messages are sometimes accompanied by parameters and sometimes not:


pen.move(); pen.moveDown(8); // No parameter expected // One parameter expected

Java Concepts 2.3 (Objects, Classes, and Methods), 2.4 (Method Parameters and return values)

Basic Java Syntax and Semantics

Some methods return a value and others do not. To use a method successfully we must know:
What type of value it returns Its name (identifier) The number and type of the parameters it expects

This information is called the methods

signature.

Java Concepts 2.3 (Objects, Classes, and Methods), 2.4 (Method Parameters and return values)

Basic Java Syntax and Semantics


Programming Protocols: Use camelCase

When forming a compound variable name, programmers usually capitalize the first letter of each word except the first. (For example: taxableIncome) All the words in a programs name typically begin with a capital letter (ComputeEmployeePayroll). Constant names usually are all uppercase (TAX_RATE).
Java Concepts 2.1 (Types and Variables)

Comments

Comments are explanatory sentences


inserted in a program in such a matter that the compiler ignores them. There are two styles for indicating comments:
End of line comments:

These include all of the text following a double slash (//) on any given line; in other words, this style is best for just one line of comments Multiline comments: These include all of the text between an opening /* and a closing */
Java Concepts 1.6 (Compiling a Simple Program)

Additional Operators
Extended Assignment Operators

The assignment operator can be combined with the arithmetic and concatenation operators to provide extended assignment operators. For example:
int a = 17; String s = "hi"; a += 3; a -= 3; a *= 3; a /= 3; a %= 3; s += " there";

// Equivalent to // Equivalent to // Equivalent to // Equivalent to // Equivalent to // Equivalent to

a= a= a= a= a= s=

a + 3; a 3; a * 3; a / 3; a % 3; s + there;

Java Concepts 4.3 (Assignment, Increment, and Decrement)

Additional Operators
Increment and Decrement

Java includes increment (++) and decrement (--) operators that increase or decrease a variables value by one:
int m = 7; double x = 6.4; m++; // Equivalent to m = m + 1; x--; // Equivalent to x = x 1.0;

The precedence of the increment and decrement operators is the same as unary plus, unary minus, and cast.
Java Concepts 4.3 (Assignment, Increment, and Decrement)

Standard Classes and Methods


Eight methods in the Math Class

static double random()

Returns a double in the range [0.0, 1.0)


Java Concepts 4.4 (Arithmetic Operations and Mathematical Functions)

Standard Classes and Methods


Using the Math class
double absNum, powerNum, randomNum; absNum = Math.abs(-30); powerNum = Math.pow(-3, 3); randomNum = Math.random(); Results: absNum = 30 powerNum = -27 randomNum = ?????

//Absolute value of -30 //-3 to the 2nd power //Random number between 0 and 1

Java Concepts 4.4 (Arithmetic Operations and Mathematical Functions)

Standard Classes and Methods


Random Numbers and Simulation

The Random class of the Java library implements a random number generator. To generate random numbers, you construct an object of the Random class and then apply one of the following methods:

nextInt(n) returns a random integer between 0 (inclusive) and n (exclusive) nextDouble() returns a random floating point number between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive)

For example, if a contestant on Deal or No Deal is randomly selecting their briefcase from the 26 initial briefcases:
import java.util.Random; //Include this at top of program Random generator = new Random(); int briefcaseNum = 1 + generator.nextInt(26);
Java Concepts 6.5 (Random Numbers and Simulation)

Classwork/Homework
DiceRoller program (similar to Yahtzee):
Write a program to: Allow the person to initially roll five dice. Each die has six faces representing numbers from 1 to 6. Print the results of each die to the console. After the first roll, the person should input the number of dice (between 0 and 5) that they want to roll again.

Repeat the prompt one more time to see if the person wants to roll some of the dice again (for a maximum of 3 rolls). Note: You may want to use the Scanner class to input data, the Random class to generate a random number, a for loop for rolling the dice, an if statement for checking the input and a break command to exit the loop, and System.out.print for printing to the console.

If they enter 0, then stop. Else, roll that many dice and print the results of each die to the console again.

Java Concepts 6.5 (Random Numbers and Simulation)

Control Statements
While and if-else are called control statements.
while (some condition) { do stuff; } if (some condition) { do stuff 1; } else { do stuff 2; } If some condition is true, do stuff 1, and if it is false, do stuff 2.
Java Concepts 5.1 (The if Statement), 6.1 (while Loops)

Do stuff repeatedly as long as the condition holds true

Principal Forms

The if and if-else Statements

In Java, the if and if-else statements allow for the conditional execution of statements.
if (condition) { statement1; statement2; } if (condition) { statement1; statement2; } else { statement3; statement4;
}
Java Concepts 5.1 (The if Statement)

The if and if-else Statements


Relational Operators
The complete list of relational operators available for use in Java.

Java Concepts 5.2 (Comparing values)

The if and if-else Statements


Relational Operators
Which of the following if statements are incorrect? int x;

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

if if if if if if

( ( ( ( ( (

x x x x x x

> 10 ) = 10 ) >< 10 ) == 10 ) >= 10 ) != 10 )

Incorrect Incorrect

Java Concepts 5.2 (Comparing values)

The while Statement

The while statement provides a looping mechanism that executes statements repeatedly for as long as some condition remains true.
while (condition) statement; while (condition) { statement; statement; ... } // loop test //one statement inside the loop body // loop test // many statements // inside the // loop body

Java Concepts 6.1 (while Loops)

The while Statement


Common Structure

Loops typically adhere to the following structure:


initialize variables while (condition)

//initialize //test

//loop body change variables involved in the condition //loop body


perform calculations or do something and
}

In order for the loop to terminate, each iteration through the loop must move variables involved in the condition significantly closer to satisfying the condition.
Java Concepts 6.1 (while Loops)

The while Statement


1. Write a while loop that will sum the
numbers from 1 to 100 (i.e. 1+2+3+ +100). 2. Print the answer to the console.

Java Concepts 6.1 (while Loops)

The while Statement


int sum = 0; int count = 1; while (count <= 100) { sum += count; count++; } System.out.println (sum);
Java Concepts 6.1 (while Loops)

The for Statement

The for statement combines counter initialization, condition test, and update into a single expression. The form for the statement:
for (initialize counter; test counter; update counter) statement; // one statement inside the loop body for (initialize counter; { statement; statement; . . .; } test counter; update counter) // many statements // inside the // loop body

Java Concepts 6.2 (for Loops)

The for Statement


Declaring the Loop Control Variable in a for Loop.

The for loop allows the programmer to declare the loop control variable inside of the loop header. The following are equivalent loops that show these two alternatives:
int i; //Declare control variable above loop Use this technique if for (i = 1; i <= 10; i++) you need to reference System.out.println(i);
the value of i later

for (int i = 1; i<= 10; i++) //Declare variable in loop header Use this technique if System.out.println(i);

you only use variable i within the loop


Java Concepts 6.2 (for Loops)

Nested Control Statements and the break Statement

Control statements can be nested inside each other in any combination that proves useful. The break statement can be used for breaking out of a loop early, that is before the loop condition is false. If you are nesting loops, the break statement only breaks out of the loop the program is currently in (the inside loop). break statements can be used similarly with both for loops and while loops (break terminates the loop immediately).
Java Concepts 6.4 Advanced Topic (break and continue Statements)

Sentinel

A data value that is used to denote the end of a data list or data input. The value cannot be a valid data value Usually 99999 or an unreachable high value or it could be a character such as Q for Quit. Example: Enter your age or type Q to quit. Note: if you do it this way then the value you enter needs to be a string.
Java Concepts 6.4 (Processing Sentinel Values)

Sentinel
Write a segment of code that will have the user input data values and then do something until the user indicates there are no more data values.

Java Concepts 6.4 (Processing Sentinel Values)

Sentinel
Write a segment of code that will read in data values and do something until there are no more. OPTION 1: int num; boolean done = false; while ( ! done) { System.out.print(enter a value, 99 to end ); num = in.nextInt(); if (num == 99) { done = true; } else { // rest of code to do something goes here } }
Java Concepts 6.4 (Processing Sentinel Values)

Sentinel
Write a segment of code that will read in data values and do something until there are no more. OPTION 2: int num; while (true) { System.out.print(enter a value, 99 to end ); num = in.nextInt(); if (num == 99) { break; } // rest of code to do something goes here }
Java Concepts 6.4 (Processing Sentinel Values)

Classwork/Homework
CircleCalc program:
Write a program to: Have the user input the diameter of a circle and the program outputs the:
Radius (which is the diameter divided by 2) Circumference (which is PI times the diameter)

Area (which is PI times the radius squared)


Note: you can use Math.PI to get the value of PI

Use a for loop to prompt the user 4 times (4 circle diameters) and print the radius, circumference, and area each time. Then use a sentinel controlled loop (sentinel value should be 99999) to do the same thing. Test input for validity.

What is the advantage of using a sentinel controlled loop? It allows the user to stop the looping whenever they want