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VINEET CHACHRA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY , ROHTAK
WHAT IS A MICROCONTROLLER?
A microcontroller can be called as a computer on chip. It consists of on-chip RAM,ROM, I/O ports… Examples: Intel’s 8051,Motorola’s 6811, Zilog’s Z8, Atmel’s AT89C51
CPU RAM ROM
Serial I/O Timer COM Port Port
A single chip
WHAT IS A MICROPROCESSOR?
A general purpose digital computer CPU. No RAM,ROM,I/O on CPU chip itself. Examples: Intel’s x86,Motorola’s 680x0.
CPU GeneralPurpose Microprocessor
Many chips on mother board
Serial COM Port
Address Bus General-Purpose Microprocessor System
RAM.I/O are separate.MICROPROCESSOR VS.ROM. Unique pins.ROM. ROM. Fixed amount of RAM. RAM.I/O on single chip. Designer can decide on amount of RAM. . General purpose and versatile. Microcontroller Microcontroller CPU. Specific purpose generally having fixed programs Programmable pins. MICROCONTROLLER Microprocessor Microprocessor CPU is stand alone. ROM.
Processing function is done by a microcontroller or microprocessor. . Since an embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks. It is usually embedded as a part of complete device including hardware and mechanical parts.EMBEDDED SYSTEMS An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to perform one or few designated functions. they are optimized and hence mass produced. often with real time computing constraints.
EXAMPLES AND USES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Embedded systems span all aspects of modern life and there are many examples of their use.PET etc.washing machines Transportation systems like ABS.GPS systems Medical equipments like MRI. . Consumer electronics like dvd’s. Telecommunication systems including modems and routers. EBD.
it leads to reduced costs thus making mass production possible.ADVANTAGES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Since they can be optimized. They have very high reliability. . They can be designed to perform in diverse environment conditions. They can be implemented using wide variety of processors.
e it has physically separate storage and signal pathways for instructions and data. Initially built using NMOS technology but later CMOS technology used owing to low power consumption. .THE 8051 MICROCONTROLLER The 8051 microcontroller was developed in the year 1981 by Intel Corporation. Intel’s official designation for 8051 family is MCS-51. It is a Harvard architecture i.
4 parallel and one serial port. 16 bytes of addressable and 80 bytes of general purpose memory. 128 bytes on-chip RAM. .SALIENT FEATURES OF 8051 8-bit data bus and 16-bit address bus.4 flags and on chip clock oscillator.. Two-level interrupt priority with 6 interrupt sources. 4 k bytes on-chip ROM. Two 16 bit counter/timers . Four byte bi-directional input/output ports.
BLOCK DIAGRAM External interrupts Interrupt Control On-chip ROM for program code Timer/Counter On-chip RAM Timer 1 Timer 0 Counter Inputs CPU Serial Port OSC Bus Control 4 I/O Ports P0 P1 P2 P3 TxD RxD Address/Data .
4 (T1)P3.2 P1.2 (INT1)P3.0 P1.4 P1.6(AD6) P0.7(AD7) EA/VPP ALE/PROG PSEN P2.6 P1.6 (RD)P3.7 RST (RXD)P3.1(AD1) P0.6(A14) P2.4(A12) P2.1 (INT0)P3.5(AD5) P0.PIN DIAGRAM P1.3 (T0)P3.0(A8) .7(A15) P2.4(AD4) P0.2(A10) P2.3(AD3) P0.7 XTAL2 XTAL1 GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8051 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 Vcc P0.2(AD2) P0.3 P1.0 (TXD)P3.0(AD0) P0.5 P1.3(A11) P2.1(A9) P2.5(A13) P2.1 P1.5 (WR)P3.
Time of an instruction: Tinst = C x 12d crystal frequency Where c= no. of cycles .8051 CLOCK A quartz crystal oscillator connected at pins XTAL1 and XTAL2. The circuit shown below generates a pulse train at the frequency of crystal.
8051 PROGRAMMING MODEL .
5volts logic 0 i. . LED glows.8. p0.e. From 3-5volts logic 1 i. From 0-0.e. LED is off.e.0-p0.INTERFACING OF LED LED’s are generally connected at port 0 of 8051 i.
e. all LED’s glow on 0 logic. .INTERFACING 7-SEGMENT DISPLAY It has a common anode or a common cathode thus making it a 9 pin structure as shown in diagram. Common anode generally used i.
.2 C/O.INTERFACING OF RELAY A relay is an electromechanical switch.3C/O or 4 C/O. Connected on port 2 of 8051. Depending upon contact types it can be: one C/O(change over).
dc shunt.2 and p2.INTERFACING OF DC MOTORS Motor could be dc series.4 to p2.7 for stepper motor. . Ports p2. pmdc or stepper motor.3 as alternate high and low for PMDC and p2.
Mode 1 – 16-bit timer mode. 8192 pulses (b).e. . 65536 pulses (c). Mode 3 – 8-bit split timer mode. 256 pulses (d). Both can be used as either timer for internal pulse counting and as counter for external pulse counting. (a).8-bit timer mode. SFR TCON used to control the timer operation and TMOD used to select the timer mode i. Mode 2 . Mode 0 – 13-bit timer mode.INTERFACING OF TIMER/COUNTER The 8051 has two timers. TIMER0 and TIMER1 registers.
TCON Special function register TMOD Special function register Timer/Counter Control Logic .
It consists of a LED and a transistor. .2 are used. Port pins P1.INTERFACING OF OPTO-COUPLER An opto-coupler is used to provide a short optical transmission path to transfer a signal b/w elements of a circuit while transmitter and receiver are electrically isolated.7 and p3.
e. a alarm sound gets generated. It produces oscillation when electric field is applied to its terminals. value is one a sound is generated.INTERFACING OF PIEZO-BUZZER A buzzer is made of piezo-electric crystals. 20Hz to 20KHz. When it is set i.e.6 of microcontroller. . Since the oscillation are in audible range i. It is connected with pin p1.
Graphics LCD b. LCD can be classified as: a. Character LCD c.INTERFACING OF LCD A liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically modulated optical amplification shaped into a thin. LCD with controller . flat display device made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector.
While the DR temporarily stores data to be written into DDRAM or CGRAM.The LCD memory has two 8-bit registers: Instruction Register and Data Register. . The IR stores instruction codes and address information for DRAM and CGRAM.
o Register select pin RS. When RS =1 data register is selected. When R/W=0 write and when R/W =1 read function created. oRead or write pin R/W. . When RS=0 command register selected. o Enable pin E.The pins of LCD are : o Data pins D0-D7. A high to low edge needed to latch the data. Used to control contrast voltage. oContrast control pin VEE.
LCD’s internal controller accepts several commands to modify the display accordingly. 5*7 pixels.g.scroll display one character right. 01h – clear screen. . 1Eh . 38h – 8-bit interface. e.
PARALLEL ADC. SERIAL ADC ii.INTERFACING ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER ADC converts an analog data to binary coded data which can be directly fed to digital processors. ADC can be broadly divided into two types: i. • 1–Input line ADC • 2-Input line ADC • 4-Input line ADC . So the output is some form of digital number.
2. Easy interface with 8-bit analog channel.Features: 1. . TTL voltage level specifications with 28-pin dip package. Thus can produce numbers 0 through 255. 4. 3. Uses successive approximation(SAR) as conversion technique.
PROJECT ASSIGNED: RF REMOTE CONTROL FOR CONTROLLING ELECTRICAL GADGETS .
92 MHz is used. Frequency modulation at frequency of 433.INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT The Project RF Remote Control can be used to remotely control a number of Electrical or Electronic Gadgets connected to it. As the name suggests the project employs Radio Frequency waves for wireless transmission and reception. .
THE PROJECT CONSISTS OF TWO PARTS i. . The block diagram is shown next. which is used to control the equipments.e. The remote controller is powered by 9V Battery. The AT89C2051 (20pin DIP IC) makes the remote controller design as simple & compact. The remote control has a small keypad. (A). TRANSMITTER : The transmitter design is based on ATMEL AT89C2051 Microcontroller. TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER.
The key value is send to the DTMF (Dual Tone Multi-Frequency) encoder. The Tone is modulated (FM) with Carrier Frequency (433MHZ) and transmitted using RF module. .Microcontroller AT89C2051 DTMF Encoder RF Signal Transmitter Key Pad Block Diagram of Transmitter WORKING: The key pressed by the user is read by the microcontroller. The encoder generates voice tone for that particular key value.
TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM .
(B)RECIEVER: The receiver design is based on ATMEL AT89C51 microcontroller. . which can be used to vary the speed of any motor/fan . Also this receiver can produce a variable Power source. The block diagram of the receiver is shown next. It decodes the Signal from the transmitter and control the relays according to the signal. It is designed in such way to control different equipment /appliance using relays. The Microcontroller is used as the master in the receiver end which is used to control all the devices.
RF Signal Receiver DTMF Decoder Microcontroller AT89C51 Relays LOAD Trigger Mains Step-dow n voltage Zero Crossing Detector Phase Ref erence TRIAC Mains 230V A C Block Diagram of Control Panel .
So the relay driver circuitry is implemented in between the microcontroller and relays. The microcontroller can also vary the power applied to the motor / Fan by varying the firing angle of a TRIAC. The output of the RF Receiver will be DTMF signal. The AT89C51 microcontroller gets the signal from the DTMF decoder and based on the information the microcontroller changes the output status of the relays. The controller does not drive the relays. This DTMF signal is decoded and the binary value is generated using the decoder.WORKING: The RF signal transmitted by remote control is received by RF receiver module. . The information about varying the motor power is read from the remote controller.
RECEIVER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM .
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