13 views

Uploaded by MELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA

MELJUN CORTES -- AUTOMATA THEORY LECTURE

save

- Heterogeneous Information for the Turing Machine
- Guidelines
- A Methodology for the Visualization of DHCP
- Solomos Cellular automat Xenakis
- PV coupling.pdf
- 017 Goedel_ on Formally Undecidable Propositions in Principia Ma Thematic A and Related Systems I
- MCWASP 2015 Wwarr v9
- Tmp 3135
- Class16 Turing Thesis
- Robust License Plate Detection In TheWild.pdf
- SAS DAY 07A Programming
- SchuhEtAl_2016_A1
- CAD VLSI AU QP
- [Image Processing Communications] History Dependent Viterbi Algorithm for Navigation Purposes of Line Following Robot
- Vargas
- Into-The-Clouds-Score.pdf
- Constitución Moralista de 1823
- 5th gr
- Direito Ambiental - Lei Do Pnma
- konsepdanteorikeperawatanpp.pdf
- LAPORAN KEGIATAN HIPNOTERAPI
- AND2.docx
- Pemboran Mesin Tumbuk
- 8. Isaac Newton Inventos
- GEAS Exam
- 1ro Sec Desarrollo de Habilidades 2013.pdf
- VCCC
- 14 1507970803_14-10-2017.pdf
- POEM2
- 157398431 Topikal Aplikasi Fluor
- RD 515:2005.pdf
- ABC
- b4
- Vocabulary and Grammar
- vygostki-el-desarrollo-de-los-procesos-psicolc3b3gicos-superiores.pdf
- Cociente Emocional BarOn.xls
- phu-kien-vach-ngan-khu-ve-sinh-tot-nhat.pdf
- metodos-de-explotacion-sin-soporte.docx
- A+ciegas+-+Josh+Malerman
- Programa 8
- Sonata Herix MS
- Manual Seguridad Basico
- Sss
- ISO 11820_1996(en), Acoustics — Measurements on silencers in situ.pdf
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 7
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 13
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 12
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 7
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 9
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 10
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 14
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 11
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 4
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 6
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 2
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 3
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 5
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 1
- MELJUN CORTES TCU Syllabus Ds 101 Discrete Structures 1 Syllabus Cortes Obe New Formats New Revisions 2018

You are on page 1of 29

**CORTES, MBA,MPA,BSCS,ACS Fall 2008
**

CSC 3130: Automata theory and formal languages

More undecidable languages

Andrej Bogdanov

http://www.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/~andrejb/csc3130

**More undecidable problems
**

L1 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts input e} L2 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts some input}

**L3 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts all inputs}
**

L4 = {〈M, M’〉: M and M’ accept the same inputs} decidable recognizable but undecidable unrecognizable

Example 1

L1 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts input e} • Step 1: You gotta believe it

– To know if M accepts e, it looks like we have to simulate it – But then we might end up in a loop

• Step 2: Use what you know ATM is undecidable

Proof by “reduction”

L1 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts input e} • Show that if L1 can be decided,

〈M〉

A

accept if M accepts e reject if not

... so can ATM

〈M〉, w

?

accept if M accepts w reject if not

Proof by “reduction”

〈M〉

A

accept if M accepts e reject if not accept if M accepts w reject if not

〈M〉, w

〈M’〉

A

M’ is a Turing Machine such that: If M accepts w, then M’ accepts e If M does not accept w, then M’ does not accept e

Proof by “reduction”

〈M〉, w construct 〈M’〉 M’ accept if M accepts w reject if not

A

M’: On input z, If z = e, then simulate M on w Otherwise, reject

q1 q0

☐/☐L

M’

M

qrej qacc

Recognizable or not?

L1 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts input e}

decidable recognizable but undecidable unrecognizable

Algorithm for L1

On input 〈M〉: Simulate M on input e

Example 2

L2 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts some input} • Step 1: You gotta believe it

– To know if M accepts, it looks like we have to simulate it – But then we might end up in a loop

• Step 2: Use what you know ATM is undecidable L1 is undecidable

Example 2

〈M〉

A

accept if M accepts some input reject if not accept if M accepts e reject if not

〈M〉

〈M’〉

A

M’ is a Turing Machine such that: If M accepts e, then M’ accepts some input If M does not accept e, then M’ does not accept anything

Example 2

〈M〉 construct 〈M’〉 M’ accept if M accepts w reject if not

A

M’: On input w, If w = e, then simulate M on e Otherwise, reject

decidable

recognizable but undecidable

unrecognizable

Is it recognizable?

L2 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts some input} • Attempt to recognize L2:

Simulate M on input e Simulate M on input 0 Simulate M on input 1 Simulate M on input 00 Accept if one of them accepts

...

... but there are infinitely many!

Is it recognizable?

L2 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts some input} • Attempt to recognize L2:

For all possible strings x (in lexicographic order): Simulate M on input x what if M loops on e If it accepts, accept. but M accepts, say, 11? If it rejects, reject.

lexicographic order: e, 0, 1, 00, 01, 10, 11, 000, 001, ...

Is it recognizable?

L2 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts some input} • Description of Turing Machine that recognizes L2:

k := 1 For all possible strings x (in lexicographic order): For all strings y that come before x Simulate M on y for k steps

If it accepts, accept. If it rejects, reject. k := k + 1

Explanation of algorithm

inputs e 0 1 00 01

...

• Execution of algorithm

Simulate M on e for 1 step Simulate M on e for 2 steps Simulate M on 0 for 2 steps Simulate M on e for 3 steps Simulate M on 0 for 3 steps Simulate M on 1 for 3 steps decidable

If M accepts some w, algorithm will see this in some stage of the simulation

...

recognizable but undecidable unrecognizable

Example 3

L3 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts all inputs} • Step 1: You gotta believe it

– To know if M accepts, it looks like we have to simulate it – But then we might end up in a loop

**• Step 2: Use what you know ... by yourself this decidable recognizable but unrecognizable time!
**

undecidable

Is it recognizable?

L3 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts all inputs} • Let’s try...

Simulate M on e for 1 step Simulate M on e for 2 steps and then what? Simulate M on 0 for 2 steps Simulate M on e for 3 steps accept if all of them accept Simulate M on 0 for 3 steps but there are infinitely many! Simulate M on 1 for 3 steps

...

Is it recognizable?

L3 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts all inputs}

– To check that 〈M〉 is in L3, it looks like we have to wait for an infinite number of simulations to finish – But we don’t have that much time!

**• Step 1: You gotta believe it ... but I don’t!
**

decidable recognizable but undecidable unrecognizable

**How to argue unrecognizability
**

L3 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts all inputs} • First attempt: Remember that

**If L and L are both recognizable, then L is decidable.
**

... so we can try to argue that L3 is recognizable

First attempt

L3 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts all inputs} L3 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that does not accept all inputs}

• Let’s try...

Simulate M on e for 1 step Simulate M on e for 2 steps Simulate M on 0 for 2 steps accept if M rejects or loops Simulate M on e for 3 steps but how to know if it loops? Simulate M on 0 for 3 steps Simulate M on 1 for 3 steps

...

**How to argue unrecognizability
**

L3 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts all inputs} • Second attempt: Use what you know

**ATM is not recognizable
**

• We can try to argue that

If we can recognize L3 then we can also recognize ATM

Proof by “reduction”

〈M〉

A

accept if M accepts all inputs rej/loop if not

〈M〉, w

construct 〈M’〉 M’

A

accept if M does not accept w rej/loop if M accepts w

M’ is a Turing Machine such that: If M does not accept w, then M’ accepts all inputs If M accepts w, then M’ rejects or loops on some input

Constructing M’

M’ is a Turing Machine such that: If M does not accept w, then M’ accepts all inputs If M accepts w, then M’ rejects or loops on some input

• To do this, we want to simulate M on w ... but what if simulation loops? • Idea: M’ keeps accepting more and more of its inputs as long as M has not halted on w

– If M never halts on w, M’ will accept all inputs

Constructing M’

M’ is a Turing Machine such that: If M does not accept w, then M’ accepts all inputs If M accepts w, then M’ rejects or loops on some input

• Description of M’:

On input z,

length of z

Simulate M on input w for |z| steps If simulation of M reaches state qacc, reject. If simulation of M reaches state qrej, accept. If neither state is reached, accept.

Correctness of construction

M’ is a Turing Machine such that: If M does not accept w, then M’ accepts all inputs If M accepts w, then M’ rejects or loops on some input Description of M’:

On input z, Simulate M on input w for |z| steps If simulation of M reaches state qacc, reject. If simulation of M reaches state qrej, accept. If neither state is reached, accept.

Correctness of construction

M’ is a Turing Machine such that: If M does not accept w, then M’ accepts all inputs If M accepts w, then M’ rejects or loops on some input Description of M’:

In k steps

z = 0k

On input z, Simulate M on input w for |z| steps If simulation of M reaches state qacc, reject. If simulation of M reaches state qrej, accept. If neither state is reached, accept. M’ rejects input 0k

Example 3 recap

L3 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts all inputs} • We showed that If we can recognize L3 then we can also recognize ATM ... but we know ATM is not recognizable

so

decidable recognizable but undecidable unrecognizable

Example 4

**L4 = {(〈M1〉, 〈M2〉): M1 and M2 accept the same inputs} • Step 1: You gotta believe it
**

decidable recognizable but undecidable unrecognizable

**• Step 2: Use what you know
**

ATM is recognizable L1 is recognizable but undecidable but undecidable

ATM is unrecognizable

L2 is recognizable but undecidable

L3 is unrecognizable

Example 4

L4 = {(〈M1〉, 〈M2〉): M1 and M2 accept the same inputs}

〈M1〉, 〈M2〉

A

**accept if M1, M2 accept same inputs
**

rej/loop if not

**L3 = {〈M〉: M is a TM that accepts all inputs}
**

〈M〉 accept if M accepts all inputs rej/loop if not

?

Example 4

〈M1〉, 〈M2〉

A

〈M1〉

qacc

accept if M1, M2 accept same inputs rej/loop if not accept if M accepts all inputs rej/loop if not

〈M〉

〈M2〉

A

If M accepts all inputs, then M1, M2 accepts same inputs If M does not, then M1, M2 do not accept same inputs

M1 = M M2 = TM that always accepts

- Heterogeneous Information for the Turing MachineUploaded byHardik A. Gohel
- GuidelinesUploaded byDương Bá Phục
- A Methodology for the Visualization of DHCPUploaded bythrw3411
- Solomos Cellular automat XenakisUploaded byFábio Videira
- PV coupling.pdfUploaded byWalter Henderson
- 017 Goedel_ on Formally Undecidable Propositions in Principia Ma Thematic A and Related Systems IUploaded byMichael Mohamed
- MCWASP 2015 Wwarr v9Uploaded bykb183627
- Tmp 3135Uploaded byFrontiers
- Class16 Turing ThesisUploaded byNavneet Kumar
- Robust License Plate Detection In TheWild.pdfUploaded byhazimsip
- SAS DAY 07A ProgrammingUploaded byGenesis React
- SchuhEtAl_2016_A1Uploaded byGabrielly Cordeiro
- CAD VLSI AU QPUploaded bySivarajanRajendran
- [Image Processing Communications] History Dependent Viterbi Algorithm for Navigation Purposes of Line Following RobotUploaded byShiv Shankar

- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 7Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 13Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 12Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 7Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 9Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 10Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 14Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 11Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 4Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 6Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 2Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 3Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 5Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- MELJUN CORTES - MACHINE LEARNING Part 1Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA
- MELJUN CORTES TCU Syllabus Ds 101 Discrete Structures 1 Syllabus Cortes Obe New Formats New Revisions 2018Uploaded byMELJUN CORTES, MBA,MPA