Sandeep Kohli

CAPACITOR:-A capacitor is a passive electronic component that stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field. In its simplest form, a capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulating material called thedielectric. The capacitance is directly proportional to the surface areas of the plates, and is inversely proportional to the separation between the plates. Capacitance also depends on the dielectric constant of the substance separating the plates. The standard unit of capacitance is the farad, abbreviated. This is a large unit; more common units are the microfarad, abbreviated µF (1 µF =10-6F) and the picofarad, abbreviated pF (1 pF = 10-12 F). Capacitors can be fabricated onto integrated circuit (IC)chips. They are commonly used in conjunction with transistors in dynamic random access memory (DRAM). The capacitors help maintain the contents of memory. Because of their tiny physical size, these components have low capacitance. They must be recharged thousands of times per second or the DRAM will lose its data. Large capacitors are used in the power supplies of electronic equipment o fall types, including computers and their peripherals. In these systems,the capacitors smooth out the rectified utility AC, providing pure, battery-likeDC.

TRANSDUCER:- A transducer is an electronic device that converts energy from one form to another. Common examples include microphones, loudspeakers, thermometers, position and pressure sensors, and antenna. Although not generally thought of as transducers, photocells, LEDs (light-emitting diodes), and even common light bulbs are transducers. Efficiency is an important consideration in any transducer. Transducer efficiency is defined as the ratio of the power output in the desired form to the total power input. Mathematically, if P represents the total power input and Q represents the power output in the desired form, then the efficiency E, as a ratio between 0 and 1, is given by: E = Q/P If E% represents the efficiency as a percentage, then: E% = 100Q/P No transducer is 100 percent efficient; some power is always lost in the conversion process. Usually this loss is manifested in the form of heat. Some antennas approach 100-percent efficiency. A well-designed antenna supplied with 100 watts of radio frequency (RF) power radiates 80 or 90 watts in the form of an electromagnetic field. A few watts are dissipated as heat in the antenna conductors, the feed line conductors and dielectric, and in objects near the antenna. Among the worst transducers, in terms of efficiency, are incandescent lamps. A 100-watt bulb radiates only a few watts in the form of visible light. Most of the power is dissipated as heat; a small amount is radiated in the UV (ultraviolet) spectrum.

RESISTOR:-A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit. Resistors can also be used to provide a specific voltage for an active device such as a transistor. All other factors being equal, in a direct-current (DC) circuit, the current through a resistor is inversely proportional to its resistance, and directly proportional to the voltage across it. This is the well-known Ohm's Law. In alternating-current (AC) circuits, this rule also applies as long as the resistor does not contain inductance or capacitance. Resistors can be fabricated in a variety of ways. The most common type in electronic devices and systems is the carbon-composition resistor. Fine granulated carbon (graphite) is mixed with clay and hardened. The resistance depends on the proportion of carbon to clay; the higher this ratio, the lower the resistance. Another type of resistor is made from winding Nichrome or similar wire on an insulating form. This component, called a wirewound resistor, is able to handle higher currents than a carbon-composition resistor of the same physical size. However, because the wire is wound into a coil, the component acts as an inductors as well as exhibiting resistance. This does not affect performance in DC circuits, but can have an adverse effect in AC circuits because inductance renders the device sensitive to changes in frequency.

INDUCTOR:- An inductor is a passive electronic component that storesenergy in the form of a magnetic field. In its simplest form, an inductor consistsof a wire loop or coil. The inductance is directly proportional to the number ofturns in the coil. Inductance also depends on the radius of the coil and on the type of material around which the coil is wound. For a given coil radius and number of turns, air coresresult in the least inductance. Materials such as wood, glass, and plastic - known as dielectric materials - are essentially the same as air for the purposes of inductor winding. Ferromagnetic substances such as iron, laminated iron, and powdered iron increase the inductance obtainable with a coil having a given number of turns. In some cases, this increase is on the order of thousands of times. The shape of the core is also significant. Toroidal (donut-shaped) cores provide more inductance, for a given core material andnumber of turns, than solenoidal (rod-shaped) cores. The standard unit of inductance is the henry, abbreviatedH. This is a large unit. More common units are the microhenry, abbreviated µH (1 µH =10-6H) and the millihenry, abbreviated mH (1 mH =10-3 H). Occasionally, the nanohenry (nH) is used (1 nH = 10-9 H). It is difficult to fabricate inductors onto integratedcircuit (IC) chips. Fortunately, resistors can be substituted for inductors in most microcircuit applications. In some cases, inductance can be simulated by simple electronic circuits using transistors, resistors, and capacitors fabricated onto ICchips. Inductors are used with capacitors in various wirelesscommunications applications. An inductor connected in series or parallel with a capacitor can provide discrimination against unwanted signals. Large inductors are used in the power

CURRENT:- Current is a flow of electrical charge carriers, usually electrons or electron-deficient atoms. The common symbol for current is the uppercase letter I. The standard unit is the ampere, symbolized by A. One ampere of current represents one coulomb of electrical charge (6.24 x 1018 charge carriers) moving past a specific point in one second. Physicists consider current to flow from relatively positive points to relatively negative points; this is called conventional current or Franklin current. Electrons, the most common charge carriers, are negatively charged. They flow from relatively negative points to relatively positive points. Electric current can be either direct or alternating. Direct current (DC) flows in the same direction at all points in time, although the instantaneous magnitude of the current might vary. In an alternating current (AC), the flow of charge carriers reverses direction periodically. The number of complete AC cycles per second is the frequency, which is measured in hertz. An example of pure DC is the current produced by an electrochemical cell. The output of a power-supply rectifier, prior to filtering, is an example of pulsating DC. The output of common utility outlets is AC. Current per unit cross-sectional area is known as current density. It is expressed in amperes per square meter, amperes per square centimeter, or amperes per square millimeter. Current density can also be expressed in amperes per circular mil. In general, the greater the current in a conductor, the higher the current density. However, in some situations, current density varies in different parts of an electrical conductor. A classic example is the so-called skin effect, in which current density is high near the outer surface of a conductor, and low near the center. This effect occurs with alternating currents at high frequencies. Another example is the current inside an active electronic component such as a field-effect transistor (FET).

VOLTAGE:- Voltage, also called electromotive force, is a quantitative expression of the potential difference in charge between two points in an electrical field. The greater the voltage, the greater the flow of electrical current (that is, the quantity of charge carriers that pass a fixed point per unit of time) through a conducting or semiconducting medium for a given resistance to the flow. Voltage is symbolized by an uppercase italic letter V or E. The standard unit is the volt, symbolized by a nonitalic uppercase letter V. One volt will drive one coulomb (6.24 x 1018) charge carriers, such as electrons, through a resistance of one ohm in one second. Voltage can be direct or alternating. A direct voltage maintains the same polarity at all times. In an alternating voltage, the polarity reverses direction periodically. The number of complete cycles per second is the frequency, which is measured in hertz (one cycle per second), kilohertz, megahertz, gigahertz, or terahertz. An example of direct voltage is the potential difference between the terminals of an electrochemical cell. Alternating voltage exists between the terminals of a common utility outlet. A voltage produces an electrostatic field, even if no charge carriers move (that is, no current flows). As the voltage increases between two points separated by a specific distance, the electrostatic field becomes more intense. As the separation increases between two points having a given voltage with respect to each other, the electrostatic flux density diminishes in the region between them.

OHM LAW Ohm's Law is the mathematical relationship among electric current, resistance, and voltage. The principle is named after the German scientist Georg Simon Ohm. In direct-current (DC) circuits, Ohm's Law is simple and linear. Suppose a resistance having a value of R ohms carries a current of I amperes. Then the voltage across the resistor is equal to the product IR. There are two corollaries. If a DC power source providing E volts is placed across a resistance of R ohms, then the current through the resistance is equal to E/R amperes. Also, in a DC circuit, if E volts appear across a component that carries I amperes, then the resistance of that component is equal to E/I ohms. Mathematically, Ohm's Law for DC circuits can be stated as three equations: E = IR I = E/R R = E/I When making calculations, compatible units must be used. If the units are other than ohms (for resistance), amperes (for current), and volts for voltage), then unit conversions should be made before calculations are done. For example, kilohms should be converted to ohms, and microamperes should be converted to amperes.

CONDUCTOR:- An electrical conductor is a substance in which electrical charge carriers, usually electrons, move easily from atom to atom with the application of voltage. Conductivity, in general, is the capacity to transmit something, such as electricity or heat. Know-IT-All Matt Johnston at STPCon2011: uTest and Mozilla release CaseConductor Matt Johnston of uTest discusses the release of... (SearchSoftwareQuality.com) arc flash An arc flash is an undesired electric discharge... (WhatIs.com) Pure elemental silver is the best electrical conductor encountered in everyday life. Copper, steel, gold, aluminum, and brass are also good conductors. In electrical and electronic systems, all conductors comprise solid metals molded into wires or etched onto circuit boards. Some liquids are good electrical conductors. Mercury is an excellent example. A saturated salt-water solution acts as a fair conductor. Gases are normally poor conductors because the atoms are too far apart to allow a free exchange of electrons. However, if a sample of gas contains a significant number of ions, it can act as a fair conductor. A substance that does not conduct electricity is called an insulator or dielectric material. Common examples include most gases, porcelain, glass, plastic, and distilled water. A material that conducts fairly well, but not very well, is known as a resistor. The most common example is a combination of carbon and clay, mixed

NOISE:- Noise is unwanted electrical or electromagnetic energy that degrades the quality of signals and data. Noise occurs in digital and analog systems, and can affect files and communications of all types, including text, programs, images, audio, and telemetry. In a hard-wired circuit such as a telephone-line-based Internet hookup, external noise is picked up from appliances in the vicinity, from electrical transformers, from the atmosphere, and even from outer space. Normally this noise is of little or no consequence. However, during severe thunderstorms, or in locations were many electrical appliances are in use, external noise can affect communications. In an Internet hookup it slows down the data transfer rate, because the system must adjust its speed to match conditions on the line. In a voice telephone conversation, noise rarely sounds like anything other than a faint hissing or rushing. Noise is a more significant problem in wireless systems than in hard-wired systems. In general, noise originating from outside the system is inversely proportional to the frequency, and directly proportional to the wavelength. At a low frequency such as 300 kHz, atmospheric and electrical noise are much more severe than at a high frequency like 300 megahertz. Noise generated inside wireless receivers, known as internal noise, is less dependent on frequency. Engineers are more concerned about internal noise at high frequencies than at low frequencies, because the less external noise there is, the more significant the internal noise becomes. Communications engineers are constantly striving to develop better ways to deal with noise. The traditional method has been to minimize the signal bandwidth to the greatest possible extent. The less spectrum space a signal occupies, the less noise

Types of noise and how they affect the network Noise is any undesired signal in a communication circuit. Another definition calls noise unwanted disturbances superimposed on a useful signal, which tends to obscure its information content. There are many varieties of noise; however, the four most important to the telecommunication/data communication technologist are thermal noise, intermodulation noise, crosstalk and impulse noise. Thermal noise occurs in all transmission media and communication equipment, including passive devices. It arises from random electron motion and is characterized by a uniform distribution of energy over the frequency spectrum with a Gaussian distribution of levels. Every equipment element and the transmission medium itself contribute thermal noise to a communication system if the temperature of that element or medium is above absolute zero. Whenever molecules heat above absolute zero, thermal noise will be present. The more heat generated or applied, the greater the level of thermal noise. Intermodulation (IM) noise is the result of the presence of intermodulation products. If two signals of frequencies F1 and F2 are passed through a nonlinear device or medium, the result will contain IM products that are spurious frequency energy components. These components may be inside or outside the frequency band of interest for a particular device. IM products may be produced from harmonics of the desired signals in question, either as products between the harmonics or between a harmonic of one of the signals and the other basic signal or between both signals themselves. The products result when two (or more) signals beat together or "mix."

Crosstalk refers to unwanted coupling between signal paths. There are essentially three causes of crosstalk: (1) electrical coupling between transmission media, such as between wire pairs on a voice-frequency (VF) cable, (2) poor control of frequency response (i.e., defective filters or poor filter design) and (3) nonlinear performance in analog (FDM) multiplex systems. Excessive level may exacerbate crosstalk. Analog transmission is distorted by crosstalk and it will deteriorate the BER performance of a digital path. Impulse noise is a noncontinuous series of irregular pulses or noise "spikes" of short duration, broad spectral density and of relatively high amplitude. In the language of the trade, these spikes are often called "hits." Impulse noise degrades telephony only marginally, if at all. However, it may seriously corrupt error performance of a data circuit. A transmission engineer in telecommunications is often called a noise fighter.

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