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(5th Ed)

Chapter 14

James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

What is Personality?
an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting four basic perspectives
Psychoanalytic Trait Humanistic Social-cognitive

The Psychoanalytic Perspective
From Freud’s theory which proposes that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality

The Psychoanalytic Perspective
technique of treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality sought to explain what he observed during psychoanalysis

The Psychoanalytic Perspective Free Association method of exploring the unconscious person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind. no matter how trivial or embarrassing .

but is retrievable into conscious awareness . wishes. feelings and memories Contemporary-information processing of which we are unaware Preconscious information that is not conscious.The Psychoanalytic Perspective Unconscious Freud-a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts.

demanding immediate gratification .Personality Structure Id a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives operates on the pleasure principle.

Personality Structure Superego the part of personality that presents internalized ideals provides standards for judgement and for future aspirations .

Personality Structure Ego the largely conscious. “executive” part of personality mediates among the demands of the id. superego and ego operates on the reality principle. satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain .

Personality Structure Ego Conscious mind Unconscious mind Superego Id Freud’s idea of the mind’s structure .

Personality Development Psychosexual Stages the childhood stages of development during which the pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones Oedipus Complex a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father .

biting.Personality Development Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Stage Oral (0-18 months) Anal (18-36 months) Phallic (3-6 years) Latency (6 to puberty) Genital (puberty on) Focus Pleasure centers on the mouth-sucking. coping with demands for control Pleasure zone is the genitals. chewing Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination. coping with incestuous sexual feelings Dormant sexual feelings Maturation of sexual interests .

Personality Development Identification the process by which children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos Gender Identity one’s sense of being male or female Fixation a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage. where conflicts were unresolved .

feelings. and memories from consciousness .Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Repression the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts.

to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psychic energy remains fixated . when faced with anxiety.Defense Mechanisms Regression defense mechanism in which an individual retreats.

Defense Mechanisms Reaction Formation defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings .

more threatening. unconscious reasons for one’s actions .Defense Mechanisms Projection defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others Rationalization defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real.

Defense Mechanisms Displacement defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet .

inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history .Neo-Freudians Alfred Adler importance of childhood social tension Karen Horney sought to balance Freud’s masculine biases Carl Jung emphasized the collective unconscious concept of a shared.

Assessing the Unconscious Projective Test a personality test. that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes . such as the Rorschach or TAT.

TAT .Assessing the Unconscious.

Assessing the Unconscious Rorschach Inkblot Test the most widely used projective test a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots .

Rorschach .Assessing the Unconscious.

as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports Personality Inventory a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors used to assess selected personality traits .The Trait Perspective Trait a characteristic pattern of behavior a disposition to feel and act.

The Trait Perspective Moody Anxious Rigid Sober Pessimistic Reserved Unsociable Quiet UNSTABLE Touchy Restless Aggressive Excitable Changeable Impulsive Optimistic Active melancholic choleric INTROVERTED EXTRAVERTED phlegmatic sanguine Passive Sociable Careful Outgoing Thoughtful Talkative Peaceful Responsive Controlled Easygoing Reliable Lively Carefree Even-tempered Leadership Calm Hans and Sybil Eysenck use two primary personality factors as axes for describing personality variation STABLE .

The Trait Perspective The “Big Five” Personality Factors Trait Dimension Description Emotional Stability Calm versus anxious Secure versus insecure Self-satisfied versus self-pitying Sociable versus retiring Fun-loving versus sober Affectionate versus reserved Extraversion Openness Imaginative versus practical Preference for variety versus preference for routine Independent versus conforming Soft-hearted versus ruthless Trusting versus suspicious Helpful versus uncooperative Organized versus disorganized Careful versus careless Disciplined versus impulsive Extraversion Conscientiousness .

The Trait Perspective Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use) now used for many other screening purposes .

The Trait Perspective Empirically Derived Test a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups such as the MMPI .

impulsive) Social introversion 10 (shy. suspiciousness) Psychasthenia 7 (anxious. guilt feelings) Schizophrenia 8 (withdrawn. and displaying deviant behaviors) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test profile 0 30 40 50 60 70 80 T-score .The Trait Perspective Hypochondriasis 1 (concern with body symptoms) Depression2 (pessimism. excited. depressed. hopelessness) Hysteria 3 (uses symptoms to solve problems) Psychopathic deviancy 4 (disregard for social standards) Masculinity/femininity 5 (interests like those of other sex) Paranoia 6 (delusions. bizarre thoughts) Hypomania 9 (overactive. inhibited) After treatment (no scores in the clinically significant range Clinically significant range Before treatment (anxious.

Evaluating the Trait Perspective Situational influences on behavior are important to consider People can fake desirable responses on self-report measures of personality Averaging behavior across situations seems to indicate that people do have distinct personality traits .

Humanistic Perspective Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) studied self-actualization processes of productive and healthy people (e. Lincoln) Self-Actualization the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved the motivation to fulfill one’s potential ..g.

Humanistic Perspective Carl Rogers (1902-1987) focused on growth and fulfillment of individuals requires three conditions: • genuineness • acceptance .unconditional positive regard • empathy Unconditional Positive Regard an attitude of total acceptance toward another person .

in an answer to the question. “Who am I?’ Self-Esteem one’s feelings of high or low self-worth Self-Serving Bias a readiness to perceive oneself favorably .Humanistic Perspective Self-Concept all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves.

Humanistic Perspective Individualism giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications Collectivism giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly .

often temporary or casual. social responsibilities and relationships Accommodate to reality Defined by social networks (duty-based) Few. confrontation acceptable Behavior reflects one’s personality and attitudes Collectivism Interdependent identity from belonging) Maintain connections. rights and liberties Change reality Defined by individuals (self-based) Many. close and enduring. fit in We--group goals and solidarity. harmony valued Behavior reflects social norms and roles Coping method Morality Relationships Attributing behavior .Humanistic Perspective Value Contrasts Between Individualism and Collectivism Concept Self Life task What matters Individualism Independent (identity from individual traits) Discover and express one’s uniqueness Me--personal achievement and fulfillment.

. etc.Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective Concepts like self-actualization are vague Emphasis on self may promote selfindulgence and lack of concern for others Theory does not address reality of human capacity for evil Theory has impacted popular ideas on childrearing. education. management.

Social-Cognitive Perspective Internal personal/ cognitive factors (liking high-risk activities) Reciprocal Determinism the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors Behavior (learning to bungee jump) Environmental factors (bungee-jumping friends) .

Social-Cognitive Perspective Personal Control our sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helpless External Locus of Control the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determine one’s fate .

Social-Cognitive Perspective Internal Locus of Control the perception that one controls one’s own fate Learned Helplessness the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events .

Social-Cognitive Perspective Built from research on learning and cognition Fails to consider unconscious motives and individual disposition Today. cognitive-behavioral theory is perhaps predominant psychological approach to explaining human behavior .

hard-to-test theory with enormous cultural impact A descriptive approach criticized as sometimes underestimating the variability of behavior from situation to situation A humane theory that reinvigorated contemporary interest in the self.Summary The Four Perspectives on Personality Perspective Psychoanalytic Behavior Springs From Unconscious conflicts between pleasure-seeking impulses and social restraints Expressing biologically influenced dispositions.Personality. criticized as underestimating the importance of emotions and enduring traits Trait Humanistic Processing conscious feelings about oneself in the light of one’s experiences Social-cognitive Reciprocal influences between (a)Questionnaire assessments people and their situation. such as extraversion or introversion Assessment Techniques Projective tests aimed at revealing unconscious motivations (a)Personality inventories that assess the strengths of different traits (b)Peer ratings of behavior patterns (a)Questionnaire assessments (b)Empathic interviews Evaluation A speculative. cognition. criticized as subjective and sometimes naively self-centered and optimistic Art interactive theory that integrates research on learning. and social behavior. of people’s feelings of control colored by perceptions of (b) Observations of people’s control behavior in particular situations .