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Grassland Quadrat Sampling and Physico-chemical Biological factors of Lake

• Grassland- terrestrial biome consisting mainly of grasses and few trees and shrubs. • Quadrat- a square or rectangular plot that encloses the sample • Species Area curve- a method used to determine the size of the quadrat • Species richness- refers to the abundance of the species • Species evenness- equal distribution of the species in a given area.

Species-Area Curve
• graph of relationship between number of species (richness) and area sampled • Use to determine the size of the the quadrat • Important in determining the diversity of the area. • applications – determine adequate community area – estimate sampling adequacy (no. of Community) – Compare the biodiversity (different species in an ecosystem

Species Area Curve

64 m2

16 m2
2 4 m2 8 m

32 m2

2 m2 1 m2

Species-Area Curve
Number of Species (Richness)




0 0 10 20 30 40




Quadrat Area (m


Quadrat Parameters
• Frequency-the frequency of quadrats occupied by a given species
number of quadrats in which species occurs • Frequency (F) = ---------------------------------------------------------- X 100 Total number of quadrats
frequency of a species Rel. Frequency (RF)= -------------------------------------------- X 100 total frequency of all species

Quadrat Parameters
• Abundance- compares the number of plants of that species with the total number of plants of all species in the study area:
number of plants of a certain species • Abundance (A) = ------------------------------------------------------- X 100 Total number of plants

Quadrat Parameters
• Density-closely related to abundance but more useful in estimating the importance of a species is the density. It is defined as the number of plants of a certain species per unit area:
number of plants of a certain species • Density (D) = --------------------------------------------------------------- X 100 Total area sampled density of a species • Relative density (RD)= -------------------------------------------- x 100 total density for all species

Quadrat Parameters
• Cover-the proportion of the total area occupied by the species. -also commonly called dominance:
Total area covered by a species Cover (C) = --------------------------------------------------------- X 100 Total area sampled

• Relative cover, like relative frequency and relative density, gives a better indication of the importance of a species than does the absolute value:
cover for a species • Relative Cover (RC) = -------------------------------------------- X 100 Total cover for all species

• Since it is considered as a grassland the most abundant is the grass e.g. carabao grass, lemon grass • Least abundant is the weeds e.g. Mimosa Makahiya • Importance Value- is used to determine the most abundant species by adding the relative values.

Definition of Terms

Lake Physico-chemical Factors

• Lake- a lentic freshwater ecosystem • Limnetic- refers to the water present in the lake • Benthic- refers to the bottom or floor of the aquatic ecosystem • Riparian- the edge of the lake; the boundary of the aquatic and terrestrial ecoystem

Limnetic Zone
• Parts of the limnetic zone 1. Epilimnion- upper layer of water where light can penetrate. Also known as photic zone 2. hypolimnion- lower layer of water where light cannot penetrate. Also known as aphotic zone 3. metalimnion- the boundary between the photic and aphotic zone. Also known as the compensation depth.

Benthic Zone
• Parts of the benthic zone 1. Littoral zone- portion covered with water and light reaches the substratum. 2. riparian zone- similar with supralittoral 3. benthos- refers to the organisms present in the benthic zone. 4. profundal zone- lower portion of the aphotic zone rich in organic materials.

Light Penetration
• Secchi Disc- the instrument use in measuring the light penetration.
Average light Penetration = disappearance + reappearance 2 Percent Light Penetration = Average Light Penetration x 100 • Total depth

Epilimnion- photosynthesis will take place; dissolved oxygen (DO) is abundant.

• Hypolimnion- respiration will take place; rich in CO2 • Metalimnion- equal amount of DO and CO2; also known as thermocline

Thermal Stratification
• The varying temperature of the strata of lake water.

• Thermal inversion-the overturn of water due to changing temperature of the water layer.

• Warm water will rise while cold water sinks. • What is the importance of thermal stratification and overturn? – Food distribution due to overturn

Total Suspended Solid
• Small particles present in the water like silt, plankton, etc. • Procedure: pre-weighed filter paper filtering the suspended solids then air dried and weigh the filter paper again. • TSS= Weight of Air dried filter paper- preweight of filter paper. • Importance: affects the light penetration, temperature and photosynthesis in the epilimnion

Salinity, TDS and Conductivity
• Instrument used salinometer or SCT meter • Salinity- amount of salts present in the water. • TDS- total dissolved solids- the elements present in the water e.g. Ca, Magnesium etc. • Conductivity- determines the ions present in the water. • Importance- the elements, compounds and ions are the source of minerals needed by plants and animals in the water.

Dissolved Oxygen
• Instrument : DO meter • The amount of oxygen traps by the molecules of water • Produced by the atmospheric diffusion and photosynthesis of plants. • Higher in epilimnion than hypolimnion. • Importance: used by organisms in respiration; resulted to fish kill if there is deficiency of DO.

Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Hardness
• Instrument used: Hach test strips • Nitrogen- building structures of organisms e.g. component of protein. Derived from decomposing organic materials, fixed by nitrogen fixing bacteria and fertilizers • Phosphorus- used in synthesis of ATP. Derived from decomposing organic materials, leaching of rocks and fertilizers. • Hardness-amount of Ca, Mg and other metallic elements in the water. Originated from decomposing organic materials, leaching of rocks

• Amount of hydronium ions in the water. • Low pH means acidic which is caused by nonmetallic oxide dissolved in water e.g. NO2, NO3, SO2, SO3 ,CO2 • Acidic lake reduced the DO and characteristic of eutrophic lake.

Aquatic Organisms
• Plankton-floating organisms 1. Phytoplankton- floating microscopic plants 2. Zooplankton-poor swimming animals
Plankton Total count= Actual Count x Enumeration Factor

Enumeration Factor=

1000 mm3____

(50 mm) (1 mm) (1mm) (3) Nekton- swimming organisms e.g fish Benthos- organism present in the floor of the lake



Achomosphaera neptuni

Achomosphaera ramulifera

Adnatosphaeridium multispinosum

Alisocysta margarita

• - large aquatic plants classified as: 1. submergent- plants attached to the substrate and remained under the water. 2. emergent plants- plants attached to the substrate but emerged above the water. 3. Floating plants- plants living on the surface of the water 4. periphyton- plants attached on the surface of the rocks 5. riparian plants- plants living on the edge of the lake.