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DATA BASE MANAGEMENT

OBJECTIVES
• Why do businesses have trouble finding the information they need in their information systems? • How does a database management system help businesses improve the organization of their information?

OBJECTIVES
• How do the principal types of database models affect the way businesses can access and use information? • What are the managerial and organizational requirements of a database environment? • What new tools and technologies can make databases more accessible and useful?

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS
• An effective information system provides users with timely, accurate and relevant information

Many organizations have inefficient information systems because of poor file management

1) • Byte: Group of bits that represents a single character . binary digit (0.ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT File Organization Terms and Concepts Data Hierarchy: • Bit: Smallest unit of data.

ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT File Organization Terms and Concepts • • • • Field: Group of words or a complete number Record: Group of related fields File: Group of records of same type Database: Group of related files .

ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT Data Hierarchy in a Computer System .

ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT Traditional File Processing .

ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT Problems with the Traditional File Environment • • • Data redundancy (duplicate data in multiple files) Inconsistency Program-Data dependence (any change in data requires a change in all programs that access the data) Lack of flexibility Poor security Lack of data-sharing and availability • • • .

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Database Management System (DBMS) • Creates and maintains databases • Acts as interface between application programs and physical data files • Eliminates requirement for data definition statements • Separates logical and physical views of data .

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT The Contemporary Database Environment .

e. create table Modification of data structure. alter table Deletions of data structure.g.THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Components of DBMS • Data definition language: Specifies content and structure of database and defines each data element • • • Creation of data structure.g.g. e. drop table . e.

update Deletion of data e. select Creation of new data e.g.THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT • Data manipulation language: Manipulates data in a database – – – – Retrieval of data e.g. and data characteristics . delete • Data dictionary: Stores definitions of data elements. insert Modification of data e.g.g.

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Sample Data Dictionary Report .

Advantages of the Database Approach 3-15 .

Costs or Risks of the Database Approach 3-16 .

the entity Student has a relationship to the entity Mark sheet in a University Student database ) – Weak entity – Strong entity • Entities are represented by rectangle 3-17 . objects.e. persons. places. (i.) • Have relationships to other entities (i.e. events.Terminology Entities • Things we store information about. etc.

Name. etc.Terminology Attributes • These are pieces of information about an entity (i.e. for the entity Student) – Simple or atomic – Composite – Single valued – Multi valued – Derived • Represented by oval shape 3-18 . Student ID.

Terminology Relationship: association between 2 or more entities (represented by a diamond box) • Degree of relationship – Binary – Ternary – Recursive • Cardinality ratio – One to one – One to many – Many to many • Participation constraints – Total participation – Partial participation 3-19 .

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Types of Databases • Relational DBMS • Hierarchical and Network DBMS • Object-Oriented Databases .

MS SQL Server .THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Relational DBMS • Represents data as two-dimensional tables called relations • Relates data across tables based on common data element • Examples: DB2. Oracle.

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Relational Data Model .

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Three Basic Operations in a Relational Database • Select: Creates subset of rows that meet specific criteria • Join: Combines relational tables to provide users with information • Project: Enables users to create new tables containing only relevant information .

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Three Basic Operations in a Relational Database .

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Hierarchical and Network DBMS Hierarchical DBMS • Organizes data in a tree-like structure • Supports one-to-many parent-child relationships • Prevalent in large legacy systems .

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Hierarchical DBMS .

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Hierarchical and Network DBMS Network DBMS • Expands on Hierarchical model by providing multiple paths among segments • M:N relationships are easier to implement • Difficult to design .

Essentials of Management Information Systems Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Network DBMS .

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Hierarchical and Network DBMS Disadvantages • Outdated • Less flexible compared to RDBMS • Lack support for ad-hoc and English language-like queries .

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Object-Oriented databases • Object-oriented DBMS: Stores data and procedures as objects that can be retrieved and shared automatically – Can store more complex data types – Relatively slow .

CREATING A DATABASE Designing Databases ENVIRONMENT • Entity-relationship diagram: Methodology for documenting databases illustrating relationships between database entities – Proposed by Peter in 1976 – Utility: • It maps well to relational model • Simple and easy to understand – To make E-R diagram: • Identify all entities and attributes • Identify relationship b/w entities and implement them .

CREATING A DATABASE An Entity-Relationship Diagram ENVIRONMENT .

but may work on several projects. social security no. a unique no. We keep each dependent’s name. which are not necessarily controlled by the same deptt. has a unique name & a unique no. and a single location • We store each employee’s name. is assigned to one deptt. for insurance purposes. address and salary. Each deptt. of each emp. controls a no. • We want to keep track of the deptt.E-R Diagram for the company database with the following description • The company is organized into deptt. of projects. each of which has a unique name. An emp.. • A deptt. age and relationship to the emp. .

CREATING A DATABASE An Normalized Relation of ORDER ENVIRONMENT Normalization: Process of creating small stable data structures from complex groups of data .

CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT Distributing Databases Centralized database • Used by single central processor or multiple processors in client/server network .

CREATING A DATABASE Distributing Databases ENVIRONMENT Distributed database • Stored in more than one physical location • Partitioned database • Duplicated database .

CREATING A DATABASE Distributed Databases ENVIRONMENT .

CREATING A DATABASE Management Requirements for Database Systems ENVIRONMENT .

DATABASE TRENDS Multidimensional Data Analysis On-line analytical processing (OLAP) • Multidimensional data analysis • Supports manipulation and analysis of large volumes of data from multiple dimensions/perspectives .

DATABASE TRENDS Multidimensional Data Model .

DATABASE TRENDS Data Warehousing and Data mining Data warehouse • Supports reporting and query tools • Stores current and historical data • Consolidates data for management analysis and decision making .

DATABASE TRENDS Components of a Data Warehouse .

DATABASE TRENDS Data Warehousing and Data mining Data mart • Subset of data warehouse • Contains summarized or highly focused portion of data for a specified function or group of users .

DATABASE TRENDS Benefits of Data Warehouses • Improved and easy accessibility to information • Ability to model and remodel the data .

DATABASE TRENDS Data Warehousing and Data mining Data mining • Tools for analyzing large pools of data • Find hidden patterns and infer rules to predict trends .

Reference Book: MIS by Laudon .