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SUBJECT : FORCED CONVECTION

**Presented By : RAHUL MONDAL -08
**

&

Click to edit Master subtitle style

UPENDRA MANDAL-09 3rd Year POWER ENGG.

Objective:

1.To determine experimentally Forced Convection Heat Transfer Co-efficient & Nu 2.To compare the theoretical Nu with the Experimental Nu Assumption 1.Steady State condition s:

2.Heat transfer only through forced convection

Photo of the Set up:

**Schematic Diagram of the Experimental Set up: Heat
**

er Ti n L=test length Tout

Orifice Valve

T1 T2 T3 Dia of the test part(D)

Heat flux

Direction of air flow

Pipe line

Pump

Convection

Convection is the mode of heat transfer due to the bulky motion of the medium. Forced Convection: Here the motion of the medium is governed by some external agent , as Blower or Forced Convection takes place due to the internal flow Fan. & External flow of the medium Heat transfer rate q” = hA( Ts - T ) W [ Newton’s cooling law ] h=heat transfer coefficient (W /m2K) (h is not a property. It depends on geometry ,nature of flow, thermodynamics properties etc.)

Convection rate equation

**Main purpose of convective heat transfer analysis is to determine:
**

• • •

q’’=heat flux = h(Ts - T) q’’ = -k(T/ y)y=0 Hence, h = [-k(T/ y)y=0] / (Ts T)

flow field temperature field in fluid heat transfer coefficient, h

The expression shows that in order to determine h, we must first determine the temperature distribution in the thin fluid layer that coats the wall.

Forced convection: Non-dimensional groupings

•

Nusselt No. Nu = hx / k = (convection heat transfer strength)/ (conduction heat transfer strength) Prandtl No. Pr = / = (momentum diffusivity)/ (thermal diffusivity) Reynolds No. Re = U x / = (inertia force)/(viscous force)

• •

Viscous force provides the dampening effect for disturbances in the fluid. If dampening is strong enough laminar flow Otherwise, instability turbulent flow critical Reynolds number

Empirical Correlations

**Observation Table: Sl no. V(volt) I(A) T1 T2 T3 h(m) 1. 49 0.26 40.5 40.4 40.3 2. 68 0.36 42 41.9 41.8 3. 92 0.53 44.3 44 43.9 Tin Tout
**

44.6 49 60.2 40.7 42.2 44.6 0.104 0.111 0.114

Step:1

:For Experimental Nu & h:

Calculatio n

Where d1= diameter of the delivery pipe A1= Cross sectional area of the pipe =1.256×10-3 M2 where d2= diameter of the orifice & A2=area of the orifice =3.14×10-4 M2

Surface area of the testing pipe = πdl = 0.02355 M2 Where d= diameter of the pipe. l= length of the test pipe

Step: 2

=8.6116×10-3 M3/s

= Volume flow rate of the air through the pipe = co-efficient of discharge of the orifice = cross sectional area of the pipe =area of the orifice

g =gravitational acceleration

=density of the water used in manometer at ambient temperature

ρ=density of the test fluid(air) at ambient temperature

Ste p:3

=9.5716×10-3 Kg/s

= density of the air at ambient temperature = mass flow rate or the test fluid (air) in the pipe =volume flow rate of the test fluid (air) in the pipe

Step :4

=37.6095 W

c p

= rate of heat transfer through the test part of the pipe = specific heat of the air at constant pressure at film temperature = Avg. temp of the air = mean temperature of the air at the inlet of the test section = mean temperature of the air at the outlet of the test section = mass flow rate of the air through the test part of the pipe

Where

T f =(Tin + Tout )/2

Step :5

=727.446 W/m2 k

=heat transfer rate through the test part of the pipe = surface area of the test section = average mean temperature of the air in the test part = average surface temperature of the pipe in the test part =Experimental heat transfer co-efficient of the test fluid (air)

Ste p:6

=666.1 6

=Experimental Nusselt Number =Experimental Heat transfer co-efficient = Diameter of the test part of the pipe =Thermal conductivity of the air at film temperature

Ste p:7

Calculation of Theoretical Nu & h

=17.552 m/s

Where V=Velocity of the air through the pipe =Volume flow rate of the air = Cross sectional area of the test section

Step :8

=25.306×10 3

= Reynolds Number of the air flow = density of the air at film temperature =diameter of the test section =co-efficient of viscosity of the air at film temperature = velocity of the air through the pipe

**Ste p:9 From Dittus-Boelter Equation:
**

=637.2 0

Where the range of validity: 0.7≤Pr≤160; Re≥10,000 ; L/D≥10 =Theoretical value of the Nusselt Number = Reynolds number of the air in the pipe = Prandtl Number of the air at film temp

Step :10

=(Nuth.Ka)/ D

= theoretical heat transfer co-efficient = theoretical Nusselt Number = thermal conductivity of the air at film temperature =Diameter or the test section

Step: 11

Final table: The final table contains the Nu exp & Nu th Sl. No. 1. 2. 3.

•

Nu exp 666.16 698.404 700.44

Nu th 637.16 670.18 666.305

There after we have to plot a graph in log-log paper

The Final Graph:

Gradient(m)= 0.75 General Correlation:

Experimental Curve

104 105 106

We get the value of “m” & “c” from the graph

The Experimental Correlation:

**Nuexp=0.368 Re0.75 Pr0.3
**

The Theoretical Correlation:

Application: 1. Among many ways to dissipate heat in electronic components, forced convection cooling is the most effective. 2. Forced convection is used in cooling towers in Power Plants & in other industries ( Forced Draft Fan. ) 3. It is also applicable for drying purpose(ie, in washing machine). 4. Forced convection can also be used for heating purpose etc.

THANK you

We are really very much obliged to all of them without whom this project can not be possible. Special thanks to –

Dr. Apurba kumar Santra Prof. Amitava Datta Mr. Bireswar Paul Mr. Atish Nandi Mr. Prakash Ghosh

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