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INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR AND PERSONALITY Prepared By: Ramesh Raman Rajhan A.N Rohan. S.

Koipallil Rinju Thomas Kameshwar Swamy Noor Mohammad Ratanlal Gorain Roshan. P. Jacob

INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR – ABILITY
 HOW MUCH EVER MOTIVATED WE ALL MAY BE, WE MAY NOT

ACT AS WELL AS SHAH RUKH KHAN / HRITHIK ROSHAN, BAT AS WELL AS SACHIN TENDULKAR, WRITE AS WELL AS J.K.ROWLING, OR PLAY GUITAR AS WELL AS JIMI HENDRIX.  EVERYONE HAS CERTAIN STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES IN TERMS OF ABILITY, THAT MAKE HIM/HER SUPERIOR/INFERIOR TO OTHERS IN PERFORMING CERTAIN TASKS OR ACTIVITIES.  THE MANAGEMENT’S ROLE IN AN ORGANISATION IS TO KNOW HOW PEOPLE DIFFER IN THEIR ABILITIES AND USING THIS KNOWLEDGE TO IMPROVE THE EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE.  INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR IS MAJORLY MEASURED BY ONE’S ABILITY.

reasoning and problem-solving. .  It’s a current assessment of what one can do. b)Physical – for physical activties.  Ability is basically of two types – a)Intellectual – for mental activities like thinking.INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR – ABILITY  “Ability” means an individual’s capacity to do the various tasks in a job.

if its spatial orientation were changed ( Eg. CAD Designer )  Memory – Retain and recall past experiences ( Eg. : Plant Manager – following / implementing corporate policies)  Perceptual Speed – Identify visual similarities quickly & accurately( Eg.: Market Researcher – to forecast future demand for a product )  Deductive Reasoning – Use logic and assess the implications of an argument ( Eg.: Interior Decorator.: Salespersons – remembering customer names.INTELLECTUAL ABILITY  Numerical Aptitude – Do speedy and accurate arithmetic (Eg. product list and specifications etc.) .: Plant Supervisor – choosing among different suggestion given by employees )  Spatial Visualization – Imagine how an object would look.: Accountant – computing Sales Tax on a set of items)  Verbal Comprehension – Understand what is read/heard and the relation between two or more words ( Eg.: Fire/Accident Investigators – while identifying clues at the site of the fire/accident)  Inductive Reasoning – Identify logical sequence in a problem ( Eg.

 Balance – Maintain equilibrium despite action of disruptive external forces.: Professional body-builders).: Circus Jugglers ).  Explosive Strength – Expend maximum energy in one or a few explosive acts.  Dynamic Flexibility – Make rapid. particularly the abdominal muscles ( Eg.  Trunk Strength – Exert muscular strength using the trunk.: Professional Wrestlers )  Extent Flexibility – Move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible ( Eg. repeated flexing movements ( Eg.: Long distance runners/cyclists ) .(Eg.: Yoga Experts ).: Tightrope walkers )  Stamina – Exert prolonged effort over a period of time.  Static Strength – Exert force against external objects ( Eg.PHYSICAL ABILITY  Dynamic Strength – Exert muscular force repeatedly over a period of time ( Eg.: Daily Wage Labourers ).: Dancers)  Body C0-ordination – Coordinate actions of different parts of the body ( Eg.: Home re-locating assistants ).( Eg.(Eg.

Emotionally Stable. Strategy & Development and was promoted to President & CFO. Conscientious and open to experiences. (worldwide). She is described as Sociable. which helps her to be highly successful and well-performing at her job. Agreeable.Indira Nooyi. . She joined the company in 1994. as Senior Vice-President.PERSONALITY Mrs. CEO and chairperson of PepsiCo. scores very highly on all aspects of personality. before moving into the top post at PepsiCo.

while others are aggressive? Are certain personality types better suited for some jobs rather than others?  It is a well known fact that our personalities shape our behaviours.PERSONALITY Why are some people quiet and passive.  A better understanding of one’s personalities can help to understand their behaviour .

”  Sum Total of all the ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.PERSONALITY  Dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person’s psychological system. .  Gordon Allport – “ Personality is the dynamic organisation within the individual. o those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment.

One drawback is that the person may not know so much about the subject of the survey to comment on him. Moreover. another un-biased person. if the subject’s close friend/enemy takes the survey. is asked to take the survey. Also. . he/she may also have been in a good/bad mood while giving the survey. he may again “fake good / fake bad”. like a co-worker. The drawback of this is that the person may not give a true picture or “fake good” to create a good impression on the management. b)Observer Rating Surveys: Instead of the person himself/herself taking the survey. He/She is expected to give honest and conscientious answers. affecting the survey’s accuracy.PERSONALITY Ways to measure personality: a)Self-Report Surveys: These are undertaken by the individual himself/herself.

TYPES OF PERSONALITY  JUNG’S TYPOLOGY  KRETSCHMER’S TYPOLOGY  SHELDON’S TYPOLOGY  SPRENGER’S TYPOLOGY .

and they are more prone to boredom when they are by themselves. but also relishes time alone and away from the crowd. playing video games. Introverts tend to be more reserved and less outspoken in large groups. though he or she may enjoy interactions with close friends. writer. talkative. sales. Ambiversion is a term used to describe people who fall more or less directly in the middle and exhibit tendencies of both groups. An introvert is likely to enjoy time spent alone and find less reward in time spent with large groups of people. along with some more reserved outdoor activities such as fishing. and business or political groups. assertive. tinkering. composer. sculptor. and using computers. public demonstrations. music.JUNG’S TYPOLOGY  Envisaged by Carl Gustav Jung. engineer. An extraverted person is likely to enjoy time spent with people and find less reward in time spent alone. They take pleasure in activities that involve large social gatherings. An ambivert is normally comfortable with groups and enjoys social interaction. and inventor are all highly introverted. teaching.  He theorised that there were basically two types of personalities – Introverts & Extroverts. drawing. community activities. Extraverts tend to enjoy human interactions and to be enthusiastic. They tend to be energized when around other people. a Swiss psychiatrist. especially observed in developing children and adolescents. watching movies and plays. such as parties. They often take pleasure in solitary activities such as reading. and gregarious. Trust is usually an issue of significance: a virtue of utmost importance to an introvert choosing a worthy companion. writing. . managing and brokering are fields that favor extraversion. The archetypal artist. Politics. They prefer to concentrate on a single activity at a time and like to observe situations before they participate.

easy fatigability. . They have a fit /trim body and undertake regular physical activity and are always healthy.  Kretschmer divided personality into two "constitutional groups":     Schizoid and Cycloid The Schizoids consist of the Asthenic and the Cycloids consist of the Atheletic & Pycnic types of personality. sense of vulnerability.KRETSCHMER’S TYPOLOGY  Envisaged by Ernst Kretschmer. Persons with Asthenic Personality will have chronic weakness. Persons with Athletic Personality are neither too thin nor obese. a German psychiatrist. Persons with Pycnic Personality will have chronic obesity. perpetual laziness and resist from any physical activity/exercise. little ambition or aggression.

a wide waist and a large bone structure. and Ectomorphic. usually referred to as slim. . usually referred to as muscular. Mesomorphs are predisposed to build muscle but not store fat. Mesomorphic. wide shoulders with a narrow waist. an American     Psychologist. usually referred to as fat. solid torso. Ectomorphs are not predisposed to store fat or build muscle. Endomorphs are predisposed to storing fat. Ectomorphic: characterized by long and thin muscles/limbs and low fat storage. low fat levels. Endomorphic: characterized by increased fat storage. Sheldon assigned people into three categories Endomorphic. Mesomorphic: characterized by medium bones.SHELDON’S TYPOLOGY  Envisaged by William Herbert Sheldon.

 Economic personalities are very money-minded. Scientists are an example of this type. All they think about is RELIGION. They are inquisitive by nature and try to always learn new things.  Theoretical personalities are always theory/fact oriented. . All they think about is SOCIETY.SPRENGER’S TYPOLOGY  There are 5 types of Sprenger personalities – Theoretical. They always take part in political rallies/demonstrations and show keen interest in the political scenario of their country/the world. Stock-brokers are an example of this type. All they think about is POLITICS.  Aesthetic personalities are always beauty-oriented. Aesthetic. All they think about is BEAUTY. Political. Anna Hazare is an example of such a person. All they think about are FACTS/THEORIES. All they think about is MONEY – how to make more & more money.  Religious personalities are always religion-oriented. Economic.  Political personalities are always politics-oriented. Painters are an example of this type. They always take part in religious rallies and want to learn more about other religions.  Social personalities are always society-oriented. Social & Religious. They always take part in issues concerning the social development and always think of the benefit of the society at large.

MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI)  Psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions.Thinking(T) Vs Feeling(F) 4. namely: 1.Sensing(S) Vs Intuitive (N) 3. during World War II.Judging(J) Vs Perceiving(P) . Isabel Briggs Myers.  Originally developed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter.Extraverted(E) Vs Introverted (I) 2.  MBTI sorts some of these psychological differences into four opposite pairs.

Judging personalities want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. They may be more interested in future possibilities. To rebuild their energy. consensus and fit. . that can be associated with other information (either remembered or discovered by seeking a wider context or pattern). Those who prefer thinking tend to decide things from a more detached standpoint. They tend to trust those flashes of insight that seem to bubble up from the unconscious mind. those who prefer intuition tend to trust information that is more abstract or theoretical. On the other hand. on balance. They tend to distrust hunches. They prefer to look for details and facts. away from activity. which seem to come "out of nowhere”. Conversely. then act.MBTI     People who prefer extraversion draw energy from action: they tend to act. those who prefer introversion expend energy through action: they prefer to reflect. introverts need quiet time alone. extraverts need breaks from time spent in reflection. information that can be understood by the five senses. logical. their motivation tends to decline. considering the needs of the people involved. Those who prefer feeling tend to come to decisions by associating or empathizing with the situation. causal. tangible and concrete: that is. the greatest harmony. consistent and matching a given set of rules. then reflect. To rebuild their energy.Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous. looking at it 'from the inside' and weighing the situation to achieve. then reflect again. then act further. If they are inactive. The Individuals who prefer sensing are more likely to trust information that is in the present. measuring the decision by what seems reasonable.

Extraversion . Conscientiousness – Tendency to show self-discipline. emotion. such as anger. or vulnerability. depression. anxiety.BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS  Five broad domains or dimensions of human personality. curiosity. . unusual ideas. act dutifully.Tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others. Extraversion. adventure. planned rather than spontaneous behaviour. Agreeableness – Tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. and Neuroticism (OCEAN) Openness – Appreciation for art. and variety of experience.  The Big five factors are Openness. Neuroticism – Tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily.      Agreeableness. and aim for achievement. Conscientiousness.

PERSONALITY TYPES  Machiavellianism  Narcissm  Self-Monitoring  Risk-Taking  Type A & Type B  Pro-Active  High-Flyers .OTHER MISC.

and an inflated sense of self-importance and selfishness.Tendency to closely monitor oneself in order to ensure appropriate or desired public appearances.Willingness to exploit others. fully aware of the consequences. High-Flyers – People with executive potential. Narcissism . Proactive behaviour involves acting in advance of a future situation. . PERSONALITY TYPES  Machiavellianism . It means taking control and making things happen rather than just adjusting to a situation or waiting for something to happen.Used to describe a person's tendency to deceive      and manipulate other people for their personal gain. change-oriented and self-initiated behavior in the work place. rather than just reacting. Pro-Active . They may take up critical leadership positions/roles. Such people take quick decisions. Risk-Taking – Willingness to take chances. Self-Monitoring .MISC.Anticipatory.

and hate both delays and ambivalence. People with Type B personalities are generally patient. People with Type A personalities are often high-achieving "workaholics" who multi-task.which causes stress and an achievement-driven mentality. push themselves with deadlines. controlling. highly competitive. . easy-going.TYPE A & TYPE B PERSONALITIES  Type A individuals are ambitious. impatient. relaxed. preoccupied with his or her status and time-conscious. business-like. and at times lacking a sense of urgency. aggressive.  Type B individuals are a perfect contrast to those with Type A personalities.

DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY BIOLOGICAL OR INNATE SOCIAL OR ENVIRONMENTAL .

Pineal etc.) Non hereditary biological factors: Food deprivation Drugs .BIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS      Heredity Brain Physical features Glands( Thyroid. Pituitary. Adrenal.

IV. V. VI. First five years of life Home influence Neighbourhood School Economic factor Cultural factors . II.SOCIAL DETERMINANTS I. III.

.  Correct identification of the personality type will lead to both individual and organisational growth.  We have realised the importance of the management making a correct assessment of an employee’s personality type.CONCLUSION  We have thus seen the various types of personalities.