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# EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

The Cu hemi.; fixed on a flat plat non conducting plate; is heated to a constant temp. by a vertical water jacket surrounding it. A test disc(Cu), is fixed to the plate in such a manner, so that it is completely enclosed by the hemi. the water in this tank has to be heated up to desired temp. By adjusting this knob we allow the water to enter into the container containing hemisphere surface

By adjusting this knob we can see the temp. of diff. parts of the hemisphere surface & the temp. of test disc & the tank.

LINE DRAWNING
Copper Hemisphere(T1)
 During the experiment the temperature of the hemisphere generally falls down by a considerable amount. So the temp of the wall(T1) should be taken as the average of the initial and final value.

Copper Disc(T2)

EQUIVALENT NETWORK DAIGRAM
Q EB(T1)
R1

J1

R2

J2

R3

EB(T2)

Here,  EB(T1) & EB(T2) are blackbody emissive power at Temperature T1 & T2 respectively.

 J1 & J2 are radiosity of surface 1(Hemisphere) and surface 2(disc) respectively.

1-ε1
R1 =

1
R2 =

1-ε2
R3 =

A1ε1

A2F21

A2ε2

• R1 & R3 are the surface resistances and R2 is the space resistance. • A1 & A2 are the surface area of the hemisphere & disc respectively. • ε1 & ε2 are the emissivity of the surfaces respectively. • F21 is the form/view factor of surface 2 with respect to surface 1 i.e.; the fraction of radiation energy emitted from surface 2(Disc) which incidents directly on surface 1(hemisphere) which in this case is equal to 1. •Now, the net radiation heat energy coming from surface 1 to surface 2 per unit time, EB(T1) – EB(T2) Q= = R1+R2+R3

σ{(T1)4 – (T2)4}
1-ε1 A1ε1 + 1 A2F21 + 1-ε2 = A2ε2

σ{(T1)4 – (T2)4}
1-ε2 1 1 A2 1-ε1 + + A1 ε1 A2 F21 ε2

(

)

= A2ε2σ{(T1)4 – (T2)4} [Because A2<<A1 and F21 =1]

again, Q=mc(dT/dt)

[where, m= mass of Cu disc; c=sp.heat of Cu]

• Therefore, mc(dT/dt)=A2ε2σ{(T1)4 – (T2)4} --------(i) • The temp. of the disc is noted down with respect to time, And thus an 2nd order polynomial equation showing T as a function of t (T=at2+bt+c) is derived. Now for a particular time instant we have to find the value of (dT/dt) and T2 and substituting these values in equation (i), we will get the value of Stefan boltzmann constant,σ. • We have to repeat the experiment for several times in order to minimize the error.

DISCUSSIONS
While performing the experiment we have neglected other modes of heat transfer i.e.; conduction and advection. • The air present between the disc and the hemisphere is assumed to be a non-participating medium. • The hemisphere and the disc are considered to be opaque. That is surfaces are non transparent. • The surfaces are assumed to be diffuse surfaces such that they emit & reflect equally in all direction.

The hemisphere and the disc are considered to be gray surface which ensures that the radiative properties i.e.; emissivity, reflectivity and absorptivity are independent of wavelength. Thus from kirchoff’s law,α=ε(total hemispherical emissivity is equal to total hemispherical absorptivity for a particular temp.) • The surfaces of both the hemisphere and the disc are isothermal. • Both the incoming and outgoing radiation are uniform over each surface.

THANKs
To all of our respected teachers, supervisors and our classmates