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Prof. Abhijit Mukherjee

Dept. of Geology and Geophysics IIT Kharagpur

What is WASTE
It is a matter for which a specific owner ceases to have use for it. It is also any unwanted or discarded matter. It can be in a solid, liquid or in a gaseous form. A product, material or container is not considered waste until someone throws it away.

What Is Solid Waste

Any unwanted or discarded materials resulting from residential, commercial, agricultural and household is considered as solid waste Waste management is the collection, transport , processing, recycling or disposal and monitoring of waste materials

Classification of Solid Waste

garbage rubbish, ashes, dead animals, industrial waste etc. waste: Industrial, hospital waste certain types of household waste waste: Waste from nuclear power plant, nuclear reactor, atomic research centre etc.
Radio-active Hazardous Refuse:


waste Street waste Trade waste

Sources of Solid Waste

All living thing creates waste

In natural systems, trees animals and other organisms contribute to waste

Human creates waste as they alter natural system through extraction, processing and use of natural resources. Each person creates approx. 44 tons of waste per year and generates 90,000 pounds of waste in a lifetime.

Sources of Solid Waste (cont.)

Municipal: Street sweeping, sewage treatment plant waste, waste from school and other institutions. Domestic: Garbage, rubbish and occasional large waste from house. Commercial: From different stores and offices. Industrial: From manufacturing plants. Mining: From coal mining, stripmining etc. Agricultural: From farms grasslands and gardens.

Sources of Wastes


Sources of Wastes


Commerce and Industry

Different Types of Solid Waste


Solid Waste Industrial Waste Hazardous Waste Hospital Waste Construction and Demolition Waste Waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) Agricultural Waste

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

Municipal solid waste consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets. Mainly from residential and commercial complexes. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle there is rapid increase and change in quantity and quality of municipal solid waste.

MSW (contd.)

In 1947 cities and towns in India generated an estimated 6 million tones of solid waste; in 1997 it was about 48 million tones. More than 25% of the municipal solid waste is not collected at all; 70% of the Indian cities lack adequate capacity to transport it and there are no sanitary landfills to dispose of the waste.

MSW (contd.)

Over the last few years, the consumer market has flourished with products being packed in cans, aluminum foils, plastics, and other such non-biodegradable items that cause incalculable harm to the environment. In India, some municipal areas have banned the use of plastics and they seem to have achieved success.


Biodegradable waste: food and kitchen waste, green waste, paper. Recyclable material: paper, glass, bottles, cans, etc. Inert waste: construction and demolition waste, rocks, debris etc. Composite wastes: waste clothing, Tetra Paks, waste plastics such as toys. Domestic hazardous waste: medication, e-waste, paints, chemicals, light bulbs, fluorescent tubes, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries

Composition of Municipal Waste

Hazardous waste

Industrial and hospital waste is considered hazardous as they may contain toxic substances Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to humans, animals, and plants; They are corrosive, highly inflammable, or explosive; and react when exposed to certain things such as gases India generates around 7 million tons of hazardous wastes every year

Hazardous waste (contd.)

Household wastes that can be categorized as hazardous waste include old batteries, shoe polish, paint tins, old medicines, and medicine bottles. Hospital waste contaminated by chemicals used in hospitals is considered hazardous (e.g. formaldehyde and phenols, mercury in thermometers or equipment). In the industrial sector, the major generators of hazardous waste are the metal, chemical, paper, pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods industries.

Hospital waste

Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals and also in the research activities It may include wastes like sharps, soiled waste, disposables, anatomical waste, cultures, discarded medicines, chemical wastes, etc.
Disposable syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc.

It is estimated that of the 4 kg of waste generated n a hospital at least 1 kg would be infected

Electronic Waste

E-waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world. In developed countries it equals 1% of total solid waste generation and is expected to grow to 2% very soon. In developing countries, it ranges 0.01% to 1% of the total municipal solid waste generation. Environmental issues and trade associated with Ewaste at local, trans boundary and international level has driven many countries to introduce interventions.

Electronic Waste (contd.)

In China and India, annual generation per capita is less than 1 kg, but is growing at an exponential pace. The increasing obsolescence rates of electronic products added to the huge import of junk electronics from abroad create complex scenario Obsolescence rate in India for the year 2005 has been estimated to be 15 thousand tons. This is expected to exceed 8 lakh tons by 2012.

Solid waste management -Objectives


hygiene and health Environmental pollution and contamination Reuse ,Recovery and Recycle Energy generation Sustainable development Aesthetics To make world clean

Key issue involved


in population and increasing garbage generation Waste collection system Waste per capita Environment Proper management Scientific processing of the waste material depending on their nature Developing infrastructure for solid waste disposal and processing developing information collection and processing system

Solid waste management tree








Affects our health Affects our socio-economic conditions Affects our coastal and marine environment Affects our climate Foul smell Increase is disease transmitting vectors Global warming Eutrophication Ground water contamination

Solid Waste

Classification of Wastes

Solid waste- vegetable waste, kitchen waste, household waste etc. E-waste- discarded electronic devices like computer, TV, music systems etc. Liquid waste- water used for different industries e.g., tanneries, distillaries, thermal power plants Plastic waste- plastic bags, bottles, buckets etc. Metal waste- unused metal sheet, metal scraps etc. Nuclear waste- unused materials from nuclear power plants


Large quantities of solid waste are subjected to uncontrolled, unscientific and incomplete combustion which in turns results in release of no. of pollutants in atmosphere which cause air pollution. Large quantities of chemicals are quickly pushed into drains rivers causing immense damage to man health and ecology. Dumping of agricultural solid waste may pollute streams and waterways. Pollution of ground water which takes place when leachate from refuse dump enters in to surface or ground water. Municipal workers are found to be infected due to intentional parasites.

Mining solid waste is most dangerous particularly for the mine workers. They suffer from toxic reactions in the physiological process of human body. Bronchitis, throat blocking, lung cancer, headache diseases etc. Solid waste produces foul smell, breeds, insects and organism besides aesthetic value of the land. Solid waste changes the properties of air, soil and water. Solid waste creates the water pollution problems.

Solid Waste Treatment

Waste Prevention and Minimisation Re-use Recycle Composting Land filling Note:- Collection of solid waste is the 1st part of solid waste treatment


Waste collection is the component of waste management which results in the passage of a waste material from the source of production to either the point of treatment final disposal. Waste collection also includes the kerbside collection of recyclable materials that technically are not waste, as part of a municipal landfill diversion program.

What should be done

Apply 3-R Principle Use waste as source of power generation

3-R Principle

REDUCE The amount of waste generated can be reduce through our small efforts Things that last longer, things that can be used more than once REUSE We can reuse many things before we through them. Polythene bags, clothing, shoes, containers etc. RECYCLE Many items such paper, cans and plastics bottle can be recycled to use again.


- Reduce office paper waste by implementing a formal policy to duplex all draft reports and by making training manuals and personnel information available electronically. - Improve product design to use less materials. - Redesign packaging to eliminate excess material while maintaining strength. - Work with customers to design and implement a packaging return program. - Switch to reusable transport containers.

Reducing waste is often the cheapest option


What should be done

- Reuse corrugated moving boxes internally. - Reuse office furniture and supplies, such as interoffice envelopes, file folders, and paper. - Use durable towels, tablecloths, napkins, dishes, cups, and glasses. - Use incoming packaging materials for outgoing shipments. - Encourage employees to reuse office materials rather than purchase new ones.

Ways to Reuse Using durable coffee mugs. Using cloth napkins or towels. Refilling bottles. Reusing boxes. Purchasing refillable pens and pencils

Advantages of Reuse

Energy and raw materials savings as replacing many single use products with one reusable one reduces the number that need to be manufactured. Reduced disposal needs and costs. Refurbishment can bring sophisticated, sustainable, well paid jobs to underdeveloped economies. Cost savings for business and consumers as a reusable product is often cheaper than the many single use products it replaces. Some older items were better handcrafted and appreciate in value.

Disadvantages of Reuse
Reuse often requires cleaning or transport, which have environmental costs. Some items, such as freon appliances or infant auto seats, could be hazardous or less energy efficient as they continue to be used. Sorting and preparing items for reuse takes time, which is inconve

Benefits of Recycling

Conserves resources for our children's future. Prevents emissions of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants. Saves energy. Supplies valuable raw materials to industry. Creates jobs. Stimulates the development of greener technologies. Reduces the need for new landfills and incinerators

What should be done..

- old books - old clothes - old computers - excess building materials - old equipment to local organizations

What should be done.

Employee Education
- Develop an office recycling procedures packet. - Send out recycling reminders to all employees including environmental articles. - Train employees on recycling practices prior to implementing recycling programs. - Conduct an ongoing training process as new technologies are introduced and new employees join the institution.

Municipal solid waste disposal methods

Composting Sanitary

landfill Incineration and pyrolysis Reuse, recovery and recycle

Aerobic decomposition of organic matter by bacteria and fungi To ensure a reasonable composting rate following parameters are to be maintained Temp-25- 50 0 C pH 5- 8 Moisture -50 -70% The material to be composted has to be segregated to remove non bio-degradable materials like glass , plastics ,metals and alloys



proper mix of nutrients like animal waste, sewage sludge is necessary to ensure proper growth of bacteria and fungi Excess compaction may be avoided Porous structure should be maintained to ensure free circulation of air This mixture is arranged in windrows of about 2.5 m width Turned twice a week


6 weeks Color of mass becomes dark and organic matter in the solid waste transforms to a stable humus Continuous aeration and mixing Composted solid waste is a good nutrient and can be used as a manure after addition of certain conditioners

process takes about 4 to

Composting recycles organic waste


Benefits of CompostingKeeps organic wastes out of landfills. Provides nutrients to the soil. Increases beneficial soil organisms (e.g., worms and centipedes). Suppresses certain plant diseases. Reduces the need for fertilizers and pesticides. Protects soils from erosion. Assists pollution remediation

Land filling
Features Careful

and scientific site selection Controlled dumping Compaction of waste Provision for collecting leachates

Land filling..

wastes are degraded by soil microorganisms Microbes utilize the oxygen present inside the landfill Followed by anaerobic decomposition Water soluble organic compounds generated in this process percolates through the landfill soils

Land filling.

occupied by the land fill becomes unproductive Insects, rodents, scavenger birds, bad odor are some of the aesthetic problems associated with sanitary landfill Emission of methane and CO2 and leachate contamination of ground water and soil are the environmental issues connected with sanitary landfill


Thermal Process
Controlled combustion or conversion by application of heat Incineration Organic matter in the solid waste is burnt in excess oxygen to produce gaseous products and a stable incombustible residue Considerable reduction in the volume of the waste Land required for the landfill vastly reduced

Thermal Process

can be easily and safely disposed High capital and operation costs, emission of air pollutants Air pollutants can be removed by scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators Care should be taken to remove polymeric materials since toxic dioxin is generated during incineration

Thermal Process.

Pyrolysis The combustible organic matter in the solid waste decompose thermally in a pyrolysis reactor kept at a temp of 600- 10000C in an oxygen free environment The pyrolysis process yields compounds like tar ,oils gaseous phases containing fuel gases like hydrogen ,methane, CO etc. Solid residue will be carbon and inert materials like glass , metals ,silca etc. Pyrolysis produces less emissions and produces fuel gas as a byproduct Chlorine contained polymers also can be handled

Advantages of thermal process

Complete destruction of pathogenic bacteria. No odour and dust nuisance. Cost recovery by selling steam power. Can be located near the city so less transportation required. Less space for disposal.

Disadvantages of thermal process

Costly required lot of technical knowledge. Waste should have high calorific value. Disposal by dumping in sea. The bulky and lighter parts dont settle down. Emission of gases from incinerator plant creates air pollution problems



common hazardous waste treatment facilities, incineration, pyrolysis, detoxification, neutralization can be carried out and the waste is further concentrated stabilized and solidified and ultimately disposed in a secure landfill

Hazardous waste includes many dangerous substances

Legally, a hazardous waste is any discarded material, liquid or solid, that contains substances known to be:
fatal to humans or laboratory animals in low doses; toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic to humans or other life-forms; ignitable with a flash point less than 60C; corrosive; or explosive or highly reactive (undergoes violent chemical reactions either by itself or when mixed with other materials).

Federal legislation regulates hazardous waste

Two important federal laws regulate hazardous waste management and disposal in the United States.
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA, pronounced rickra) of 1976. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund Act), passed in 1980 and modified in 1984 by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), is aimed at rapid containment, cleanup, or remediation of abandoned toxic waste sites.

Biomedical Waste Management

Biomedical Wsate Waste from hospital, clinics, research laboratories, animal husbandry facilities etc Types of wastes Human anatomical wastes Animal wastes Microbiology and biotechnological wastes (cell cultures, toxins, vaccines) Waste sharps (needles, syringes) Discarded medicines and drugs Soiled waste (contaminated with blood and body fluids including cotton dressings)

Treatment /Disposal methods

Incineration Deep

burial Secured landfilling Chemical disinfection Steam sterilization (Auto claving) Thermal deactivation Irradiation and microwave treatment

Secured Landfilling

Steam sterilization is also known as autoclaving The waste is placed in a sealed chamber and exposed to steam at a preset temperature and pressure for a specified time Processing temp is about 1210C with processing time of around 12 minutes There is no volume reduction of waste Generation of offensive odor and toxic emissions are also possible For large volumes of wastes continuous sterilization units have been developed

Involves treating the medical wastes with liquid chemical disinfectant The wastes have to be prepared by grinding them therefore the chemical disinfectant can penetrate and disinfect the entire mass The particle size, porosity and permeability Will affect the process of disinfection

Chemical disinfection

Thermal deactivation

Involves raising the temp to such a level that all infectious agents are destroyed This process is used mainly in treating liquid wastes which is heated to a preset temperature for a specified period and then is destroyed Irradiation is a process by which ultraviolet or ionizing radiation is used for destroying infectious diseases. The waste is first shredded and sprayed with water The mass is then heated with microwave radiation under high temperature

Color coded bins

Disposal Bin System

Have Bio Hazard Label on red, yellow, blue and white bins, Cytotoxic Label on black bin. Collect the domestic waste (eatables, wrappers, fruit peels, papers etc.) in green bin Yellow bins needles syringes Dispose body parts which has been segregated in yellow bin / bag by handing over to Common Biomedical Waste Treatment Facility if available or otherwise Incinerate it. Dont dispose infectious waste into black and green bin. Waste sharps white container


E-waste management Reuse--- repairing or upgrading the used electronic equipment Donate ---- donating reusable electronic equipments to schools or other non profit organizations Recycle---- take back programs of electronic goods, heavy metals, plastics, glass etc can be recycled Dispose --- disposed in secure landfills ---pretreatment is necessary --- size reduction techniques, like crushing ,grinding or mechanical compaction is used