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Dr. Mario A. Fetalver, Jr.



is an important ingredient in boosting the morale of the individual worker and Improving his productivity. An effective manager should endeavor to know and understood the motivation of his constituents.


is an inner state that moves an individual to work toward the achievement of goal.

The Motivation Process

Under the motivation process, needs produce drives which eventually lead to the accomplishment of desired goals.

Figure 1
Needs Drives or Motives Achievement of Goals

What are these needs?

Maslow in his Hierarchy of needs present them in ascending order.

Figure 2
Need for Self-Actualization Esteem Needs Acceptance Needs Security or Safety Needs Physiological Needs

Table of Needs

Physiological needs- basic needs for sustaining life a. Food and Water b. Sleep c. Health d. Body Needs e. Exercise and Rest

Table of Needs
2. Safety Needs- needs to be free from physical change. a. Security and safety b. Protection c. Orderly & neat surroundings d. Comfort & peace e. No threats or danger f. Assurance of long term economic well-being

Table of Needs
3. Social needs- needs to belong and accepted to others a. Acceptance b. Feeling of belonging c. Membership in a group d. Love & appreciation e. Group participation

Table of Needs
4. Esteem (ego) needs-power, prestige, status, self-confidence, self-worth, high regard a. Recognition & prestige b. Confidence and Leadership c. Competence and success d. Strength and intelligence

Table of Needs
5. Self-actualization needs- desires andn aspirations of an individual to become what one is capable of becoming. a. Self-fulfillment and potential b. Doing things for challenge of accomplishment c. Intellectual curiousity d. Creativity and aesthetic appreciation e. Strength and intelligence

Today, many organization are applying the logic of the need hierarchy. The manager should know the need level of the individual worker/faculty.

Reinforcement Theory
That reinforced behavior will be repeated and the behavior that is not reinforced is less likely to be repeated. Reinforcement are rewards which could be positive or negative.

Example of positive reinforcement

A worker is given a pay increased when performance is high, then the worker will likely continue strive for high performance.

Example of negative reinforcement

Decreasing a sales representative salary when the sales free.

Closely related to motivation is JOB SATISFACTION. But they are not the same. Motivated workers are different from satisfied worker.

Tips for Building Employee Self-Efficacy

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Dont imply that employees are incompetent. Dont talk down to then about their jobs. Dont find petty faults with their results. Dont criticize their work in front of their peers. Dont belittle the importance of their jobs.

Tips for Building Employee Self-Efficacy

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Do praise them for their appropriate efforts. Do ask for their inputs. Do listen carefully to their ideas for improvement. Do share positive feedback from their peers with them. Do provide formal recognition of their achievement.

Theories of Motivation

The economic man According to Frederick Taylor, father of scientific management, man works to fulfill his economic needs.

Theories of Motivation
2. The social man That man is largely gratified in a social milieu (environment). That workgroup is the great motivator.

Theories of Motivation 3. The complex man That man has a hierarchy of needs.

Theories of Motivation
4. The motivated man Individual workers have two different categories of needs that are independent of each other but affect human behavior in different ways.

Figure 3 Herbergs Two-Theory Factor of Motivation

Hygiene Factors: RelatingSatisfying Factors: to Environment Around theRelating to the Job Itself Job Policies and AdministrationAchievement Supervision Recognition for Accomplishment Working ConditionChallenging work Interpersonal RelationsIncreased personality Money Growth and development Security

Theories of Motivation
5. The Three-Tiered Satisfied Man

A combination of Malow and Herbergs motivations and Alderfers

Theories of Motivation
6. The Achiever

People with high need to achieve, do achieve more than those with low need and with no need at all.

Theories of Motivation
7. The Expectant Man A theory where the workers perceived competence to do a job well and the equitable reward he considers fair and just.

Theories of Motivation
8. The Managed Man Managers assumption about people and their consequent operationalization defines his style of managing. This is labeled by Theory X and Theory Y of Mc Gregor.

Theories of Motivation
Theory X The manager assumes tht a typical person dislikes work and will avoid if he can has been associated with closed, autocratic style.

Theories of Motivation
Theory Y The manager assumes that a typical person, work is as natural as play or rest; has been associated with open and participative management style.

Theories of Motivation
9. The Learning-Reinforced Man

Man learns from his environment and greater control of this environment improves his development.

Motivation Models
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The Theory of the Dignified Man Time Constraint Model The Equilibrium Model Motivation Model Want-Dont Want Model of Motivation A Motivational Theory

1. Theory of the Dignified Man All men are created with an innate dignity which finds its fulfillment. When men perform work. therefore., work is but a natural consequence of mans dignity so everyone possesses the need to work.

1. Theory of the Dignified Man The degree to which dignity is fulfilled varies according to his environment where he lives and works.
Example: In affluent countries like Switzerland where poverty is very minimal, opportunities abound and everyone can work and avail of nice things.

1. Theory of the Dignified Man

In the Philippines the opposite. Majority of Filipinos have no work. They resort to begging, stealing, or committing more serious crimes.

2. Time Constraint Model If a person work according to required time, or even better, his motivation is increased to accomplish it, if he lags behind, he might lose his zeal and the drive to finish the job decreases.

3. The Equilibrium Model

This model suggests that the administration should analyze the character/personality make up of the employee to determine what the individual needs and wants. Having given what was needed/wanted would be the balancing factor and the equilibrium where the employer gets more productivity out of the employee.

Examples of these balancing factors/equilibrium factors:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Financial benefits Salary increases Better working facilities Challenging work

4. Motivation Model (Family Factor Model) Man has plenty of needs and man is motivated by these needs. These needs are the born needs (physiological safety needs, and the social needs) and the influenced needs (esteem needs like respect and admiration and self-actualization needs)

These needs are brought about by several factors. This motivating model is the family factor.

For most Filipinos, especially the parents, the dominant factor is the family.

On the other hand, insufficient on improper family support could lead to demotivation. communication is blocked, the individual tends to develop his own needs which is more retaliatory than to family needs.


5. Want Dont Want Model

This model points out that workers are motivated by one of the factors: what they want and what they do not want.
Example: 1. A man works harder because he wants more money; A man works harder because he does not want to starve w/o money.

5. Want Dont Want Model

This model points out that workers are motivated by one of the factors: what they want and what they do not want.
Example: 2. I get married because I want to bear children; I get married because I do not want to suffer in my old age.

6. A Motivated Theory
a) People basically seek responsibility, and do not view work as repulsive. Example: Other people accept job to be done but rely on others (No man is an island).

1. 2. 3. 4.

It entails trust and willingness to rely mother. (Job is done) Constant supervision and mistrust hinder productivity. Policy giving subordinates freedom in their work develop productivity. Climate of freedom leads to maximization of performance of people.

6. A Motivated Theory
b) Man is inherently good. c) Filipinos are basically God. Fearing people who hold friendship and respect for others in high regard. 1) Fiestas that abound in the Phils. where pakikisama and utang na loob prevail


The Alligator River Story

Once upon a time, there was a river practically overflowing with alligators. As you may have guessed, it was called Alligator River. A girl named Abegail Greg, lived on the opposite bank. Abegail and Greg were very much in love with each other. One slight complication: no boat, and an alligatorfilled river stood between them.

Abegail decided to seek help so that she could see her boyfriend. She approached Rene, who owned a boat. She explained her situation to Rene and asked if she could borrow his boat. Rene thought for a moment and replied, Sure you can borrow my boat but under one condition. You sleep with me tonight. This startled Abegail, because she didnt want to sleep with Rene, she just wanted to borrow she boat.

She wandered the down the road until, she met Henry. She explained her plight w/ (her desire to see Greg and Renes response) to Henry. Henry said, Dont bother me! Thats not my concern! Leave me alone! Finally, Abegail went back to Rene and slept with him that night. The next morning, Rene, true to his word loaned his boat to Abegail.

Abegail sailed across the river and saw her beloved Greg. After spending a few delightful hours together, Abegail felt compelled to tell Greg what happened. After she had related the whole story, Greg blew up completely, You what? I cant believe that you slept with him! Thats it its all over just forgot the relationship get out of my life!

Distraught, Abegail wandered off. She came upon Larry, who was wandering around too. Borrowing his shoulder to cry on, Abegail poured out her story to Larry. Larry then went looking for Greg (with Abegail close behind). Larry found Greg and proceeded to beat him up; with Abegail gleefully and laughingly applauding the bloody pummeling. Thats the end of the story.

Whose action is the most disgusting? Rate the characters from 1 to 5 in the order of most (1) to least (5). Put your answer on a sheet of paper. Henry Rene Abegail Larry Greg

With the members of your group, discuss your answer, until you can reach a consensus. Leader will write the group answer and write on the board together with other leaders of the groups. Their answer will look like this

Their answer will look like this
Group 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

3. Class Discussion with the Instructors Guide