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Capital market theory extends portfolio theory and develops a model for pricing all risky assets Capital asset pricing model (CAPM) will allow you to determine the required rate of return for any risky asset

1. All investors are Markowitz efficient investors who want to target points on the efficient frontier.

The exact location on the efficient frontier and, therefore, the specific portfolio selected, will depend on the individual investors risk-return utility function.

2. Investors can borrow or lend any amount of

Clearly it is always possible to lend money at the nominal risk-free rate by buying risk-free securities such as government T-bills. It is not always possible to borrow at this risk-free rate, but we will see that assuming a higher borrowing rate does not change the general results.

3. All investors have homogeneous expectations; that is, they estimate identical probability distributions for future rates of return.

Again, this assumption can be relaxed. As long as the differences in expectations are not vast, their effects are minor.

4. All investors have the same one-period time horizon such as one-month, six months, or one year.

The model will be developed for a single hypothetical period, and its results could be affected by a different assumption. A difference in the time horizon would require investors to derive risk measures and risk-free assets that are consistent with their time horizons.

5. All investments are infinitely divisible, which means that it is possible to buy or sell fractional shares of any asset or portfolio. 6. There are no taxes or transaction costs involved in buying or selling assets.

7. There is no inflation or any change in interest rates, or inflation is fully anticipated. 8. Capital markets are in equilibrium.

Some of these assumptions are unrealistic Relaxing many of these assumptions would have only minor influence on the model and would not change its main implications or conclusions. A theory should be judged on how well it explains and helps predict behavior, not on its assumptions.

Risk-Free Asset

An asset with zero standard deviation Zero correlation with all other risky assets Provides the risk-free rate of return (RFR) Will lie on the vertical axis of a portfolio graph

Risk-Free Asset

Covariance between two sets of returns is n

i 1

Because the returns for the risk free asset are certain,

RF 0

Consequently, the covariance of the risk-free asset with any risky asset or portfolio will always equal zero. Similarly the correlation between any risky asset and the risk-free asset would be zero.

Expected return the weighted average of the two returns

This is a linear relationship

Standard deviation

The expected variance for a two-asset portfolio is

E(

2 port

) w w 2Cov1, 2 w1w 2

2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2

Substituting the risk-free asset for Security 1, and the risky asset for Security 2, this formula would become

2 2 E( port ) w 2 RF (1 w RF ) 2 i2 2Cov1, 2 w RF (1 - w RF ) RF

Since we know that the variance of the risk-free asset is zero and the correlation between the risk-free asset and any risky asset i is zero we can adjust the formula

2 E( port ) (1 w RF ) 2 i2

Given the variance formula

the standard deviation is

2 E( port ) (1 w RF ) 2 i2

E( port ) (1 w RF ) 2 i2

(1 w RF ) i

Therefore, the standard deviation of a portfolio that combines the risk-free asset with risky assets is the linear proportion of the standard deviation of the risky asset portfolio.

Since both the expected return and the standard deviation of return for such a portfolio are linear combinations, a graph of possible portfolio returns and risks looks like a straight line between the two assets.

Portfolio Possibilities Combining the Risk-Free Asset and Risky Portfolios on the Efficient Frontier

E(R port )

Exhibit 8.1

D M C B

RFR

E( port )

To attain a higher expected return than is available at point M (in exchange for accepting higher risk) Either invest along the efficient frontier beyond point M, such as point D Or, add leverage to the portfolio by borrowing money at the risk-free rate and investing in the risky portfolio at point M

Portfolio Possibilities Combining the Risk-Free Asset and Risky Portfolios on the Efficient Frontier

E(R port )

Exhibit 8.2

RFR

E( port )

Because portfolio M lies at the point of tangency, it has the highest portfolio possibility line Everybody will want to invest in Portfolio M and borrow or lend to be somewhere on the CML Therefore this portfolio must include ALL RISKY ASSETS

Because the market is in equilibrium, all assets are included in this portfolio in proportion to their market value

Because it contains all risky assets, it is a completely diversified portfolio, which means that all the unique risk of individual assets (unsystematic risk) is diversified away

Systematic Risk

Only systematic risk remains in the market portfolio Systematic risk is the variability in all risky assets caused by macroeconomic variables Systematic risk can be measured by the standard deviation of returns of the market portfolio and can change over time

The purpose of diversification is to reduce the standard deviation of the total portfolio This assumes that imperfect correlations exist among securities As you add securities, you expect the average covariance for the portfolio to decline How many securities must you add to obtain a completely diversified portfolio?

Observe what happens as you increase the sample size of the portfolio by adding securities that have some positive correlation

Standard Deviation of Return Unsystematic (diversifiable) Risk

Exhibit 8.3

Total Risk

Systematic Risk

The existence of a risk-free asset resulted in deriving a capital market line (CML) that became the relevant frontier An assets covariance with the market portfolio is the relevant risk measure This can be used to determine an appropriate expected rate of return on a risky asset - the capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

CAPM indicates what should be the expected or required rates of return on risky assets

You can compare an estimated rate of return to the required rate of return implied by CAPM - over/under valued.

The relevant risk measure for an individual risky asset is its covariance with the market portfolio (Covi,m) This is shown as the risk measure The return for the market portfolio should be consistent with its own risk, which is the covariance of the market with itself - or its 2 variance: m

The equation for the risk-return line is R M - RFR E(R i ) RFR (Cov i,M ) 2

E(R i ) RFR i (R M - RFR)

Exhibit 8.6

E(R i )

SML

Rm

Negative Beta

RFR

1.0

Beta(Cov im/ 2 )

M

E(R i ) RFR i (R M - RFR)

The required rate of return of a risk asset is determined by the RFR plus a risk premium for the individual asset The risk premium is determined by the systematic risk of the asset (beta) and the prevailing market risk premium (RM-RFR)

Stock A B C D E Beta 0.70 1.00 1.15 1.40 -0.30

Assume:

E(RA) = 0.06 + 0.70 (0.12-0.06) = 0.102 = 10.2% E(RB) = 0.06 + 1.00 (0.12-0.06) = 0.120 = 12.0%

E(RD) = 0.06 + 1.40 (0.12-0.06) = 0.144 = 14.4% E(RE) = 0.06 + -0.30 (0.12-0.06) = 0.042 = 4.2%

Compare the required rate of return to the expected rate of return for a specific risky asset using the SML over a specific investment horizon to determine if it is an appropriate investment Independent estimates of return for the securities provide price and dividend outlooks

Exhibit 8.7

Current Price Stock A B C D E (Pi ) 25 40 33 64 50 Expected Dividend Expected Price (Pt+1 ) 27 42 39 65 54 (Dt+1 ) 0.50 0.50 1.00 1.10 0.00 Expected Future Rate of Return (Percent) 10.0 % 6.2 21.2 3.3 8.0

Exhibit 8.8

Required Return Estimated Return E(Ri ) Minus E(R i ) Estimated Return 10.2% 12.0% 12.9% 14.4% 4.2% 10.0 6.2 21.2 3.3 8.0 -0.2 -5.8 8.3 -11.1 3.8 Stock A B C D E Beta 0.70 1.00 1.15 1.40 -0.30 Evaluation Properly Valued Overvalued Undervalued Overvalued Undervalued

.22 .20 .18 .16 .14 .12 Rm .10 .08 .06 .04 .02

Rm

SML

B

D

.20 .40 .60 .80

-.40 -.20

1.0

Beta

In equilibrium, all assets and all portfolios of assets should plot on the SML Any security with an estimated return that plots above the SML is underpriced Any security with an estimated return that plots below the SML is overpriced A superior investor must derive value estimates for assets that are consistently superior to the consensus market evaluation to earn better risk-adjusted rates of return than the average investor

The systematic risk input of an individual asset is derived from a regression model, referred to as the assets characteristic line with the model portfolio: where: Ri,t = the rate of return for asset i during period t RM,t = the rate of return for the market portfolio M during t

R i,t i i R M, t

i R i - i R m i Cov i,M

2 M

There is a controversy over the market portfolio. Hence, proxies are used There is no unanimity about which proxy to use An incorrect market proxy will affect both the beta risk measures and the position and slope of the SML that is used to evaluate portfolio performance

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