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Information Systems in Business

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

Network: An overview

It

is a way of connecting computers so that they can

Communicate, Exchange information And pool resources


Computer

networks speed connections between computers A computer network links two or more computers with a direct high speed connection

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

Benefits of Networks
Allows

simultaneous access to critical programs and

data Allows people to share peripheral devices such as printers, scanners etc Streamlines personal communication through e-mails Makes the back up process easier

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

Network Media and Hardware


In

network communication media refers to the wires, cables, and other means by which data travels from its source to its destination The most common media for data communication are: - Twisted pair cable - Coaxial cable - Fiber-optic cable - Wireless links that includes: terrestrial microwave, satellite transmission, radio transmission etc
Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon 4

Contd.
Cables

or radio links link a network together. But, each computer on the network still requires hardware to control the flow of data The device that performs this function is called network interface card (NIC) The computer also requires network software to tell the computer how to use the NIC Both the network software and the NIC have to adhere to a network protocol, which is a set of standards for communication

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

Categories of Network
The categories of network are defined based on the following two criteria:
Size

of the network Technology used

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

CATEGORIES OF NETWORK BASED ON THE SIZE

LAN MAN WAN INTERNET INTRANET

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

Local Area Network


These

require their own dedicated channels for communication But they encompass only a limited distance Hardware requirement :
gateway, router, hub etc
Software

requirement: network operating system

(NOS), Technology used :peer-to-peer


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Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

Wireless LANS
Wi-fi

standard: - Speed of up to 11 mbps, - Per user access cost is low - Provides high-speed mobile internet access - Links work groups Bluetooth standard: - Speed of up to 720 kbps, - Used for small personal area networks

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Wide Area Network


This

spans large geographical distance It consists of variety of cables, satellite, and microwave technologies Switched lines, dedicated lines and dedicated lines are used for communication

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Other Networks
Value-added

networks (VANS): these are private, multi path, data-only, third-party-managed network switching, frame relay, asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)

Packet

Integrated

services digital network (ISDN), digital subscriber line (DSL), cable modems, t1 line broadband

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Network Topologies

Computers, switches, and terminals interconnected by network links are collectively called nodes The purpose of network control is to provide a connection between nodes that need to communicate The arrangement of nodes and links in a network is called its topology The following topologies are the most widely used: - Hierarchical network - Star network - Ring network - Bus network
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Hierarchical Network
This

topology consists of a corporate host computer (often a mainframe), divisional minicomputers or powerful workstations and workgroup support This topology matches the organizational structure of many firms and is still used in wide area networks The user workstations may be in turn interconnected using one of the LAN topologies

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Star Network
In

this topology a hub is placed at the center of the network nodes The computer at the hub acts as the network server, providing access to the shared database and software Groups of data are routed through the central hub to their destinations The hub monitors traffic and prevents collisions This network is rather easy to manage and expand But if the server is overloaded or it fails, the entire network is disabled

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Ring Network
It

is a circle or point-to-point connections of computers with no central host or communications controller Each node in a ring is connected to two of its neighbors The nodes are usually very close to one another This topology is frequently used in LANS When one node sends a message to another, the message passes through each intermediate node

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Contd.

Messages

travel around the ring, with each node reading those messages addressed to it If a node fails, the ring is out of service, unless the ring contains channels transmitting in opposite directions Access and control of ring networks are typically maintained by a token-passing system

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Bus Network
Bus

networks are similar to ring networks except that the ends are not connected It is like a single conduit to which all the network nodes and peripheral devices are attached All communications are carried on this common cable or bus in this all the nodes share a part of the network So the main advantage is that the network will remain functional even if any node is down
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Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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CATEGORIES OF NETWORK BASED ON THE TECHNOLOGY USED

FILE

SERVER NETWORK CLIENT SERVER NETWORK PEER-TO-PEER NETWORK

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Network Architecture
The

term can refer to either hardware or software or a combination of both The architecture of a system always defines its broad outlines and may define precise mechanisms as well Network architectures can be broadly classified as under: - File-server - Peer-to-peer - Client/server
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File-server Network

This

is a hierarchical arrangement in which each node can have access to the files on the server but not necessarily to files on the other nodes The file server is used to store and forward files When a node requires information on the server, it requests the file containing the information

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Client/server Network
This

uses one or more computers as servers and the others are clients The servers that are powerful computers or processors dedicated to managing disk drives, printers or network traffic contains the network operating system All the computers that can access the server, send requests to the server In this the individual computers share the processing and storage workload with a central server

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Peer-to-peer Network

This is a type of network in which each workstation has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities These are generally simpler and less expensive, but they usually do not offer the same performance under heavy loads In this, all nodes on the network have equal relationships to all others all have the similar type of software All computers on the network can access public files and printers connected to other computers in the network Each node has access to at least some of the resources on all other nodes

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Telecommunication: An Overview

This

is defined as communication of information by electronic means also includes digital data transmission as well as voice transmission

It

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Components of Telecommunication Systems

Computers
Terminals

to process information

or any input/output devices that send or receive

data
Communications Communications

processors software
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Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Communications Processors and Software

Front-end

processor: manages communications for the host


collects and temporarily stores messages

computer
Concentrator: Controller:

supervises communication traffic

Multiplexer: enables

single communication channel to carry

data transmissions
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Functions of Telecommunication Systems

Transmit information Establish interface between sender and the receiver Route messages along most efficient paths Perform elementary processing of information Perform editorial tasks on data Convert message speed or format Control flow of information

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Types of Signals
Analog signal Continuous waveform Passes through communications medium Used for voice communications Digital signal

Discrete wave form


Transmits data coded into two discrete states as 1-bits and 0-bits Used for data communications

Modem Translates computers digital signals into analog and vice versa
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Communication Channels Used


Twisted

wire: telephone systems Coaxial cable: cable television Fiber optics and optical networks: dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM) Wireless transmission: microwave, satellites, paging systems, cellular telephones, personal communication services, personal digital assistants, mobile data networks Transmission speed: baud, bandwidth
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Network Cable
Twisted

pair Coaxial cable Fiber optic cable Wireless


Uses infrared or low-power radio wave transmissions No cables Easy to set up and reconfigure Slower transmission rates Small distance between nodes

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Twisted Pair Wire Pair


Inexpensive Susceptible to

electrical interference (noise) Telephone systems Physical characteristics


Requires two conductors Twisted around each other to reduce electrical interference Plastic sheath
Shielded

twisted pair

Metallic protective sheath Reduces noise Increases speed


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Coaxial Cable
Higher

bandwidth Less susceptible to noise Used in cable TC systems Physical characteristics


Center conductor wire Surrounded by a layer of insulation Surrounded by a braided outer conductor Encased in a protective sheath

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Fiber Optics
Transmits

using light Higher bandwidth Less expensive Immune to electrical noise More secure easy to notice an attempt to intercept signal Physical characterizes
Glass or plastic fibers Very thin (thinner than human hair) Material is light Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Microwave Transmission
Line-of-site

High

speed Cost effective Easy to implement Weather can cause interference Physical characteristics
Data signals sent through atmosphere Signals cannot bend of follow curvature of earth Relay stations required
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ORBITING SATELLITES
MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION

UPLINK

DOWN LINK

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Communication Satellites
Use

microwave radio as a telecommunication medium. They are placed in geosynchronous orbits. Powered by solar panels. Transmit microwave signals at a rate of several hundred million bits per second. Used for voice and video transmission where large volumes of data are required. VSAT (very small aperture terminal) satellite dish antennas are used to develop small satellite networks.

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Wireless Technology
Terrestrial

microwave Communications satellites Cellular and PC systems Wireless web

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Telecommunications Processors
Modems

convert digital to analog and analog to digital modulation and demodulation

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Modem support Transmission error control, automatic dialing and faxing.

Digital data from the computers are converted into analog transmission frequencies

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Internetworked Processors
Router-interconnects

networks based on diff protocols so the message can be routed to its destination. automatic switching among connections

Hub-provide

called ports.
Switch-connects

different telecommunication channels

Gateway-interconnects

networks which use different communication architectures.


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Telecommunication software
Network

operating systems and browsers. Access control: Transmission speed ,mode and direction. Transmission control: Send and receive commands ,messages, data.

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Network Error

management:

Determines transmission priorities, routing, queuing.

control: management:

Distortions, Line noise, power surges.

Security

Encryption Prevents unauthorized access.

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Bandwidth

Communications speed and capacity of telecommunication networks Measured in bits per second Narrow-band (Base band-voice /data) Broadband (voice/data/video)

Prof.Nivedita Roy, IBS-Gurgaon

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Technologies used for e-commerce & e-business

E-mail:

eliminates telephone tag and costly long-distance telephone charges Groupware: enables work groups at different locations to participate in discussion forums and work on shared documents and projects Voice mail: digitizes spoken message and transmits it over a network Fax: digitizes and transmits documents over telephone lines
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Contd.
Teleconferencing:

Ability to confer with a group of people simultaneously


Data

conferencing:

Two or more users can edit and modify data files simultaneously
Videoconferencing:

Participants are able to see each other over video screens


Distance

learning:

Education or training delivered over a distance to individuals in one or more locations


E-learning:

Instruction delivered online using the internet or private networks


EDI:

Direct computer-to-computer exchange between two organizations of standard business transaction documents
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Enterprise Networking & Internetworking


Enterprise networking
It

is an arrangement of organizations hardware, software, network, and data resources It helps in creating a company-wide network linking many smaller networks
Internetworking
These

are used to link separate networks into an interconnected network


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MODELS OF CONNECTIVITY USED FOR NETWORKS


TRANSMISSION

CONTROL PROTOCOL/INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP) SYSTEMS INTERCONNECT (OSI)

OPEN

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Internet Service Providers (ISP)


These

are the commercial organization who have a permanent connection to internet in turn sell temporary connections to subscribers

They

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Internet Tools used for Communication


Electronic mail (e-mail) Connects people worldwide Creates productivity gain Usenet newsgroups On-line discussion groups using electronic bulletin boards Listserv E-mail broadcast from mailing list servers Chatting Live, interactive conversations over public network
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Contd.
Instant messaging Service that allows participants to create their own private chat channels Internet telephony Two-way voice transmission over the internet Telnet Allows users to log on to one computer system while working on another File transfer protocol (FTP) Tool for retrieving and transferring files from a remote computer
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World wide web: An overview


These

are based on a standard hypertext language called hypertext markup language (html) It combines text, hypermedia, graphics, and sound It is capable of handling all types of digital communication Uses graphical user interfaces for easy viewing

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Information searching tools on Web


Search engine Locates specific sites or information on internet Shopping bot Software with varying levels of built-in intelligence Helps electronic commerce shoppers locate and evaluate products Push technology Information broadcast directly to user based on pre specified interests Multicasting Transmission of data to a selected group of recipients
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The Wireless Web


Web-based applications Enables users to access digital information from the Internet

Wireless Web Standards: Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) WML (Wireless Markup Language) Microbrowser I-mode M-Commerce Challenges Voice portals
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