ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 13e

CHAPTER 6: The Human Population and Urbanization

6-1 How Many People Can the Earth Support?
• Concept 6-1 We do not know how long we can continue increasing the earth’s carrying capacity for humans without seriously degrading the lifesupport system that keeps us and many other species alive.

Human Population Explosion
• Exponential growth (J-curve) in past 200 years • Three major reasons
– Ability to expand into diverse habitats – Emergence of agriculture – Sanitation systems and control of infectious diseases decreased death rates

How Long Can the Human Population Grow
• • • • Rate slowing, but still exponential Uneven global growth No population can grow indefinitely 2050: 9.5 billion people at current growth rates • Most growth in developing countries, least likely to cope

1 . 16 Fig.C. 1-1. p. Agricultural revolution Industrial revolution Fig. 1-10. A.13 12 11 10 9 ? 8 7 6 5 4 Industrial revolution Black Death—the Plague 3 2 1 0 2-5 million 8000 years Hunting and gathering 6000 4000 2000 2000 2100 B. p.D.

. • Concept 6-2B The average number of children born to women in a population (total fertility rate) is the key factor that determines the population size.6-2 What Factors Influence the Size of the Human Population? • Concept 6-2A Population size increases through births and immigration and decreases through deaths and emigration.

3 billion people – India. 1.Population Change • Population change = (births + immigration) . 306 million people . 1.1 billion people – USA.(deaths + emigration) • Demographers look at birth rates and death rates • 2009: – China.

5 in developing countries .Number of Children • Fertility rates affect population size and growth rate • Total fertility rate (TFR) • 1950-2009: Global TFR fell to: – 1.8 from 6.5 in developed countries – 2.6 from 2.

Factors Affecting Birth Rates (1) • Importance of children as part of labor force • Cost of raising and educating children • Availability of retirement systems • Urbanization • Educational and employment opportunities for women .

Factors Affecting Birth Rates (2) • Average marriage age • Availability of legal abortion and reliable birth control methods • Religious beliefs. traditions. cultural norms .

Factors Affecting Death Rates • Population growth is also response to decline in crude death rate • Life expectancy and infant mortality rate important indicators of overall health • Average life expectancy increased • Infant mortality – barometer of a society’s quality of life .

p.Supplement 3. 8. Fig. S10 .

Migration • Migration driven by economic desires • Other reasons – Religious persecution – Political oppression – Ethnic conflicts – Wars – Environmental degradation .

middle. and older age groups determine how fast populations grow or decline. .6-3 How Does a Population’s Age Structure Affect Its Growth or Decline? • Concept 6-3 The numbers of males and females in young.

Age Structure • Distribution of population – Prereproductive – Reproductive – Postreproductive • Country with many young people grows rapidly • Country with many older people will decline • Developing countries: >30% under 15 years old .

102 . p. 6-6.Fig.

102 .Fig. 6-6. p.

Fig. 6-7. p. 102 .

and elevating the status of women. encouraging family planning. .6-4 How Can We Slow Human Population Growth? • Concept 6-4 We can slow population growth by reducing poverty.

Stages of Demographic Transition • • • • Preindustrial Transitional – demographic trap Industrial Postindustrial .

105 Relative population size (to compensate for high infant mortality) and 80 a high death 70 rate Stage 2 Transitional Population grows rapidly because birth Population grows very rates are high and death rates drop slowly because of improved food production because of a and health high birth rate Stage 1 Preindustrial Stage 3 Industrial Population growth slows as both birth and death rates drop because of improved food production. and education Stage 4 Postindustrial Population growth levels off and then declines as birth rates equal and then fall below death rates High .000 per year) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Low Increasing Total population Birth rate Death rate Very high Decreasing Low Zero Negative Low Growth rate over time Fig. health. 6-10. p.Birth rate and death rate (number per 1.

Family Planning (1) • Birth spacing. birth control. health care • Increased availability of contraception • 55% drop in TFR of developing countries • Developing countries – Almost half pregnancies unplanned – Often lack access to family planning .

Family Planning (2) • Invest in family planning • Reduce poverty • Elevate the social and economic status of women .

Empowering Women Can Slow Population Growth (1) • Women tend to have fewer children if they: – Are educated – Control their own fertility – Have a paying job outside the home – Do not have their rights suppressed .

wood gathering.Empowering Women Can Slow Population Growth (2) • Women do almost all domestic housework and childcare • Women do 60-80% of agriculture. water hauling • Globally. women do 2/3 of all work for 10% of income .

Empowering Women Can Slow Population Growth (3) • Illiterate woman 64% of world’s population. 70% of the poor • When daughters considered less valuable. not sent to school • Poor conditions for women leads to environmental degradation .

6-5 What Are the Major Urban Resource Environmental Problems? • Concept 6-5 Most cities are unsustainable because of high levels of resource use. waste. pollution. . and poverty.

Urban Living • Half the world lives in urban areas • 50% of world population lives in cities • Urban areas continue to grow – Natural increase – Immigration .

Major Trends in Urban Growth • Proportion of urban global population growing • Number and sizes of urban areas mushrooming • Rapid increase in urban populations in developing countries • Urban growth slower in developed nations • Poverty increasing .

8 million 17.5 million 11.4 million New York 16.3 million 21.3 million Key 2004 (estimated) 2015 (projected) Buenos Aires 12.2 million Cairo 10.7 million Los Angeles 13.5 million Mumbai (Bombay) 16.9 million Calcutta 13.5 million 27.6 million Fig.8 million 11.3 million 20.2 million 13.4 million 17.9 million Sao Paulo 18. 108 .3 million 16. p.2 million Osaka 11.2 million Shanghai 12.1 million 13.0 million Mexico City 18.7 million Jakarta 11.3 million 19.5 million Lagos 12.2 million Beijing 22.0 million 20.5 million 22.8 million 13.0 million Manila 10. 6-11.4 million Dhaka 16.8 million 10.2 million 24.4 million Tokyo 26.0 million 11.Karachi 10.1 million 11.6 million Delhi 13.

Advantages of Urbanization (1) • • • • • Economic development Innovation Education and jobs Technological advances Longer life spans .

Advantages of Urbanization (2) • • • • Better social and medical services Recycling more feasible Biodiversity increased Increased energy efficiency .

Disadvantages of Urbanization (1) • • • • Unsustainable systems Lack of vegetation Water problems Pollution and health problems .

Disadvantages of Urbanization (2) • • • • Noise pollution Climate and artificial light Urban heat islands Light pollution .

most people live in dispersed urban areas and depend mostly on motor vehicles for their transportation.6-6 How Does Transportation Affect Urban Environmental Impacts? • Concept 6-6 In some countries. .

biking. Tokyo • Dispersed cities – Transportation by automobile – Most American cities .Cities Can Grow Outward or Upward • Compact cities – Transportation by walking. or mass transit – Hong Kong.

sidewalks • High gasoline tax unlikely • Need to discourage automobile use .Reduce Automobile Use • User-pays system • Full-cost pricing • Tax revenues to finance mass transit. bike paths.

Alternatives to Cars • • • • Bicycles Mass transit systems in urban areas Bus systems Rapid rail .

p. 6-18.Trade-Offs Bicycles Advantages Are quiet and non-polluting Disadvantages Provide little protection in an accident Take few resources to make Burn no fossil fuels Provide no protection from bad weather Are impractical for long trips Require little parking space Secure bike parking not yet widespread Fig. 115 .

116 . 6-19. p.Trade-Offs Mass Transit Rail Advantages Uses less energy and produces less air pollution than cars do Reduced need for more roads and parking areas Causes fewer injuries and deaths than cars do Reduces car congestion in cities Disadvantages Is expensive to build and maintain Is cost-effective only in densely populated areas Commits riders to transportation schedules Can cause noise and vibration for nearby residents Fig.

Trade-Offs Buses Advantages Can greatly reduce car use and air pollution Disadvantages Can lose money because they require affordable fares Can get caught in traffic and add to noise and pollution Commit riders to transportation schedules Can be rerouted as needed Cost less to develop and maintain than heavy-rail system Fig. 6-20. p. 116 .

116 . cars. 6-21. roads. p.Trade-Offs Rapid Rail Advantages Is much more energy efficient per rider than cars and planes are Produces less pollution than do cars and planes Can reduce need for more air travel. and parking areas Disadvantages Is costly to run and maintain Causes noise and vibration for nearby residents Has some risk of collision at car crossings Fig.

biking. or mass transit for most transportation needs. grow much of their food.6-7 How Can Cities Become More Sustainable and Livable? • Concept 6-7 An ecocity allows people to choose walking. and protect biodiversity by preserving surrounding land. . recycle or reuse most of their wastes.

and compost – Protect and encourage biodiversity – Promote urban gardens and farmers markets – Zone for environmentally stable population levels .Environmentally Sustainable Cities • Smart growth • Ecocities – Use renewable energy as much as possible – Build and design people-oriented cities – Use energy and matter efficiently – Prevent pollution and reduce waste – Recycle. reuse.

6-22. p. 117 . not buildings Tax land on value of actual use (such as forest and agriculture) instead of on highest value as developed land Tax Breaks For owners agreeing not to allow certain types of development (conservation easements) For cleaning up and developing abandoned urban sites (brownfields) Revitalization and New Growth Revitalize existing towns and cities Build well-planned new towns and villages within cities Fig.Solutions Smart Growth Tools Limits and Regulations Limit building permits Urban growth boundaries Greenbelts around cities Public review of new development Zoning Encourage mixed use of housing and small businesses Concentrate development along mass transportation routes Promote high-density cluster housing developments Planning Ecological land-use planning Environmental impact analysis Integrated regional planning State and national planning Protection Preserve existing open space Buy new open space Buy development rights that prohibit certain types of development on land parcels Taxes Tax land.

.Three Big Ideas from This Chapter .#1 The human population is increasing rapidly and may soon bump up against environmental limits.

encouraging family planning. and elevating the status of women.#2 We can slow human population growth by reducing poverty.Three Big Ideas from This Chapter . .

#3 Most urban areas. . home to half of the world’s people. but they can be made more sustainable and livable within your lifetime.Three Big Ideas from This Chapter . are unsustainable.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful