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PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY

KEY KNOWLEDGE
Physiological strategies to enhance recovery such as heat, ice, compression, hyperbaric chambers, massage and sleep.

KEY SKILLS
Participate in and evaluate a range of nutritional, physiological strategies that potentially enhance performances and aid recovery.

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY


Apart from athletes using nutrition to aid with their recovery, they may also use a number of physiological and psychological techniques and therapies including: Hydrotherapy Cryotherapy Massage Hyperbaric oxygen therapy Sleep

HYDROTHERAPY Primarily used for high impact and collision activities. Water provides buoyancy and reduces stress on the joints allowing the synovial fluids around the joints to drain and recover from exertion. Hydrotherapy provides a feeling of weightlessness and allows for a fuller range of motion with little or not joint compression. Water has a force pressure 20X that of air. Gentle exercises within water provide a massaging action on the moving limbs, thus increasing blood flow to the muscles being exercised, resulting in faster recovery Swimming, running, floating, treading water are some examples of activities that involve hydrotherapy.

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY

CRYOTHERAPY The use of ice packs/cold packs and cold water during recovery is know as cryotherapy. the purpose of cryotherapy is to reduce blood flow to the joints and soft tissue area used or damaged during the exercise bout. reduced blood flow decreases swelling and fluid retention around the effected area (oedema). Cryotherapy is commonly used but not solely utilised in the recovery process of an injury. (early stages) Immersion in ice cold water causes vasoconstriction in the body parts immersed, which increases the removal of waste products (lactic acid, H+) as well as the reduction of swelling in soft tissue injuries

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY

CRYOTHERAPY cont Cryotherapy may also decrease DOMS (Delayed Onset, Muscle Soreness). ICE VESTS A cooled vest designed to wear on the upper body by athletes to help control/maintain a constant core body temperature usually during very hot humid conditions.

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL


HOT AND COLD CONTRAST THERAPY Used as part of an athletes recovery routine.

STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY

In a nutshell the technique involves alternating between applying hot and cold water.

This technique could involve alternating between:


1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. hot and cold showers Hot spa and cold plunge pool Ice pack and heat pack.

Theory suggests that the contrast therapy may:


Reduce metabolic fatigue Enhancing arousal levels Relaxing muscles Enhance neuromuscular activity

Alternating between heat and cold causes vasodilation and vasoconstriction creates a PUMPING action in the blood which helps speed waste removal & nutrient supply

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL


STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY

Protocol for Hot and Cold Contrasting Therapy 3-4 minutes immersion in hot water environment
followed by 30-60 seconds immersion in cold water environment this process is repeated 3-4 times. this therapy is not recommended for athletes that have soft tissue injuries.

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL


STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY
BALNEOTHERAPY: Many sports scientists & medical

practitioners believe spa and warm mineral springs (balneotherapy) promote recovery and facilitate healing from injury and illness. Thermal bathing in a spa/mineral spring increases hydrostatic pressure on the body, thereby increasing blood circulation and cell oxygenation. Bathing also increases body metabolism, including stimulating the process of digestion. Increased digestion

assists with the replenishment of fuel stores (glycogen)

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL


STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY
COMPRESSION: Compression dressings have been

and continue to be extensively used to aid recovery of soft tissue injuries, assisting with the reduction of excessive bleeding/swelling by: 1.Compressing blood vessels around injured site 2.Assisting with immobilisation of the injured area, thus reducing movement and decreasing blood flow to injured site. Compression suits are now being used by athletes to aid in recovery and facilitate increased performance. Made from Lycra

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL


COMPRESSION: cont

STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY

Possible benefits of wearing compression garments are thought to include 1. improved sporting performance 2. clearance of metabolic by-products 3. assistance of recovery from high-intensity exercise. More specifically, scientific studies with athletes have shown that compression garments may enhance performance and aid recovery by increasing blood flow increasing venous return decreasing blood-lactate levels and enhancing removal reducing blood pooling reducing swelling enhancing proprioception * decreasing athletes perception of muscle soreness (DOMS) decreasing muscle oscillation* enhancing warm-up via increasing skin temperature. While compression garments are widely used, there is conflicting information regarding the use of these garments as some studies have reported no benefit to wearing them. However, no studies have reported negative effects on performance or perceptions of pain.

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL


COMPRESSION: cont

STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY

AIS scientists were impressed with the performance of the 2XU Compression Tights and unveiled the following key findings: Improved performance in a 30-minute cycling bout when wearing 2XU Compression Tights Significantly lower heart rate during cycling when wearing 2XU Compression Tights Improved ability to maintain performance in a second cycling bout when wearing 2XU Compression Tights for recovery Greater reduction in blood lactate concentrations while wearing 2XU Compression Tights during recovery Decreased swelling in the thigh following wearing 2XU Compression Tights for recovery Perception of leg-muscle soreness less when wearing 2XU Compression Tights for recovery. AIS Recovery Physiologist Matt Driller was particularly pleased with the significance of this 2XU Compression study. Based on the results of these studies, we would recommend that athletes can improve their performance during 30-minutes of high-intensity cycling by wearing 2XU Elite Compression Tights, said Driller. Furthermore, the results suggest that athletes are able to maintain repeat cycling performance when wearing 2XU Compression Tights during a short term (~1hour) recovery period.

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL


STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY
MASSAGE ADVANTAGES:
RELAXATION PROMOTES BLOOD FLOW 1-2 HOURS AFTER ACTIVITY MASSAGE CAN REDUCE SWELLING CAUSED BY MICRO-TRAUMA AID IN THE REMOVAL OF BI-PRODUCTS (LA, H+) REDUCES MUSCLE STIFFNESS, CRAMPING AND SORENESS HASTENS RECOVERY
MASSAGE SHOULD NOT BE CONDUCTED IF: ATHLETE HAS ANY FORM OF INJURY (ABRAISIONS, CUTS, BRUISING ETC) ONCE AN INJURY HAS HEALED, MASSAGE CAN HELP RETURN MUSCLE/JOINTS TO FULL OPERATIONAL CAPACITY.

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL


STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY
HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY

Treatment of soft tissue injuries


promotes and enhances recovery after exercise enabling athlete to train more efficiently during repeated training/competition sessions

Suggested Theory (inconclusive evidence):


1.Athlete is breathing in pure 02 , which increases 02 absorption levels. Greater availability of 02 levels enables:
Increase speed of recovery including injury Reduce swelling and oedema http://medicaldictionary.thefreedictionary.com/edema Stimulate new blood vessel growth (capillaries) Shorten inflammatory response process Help prevent infection

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL


SLEEP

STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY

essential for recovery and maximum performance.

Lack of sleep can result in reduced:


1.Reaction times 2.Agility 3.Speed 4.Visual processing 5.Concentration

For athletes sleep needs to be very structured:


1.Similar sleep periods 2.Pre sleep routine (similar bed time) 3.Quality of sleep may improve if: Comfortable bed, pillow well ventilated room etc Switching off from days activities Slowing down the function of the brain (reduce stimulating the senses Going to be bed when tired.

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL


STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY
SLEEP cont Meditation, centred breathing, progressive muscle relaxation techniques may assist athletes to wind down before sleep Good nutrition Avoid stimulants (nutritious and sensory stimulants) Avoid large meals close to sleep (4 hours prior) Sleep can also improve memory and thus enhance the consolidation of learning motor skills/play patterns/strategies.

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL


STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY
QUESTIONS

PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT FROM A PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE KEY KNOWLEDGE


Psychological strategies used to enhance performance and aid recovery, including sleep, meditation, motivational techniques, optimal arousal, mental imagery and concentration

KEY SKILLS
1.Identify and explain psychological factors which impact on performance and recovery 2.Participate in and evaluate psychological strategies that potentially enhance performance and recovery

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE RECOVERY


Control Goal Setting Commitment

Sports Psychology

(Psychological Skills Training)

Confidence

Concentration

Focuses on cognitive behavioural aspects of sports psychology. Psychological skills, like physical skills, can be learnt via training (PST). PST can dramatically improve performances PST programs are individualised Techniques include; Goal setting, arousal, mental rehearsal, confidence and concentration

Psychological Skills Training


PST has three main stages; 1. Education What techniques are currently used and being told about other options 2. Acquisition Taught how to use the technique 3. Practice Use of the technique in training and competition.

Sports psychology is SO important to performance at the elite level, that most clubs/individuals now employ sports psychologists to work with them. Psychologists tend to focus on techniques that can Increase the athletes to enhance performance: COMMITMENT CONTROL CONCENTRATION CONFIDENCE

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE


Successful athletes are fully committed and motivated towards achieving their goals

MOTIVATION: the causes of initiation, maintenance and intensity of


behaviour. Maintaining motivation is closely linked to achieving ambitions Athletes with high levels of motivation demonstrate: 1.A desire for success 2.A willingness to take risks 3.An acknowledgement of their own ability to their success 4.An ability to persevere as tasks difficulty increases.

There is a close correlation between motivation and success. GOAL SETTING if planned correctly, can maintain high levels of Motivation = COMMITMENT > chance of success

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

COMMITMENT

Types of goals; 1. Outcome goals Focus Goal setting is where athletes set down clear on end results, times, targets, priorities and finishing places or expectations. Goal setting has been medals. shown to increase work out put up to 40-50%. 2. Performance goals Goals need to be set up for both training and Focus on comparing competition. present performance Long term goals aim at levels with those obtained the broader target, whereas short term previously. Independent to goals provide more manageable focus other competitors. points. 3. Process goals Focus on physical movements

COMMITMENT GOAL SETTING


Goal setting occurs when athletes set down clear targets and expectations that need practising in both training and competition Outcome goals Performance goals Process goals

Outcome goals focus on end results and are difficult to achieve

because they are linked to performance levels of opponents-eg making the school football team

COMMITMENT GOAL SETTING


Performance goals focus on comparing present levels with
those attained previously, independently of others. If realistic, they will foster improvements eg improving a pre-test result from average to excellent. Performance goals reduce anxiety and promote self-confidence, because they rely on an athletes own behaviour.

COMMITMENT GOAL SETTING


Process goals focus on actions and game strategies that
athletes must execute in order to maximise performance-eg Stuart MacGill executing a wrongun during a delivery

COMMITMENT GOAL SETTING


The National coaching Association has set down a SMARTER way of recording goals: Specific-goals need to be specific and as clear as possible to focus attention Measurable-progress should be assessed against a standard or previous performances Accepted-by all parties involved in preparing the athlete (coach, family etc) Realistic-goals should extend the athlete but within their capacity Time phased-there should be a specific date for completion Exciting-the athlete needs to be challenged, inspired and ultimately rewarded Recorded-goals should be written down by the athlete to evaluate progress, provide feedback and act as a motivator

GOAL SETTING

COMMITMENT Goal Setting SMARTER


Goal setting improves performance by; Focusing attention on important elements of the skill/s being performed Activating and organising an athletes efforts Encouraging athlete perseverance Promoting the development of new learning strategies Refining movements and set plays Contributing towards a positive psychological state

COMMITMENT Goal Setting


INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Intrinsic Motivation:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gimcdV-8FzY
1. comes from within 2. Athlete experiences enjoyment,

Satisfaction, improvement & a feeling


of self worth 3. The preferred form of motivation because it is More powerful, desirable, sustainable and closely aligned with the athletes self worth

Extrinsic Motivation
1. An external focus 2. Some type of external reward e.g. trophy, money, glory, recognition

CONTROL:

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C8Nyc9jzSDg&feature=related

An athletes ability to maintain control of their emotions in the face of pressure or adversity and remain positive is essential to successful performance PERFORMANCE ANXIETY A maladaptive state that is typically associated with heightened arousal brought about through the interpretation of a situation as threatening and/or dangerous, which in a sporting situation may alter an athletes performance (+ or -). Performance anxiety manifests itself in 2 forms: 1.Physical anxiety (sweating, butterflies, nausea, need to urinate,heart rate increases) 2.Mental anxiety: worry, negative thoughts, confusion, poor concentration.

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE


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FACTORS THAT CAN AFFECT AN ATHLETES ANXIETY: 1.The perceived importance of the event 2.Home ground/country advantage (spectator support) 3.Athletes who play individual sports generally suffer greater anxiety than those in team sports 4.An expectation of success may increase anxiety STRATEGIES TO HELP REDUCE ANXIETY Progressive muscle relaxation Mental imagery Centred breathing Meditation Distractions ( music, puzzles, watching videos, etc)

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE CONTROL cont


AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE: AROUSAL : the degree of activation both physically and psychologically an athlete experiences when faced with a sporting situation or task. There are a number of models/theories that have been developed to help explain the relationship between arousal levels and performance including:
DRIVE THEORY

MULTIDIMENSIONAL AROUSAL ANXIETY THEORY

INVERTED U HYPOTHESIS

AROUSAL THEORIES

OPTIMUM AROUSAL THEORY

CATASTROPHE THEORY

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE


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AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE DRIVE THEORY: if an athlete is appropriately skilled they will perform well if their drive to compete is aroused INVERTED U- HYPOTHESIS : 1.Has the shape of an inverted U 2.Suggests that performance will continue to rise as arousal levels increase but only up to a certain point (top of inverted U) 3.If arousal levels continue beyond the peak level, sports performance begins to decline

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE


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AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE
CATASTROPHE THEORY: 1.very similar theory to the inverted-U-hypothesis 2.Proposes that when an athlete goes beyond OPTIMAL arousal point, a LARGE and DRAMATIC decline in performance ensues OPTIMAL AROUSAL THEORY 1.A substantial individual variability in arousal performance relationships 2.Each athlete will perform at their best if their arousal level falls within their optimum functioning zone. 3.Some athletes require high levels of arousal to perform at their peak, while other athletes perform at their peak at much lower arousal levels. 4.OPTIMAL AROUSAL LEVELS ARE DIFFERENT FOR DIFFERENT ATHLETES AND DIFFERENT SPORTS

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE


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AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE
MULTIDIMENSIONAL AROUSAL ANXIETY THEORY 1.Based on the distinction (difference) between COGNITIVE (mental) ANXIETY and SOMATIC (physical) ANXIETY Cognitive (mental) Anxiety: a powerful negative linear relationship between cognitive anxiety and performance i.e. as cognitive anxiety increases athletic performance decreases. Somatic (physical) anxiety: as somatic anxiety increases from low to moderate, athletic performance improves, however once somatic anxiety levels exceed moderate levels performance declines.

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AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE TECHNIQUES TO INCREASE OR DECREASE AROUSAL LEVELS Arousal reduction techniques Arousal promotion techniques Progressive muscle relaxation Elevated breathing rate (PMR) Act energetic Breath control Positive talk and sound (Talk it Biofeedback up!) Stress-inoculation training (SIT) Energising imagery Pre-competition workout DECREASING AROUSAL LEVELS Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR): Athletes undergo a series of exercises that lead to progressive muscle relaxation and eventually total body relaxation Technique involves tensing /relaxing groups of muscles throughout the body at a time.

CONTROL cont AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE (PMR) cont Repetition teaches athletes to recognise and distinguish the different feelings between tense and relaxed muscles. Once increased awareness is developed by an athlete, they can then monitor their bodies for anxiety induced or over arousal tension and then adopt the PMR technique to assist relaxation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HFwCKKa--18 CENTRED BREATHING A simple breathing exercise involving the athlete focusing upon their breath before, between, during and occasionally after a performance. Helps relax the athlete and refocus their attention. Tennis, golf, gymnastics, dance, shooting, archery

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL CONTROL cont STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE
MEDITATION If used to reduce arousal levels/relax, the athlete will focus their attention on an object which could be the breath, a mantra (saying) or an object/sound. Used to calm the mind and body BIOFEEDBACK Electrodes are attached to various sites around the body, which are connected to electrical instruments that provide feedback about various physiological parameters including heart rate, muscle tension and skin temperature. Once the technology identifies an over aroused site, the athlete can then use relaxation techniques to release the tension. Log records are kept to identify which relaxation techniques are most effective and then the athlete is able to utilise these methods to improve performance Most effective in sports where low arousal levels are essential, such as golf, shooting, archery, diving etc

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL CONTROL contSTATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE


AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE STRESS INOCULATION TRAINING (SIT) Exposing the body to certain stressful situations, so that it develops an immunity to that situation. Coping comes in the form of developing positive thoughts, mental images and self confidence statements. This technique is practiced initially in mock situations where the athlete can practice and fine tune their coping strategies, eventually developing sufficient skill to then apply the technique during competitive stressful situations. AROUSAL PROMOTION TECHNIQUES ELEVATED BREATHING TECHNIQUE Technique requires the athlete to take quick short breaths which activates the CNS (Central Nervous System) increasing overall awareness Continued rapid breathing helps athletes to focus on the performance ahead

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL CONTROL cont STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE
ACT ENERGETICALLY This strategy simply requires the athlete to increase physical movements , which in turn increases arousal levels. E.g. Jumping on the sport, quick running, bumping into other players etc POSITIVE TALK & SOUNDS DONT THINK DO Motivational words: Tough Guts Skill Perseverance Aggressive, Music Video etc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gn6Xt9Cga30&feature=related

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AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE
ENERGISING MENTAL IMAGERY

Involves visualising something that is up lifting and energising to the athlete: E.g. A netballer seeing herself moving around the court like a cheetah chasing its prey A soccer player dribbling past 3 defenders and then kicking a 30 metre goal A swimming perfectly gliding through the water with perfect technique and world breaking speed.
PRE-COMPETITION WORKOUT Usually occurs a couple of hours prior to competition Allows the athlete to get a feel for playing conditions and allows time for final practice of set plays

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PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE


PRE-COMPETITION WORKOUT cont

CONCENTRATION

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

CONCENTRATION: a mental quality allowing the athlete


to focus on the task at hand while having the ability to ignore sensory and mental distractions. The word ATTENTION is also frequently used when discussing concentration Concentration is one of the key factors to successful performance Distractions may include:
DISTRACTIONS ANXIETY SKILL ERRORS FATIGUE WEATHER OPPONENTS SLEDGING THOUGHTS NOISE

CONCENTRATION Assessing athletes attentional strengths and weaknesses Coaches can encourage athletes to become more aware of sporting situations when concentration is strong/weak. Once this is determined, strategies can be put in place to enhance the athletes concentration capabilities. Assessing the attentional demands of a given sport. Attentional demands vary from sport to sport, situation to situation
Low Attention Running around an oval Lawn Bowls Riding a bike on a quiet road Moderate Attention Serving in Tennis Golf Swing Free kick in soccer The run-up for bowling in cricket Intense Attention

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

Surfing Return of Serve in Tennis Boxing Downhill skiing Riding a mountain bike down a steep hill

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

CONCENTRATION
STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING CONCENTRATION AND ATTENTION 1.Centred breathing 2.Mental imagery and rehearsal (visualisation) 3.Positive self-talk and cue words (relax, calm, focus, concentrate etc) 4.Pre-performance routines (Golf, batting in cricket, boxing, martial arts, diving, gymnastics (vault etc) MENTAL IMAGERY (VISUALISATION) Involves an athlete performing a skill or a competition event flawlessly

CONCENTRATION

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

MENTAL IMAGERY (VISUALISATION)


Involves an athlete performing a skill or a competition event flawlessly There are various techniques including: 1.MENTAL PRACTICE: used for a specific movement/skill e.g a golf swing, cricket shot, a dive, etc 2.MENTAL REHEARSAL: used for a complete athletic performance. (playing flawlessly in a game of basketball, remaining calm in pressure situations) 3.MENTAL REVIEW: used to recount past performance, both positive and negative in an attempt to improve performance 4.SELF AFFIRMATION: used to improve self confidence by imagining successful performances

Attention/focus application-a definition of CONCENTRATION


Focusing on relevant environmental cues: selective attention enabling players to block out irrelevant cues such as spectators and other noise
Maintaining attention focus over time: not allowing concentration lapses

Having awareness of the situation: sizing things up and bringing about the most appropriate response-doing the right thing at the right time

Concentration
Concentration contains three parts; 1. Focusing on relevant environmental clues 2. Maintaining attention focus over time 3. Having awareness of the situation Note. Concentration and attention are used interchangeably in sports psychology. Attention can be described in terms of width and direction. Broad-internal Focus on thoughts and feelings Broad-external Focus outwards on an opponents actions Narrow-internal Mentally rehearsal movements Narrow-external Focus on very few external cues

CONFIDENCE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=75_8af3TiY

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

1.Self confidence is an individuals belief that they will be successful. 2.Confident players believe in themselves and their abilities (both mental and physical) to achieve their goals. 3.Confident people: Remain calmer and more focused under pressure Remain on tasks for longer durations (perseverance) Work methodically towards their goals Take calculated chances Usually are self motivated and a never give up and have a can do attitude.

CONFIDENCE

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

1.Similar to arousal levels confidence levels and performance attainment closely reflect an inverted U. 2.Optimum confidence levels vary from athlete to athlete once again similar to arousal levels; what is optimum for one athlete may not necessarily be optimum for another athlete 3.Arousal levels are closely aligned with confidence: Optimum arousal = confidence Low confidence = high anxiety =high arousal levels (reduces performance) Low levels of arousal =over confident (reduces performance)

CONFIDENCE

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE

IMPROVING CONFIDENCE 1.Development of skill As skill/fitness improves, so does confidence Application of skills in competitive environments Successful repeated performance builds confidence 2.Athletes need to act and think positively in all competitive circumstances 3.Positive self talk which is motivational and instructional cue words to keep the fire burning; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tnH092Qtyhc 4.Positive images/visualisation 5.Follow game plans, correct preparation (physical, mental, nutritional)

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PYSCHOLOGICAL STATEGIES TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE


CONFIDENCE
LOW CONFIDENCE / FEAR/CHOKING 1.Can develop when: Athletes begins to doubt ability to compete due to: a)Injury b)Poor fitness c)Limited preparation d)Ageing e)Repeated losses f)A lack of belief in being able to perform well in pressure situations CHOKING can result in: An increase in negative self talk Poor judgment and decision making, leading to poor skill execution Poor attention (selective attention)

Written Task: In your Physical Education Workbook, please complete the following: 1. Test your understanding 2. The below VCAA exam questions