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Why 3D is needed?

1. 2.

3.

4. 5. 6.

With the passage of time structural trap diminishes. Stratigraphic traps are well sampled with 3D. 3D seismic data give data in volume of cube. 3D data is beneficial for more resolution b/c of 3D sampling of target. 3D data is good for AVO,INVERSION of data, fracture reservoir analysis and more velocity control. Diffraction are also recorded as signal in 3D.

2D Basic Idea

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2D Basic Parameters

Lines

Number ,orientation and spacing Offsets Maximum (Xmax) and Minimum (Xmin) Receiver parameters

Source parameters Type,configuration,number of units per hole etc fold

Note: number of lines depend upon the spacing and target size, normally in English units 1 mile is taken along the direction of regional dip and 1-2 mile along the perpendicular to the dip.

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Importance of offset in 2D

For geological, data acquisition, data processing and data interpretation reasons, the near offset is very necessary and it should be less or equal to the shallowest target or horizon.

But minimum offset should be chosen far enough from the source to avoid the source generated noise and clipping produces at near channel data. Clipping is

the term used when amplitudes exceed the maximum recording system amplitude. The maximum offset should be compatible with the deepest target of interest The maximum offset should be enough for the NMO velocity analysis and multiples attenuation But the maximum offset should not be enough for NMO stretches ,should be less than (25-30) % at target time in normal processing Continue

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Recording Procedure

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Dominant frequency at target

Velocity at target Dip of target

Depth of shallow and deep reflectors Energy attenuation at target General idea of noises present in that area Target size and target nature Cost of 2D survey and then corresponding 3D cost

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Fold

Bin Size Minimum Offset

Maximum Offset

Migration Aperture Fold Taper Target Size and Target Depth Signal to Noise ratio Design template

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Fold

Inline fold= n/2*(receiver interval/source line interval) Cross line fold= no. of active RL in patch/2*(shots per salvo/d) Where d is the displacement of salvo within patch Total fold= inline fold*cross line fold

The fold coverage is considered to suppress the noise The fold should be effective in increasing the reflection energy and tangents, improving s/n ratio 3D fold should not be less than 1/2or1/3 of qualified 2D fold Make ensure having enough inline and cross line fold for automatic residual. Normally static

correction use cross line direction and velocity analysis use inline direction.

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Fold analyses

Fold must be checked at the range of offsets instead of full fold coverage. This practice will improve the quality of data at shallow, medium and deeper level.

Fold should be checked in the following ranges like (0-1000,1000-2000,20004000) The analysis should me make as shallow fold, medium fold and deeper fold.

Irregularities in the fold can cause following problems

Undesirable effects on velocity estimation 2. Multiple attenuation 3. Noise attenuation 4. AVO analysis

1.

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Bin size is dependendant on three factors 1. Target size 2. Maximum unaliased frequency 3. Freshnel zone A bin can be of square shape or rectangle shape, it depends on geological target to be resolved

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1.Target size

At least 2-3 samples (receivers) should be taken in the

cross direction from the required target size So, bin size=target size/3

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Basic concept is that, the designer of 3D survey know that, I need for example 30hz at targeted reservoir to resolve all the fractures and porosity/permeability. but actually due to dip the required frequency is aliased. So the designer must remove the effect of that dip and resolve the equation for bin size. So before migration bin size b=Vint/(4*Fmax*Sin) and after migration b= Vint/(4*Fmax*Tan) The move out of zero offset ray should be less than half of period, if it will be greater then frequency will be cut off.

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If we analyze the above figure, we can observe that dipping events produce different reflection events due to dip. But the thing is that we have to remove the effect of dip on the reflection data by applying migration algorithm.Bacause we assume that all the reflection s are coming from the mid point of source and receiver.So,we have to calculate the Bin Size according to maximum unaliased frequency recovered. More special to figure, suppose we have recorded data from the dipping reflector as

And after the migration applied, mean dipping reflector moved upward,same way reflection traces also moves up. And it may not necessary be in the same phase as the first reflect. hats causes distructive interferece and remove higher (important frequencies)

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3.Freshnol Zone

It is the area on the reflector where reflected energy reach the detector not more than one-half (/4) out of phase with any other energy reflected from within that area. The sum ( + /4 )constructively interfere and recorded as a single trace over that area.

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3.Freshnol Zone

Lower frequencies have large freshnel zone and vice versa.

Freshnel zone becomes smaller for positive structures and larger for

negative structures. We can not resolve structures have size less than /4 Freshnol zone counts for lateral resolution Bin size=Vint /(2*Fdom) Smaller bin size improve the resolution of geological structure

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Xmin

It is the largest minimum offset in the 3D survey, some times also called LMO,s

Xmin is directly related to shallow layer During 3D Xmin should be adequetly sampling the shallow reflector that might be used for datuming The larger the line intervals,the worse will be the shallow coverage

We have to make sure about the fold of shallow geological target. Avoid the source interference both from dynamite and vibrator. Xmin=sqrt [(RLI*RLI)+(SLI*SLI)]

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Xmin

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Xmax approximately equal to the depth of major target.

Be less than the offset producing refraction interface. Be less than offset producing deep critical reflection. Be greater than the offset demanded by the deepest lvl Ensure the velocity precision high enough for velocity analysis Should be greater than NMO stretch Xmax should be large enough to suppress multiples-noise.multiples

always have low velocity and strong energy because they take long time to travel in the layer, in the processing we should mute mutiples from shot gather (inside mute).

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NMO Stretch

Nmo stretch is produced due to low NMO velocity for far offset traces. It is calculated in percentage, if stretch is more than 30% (by default in prom ax) (bgp uses only 12.5 %) then we must mute these channels and did not include in stack.NMO stretch result in abnormal wavelet. K= (Xmax*Xmax)/2*[(T0*T0)*(Vstack*Vstack)] T0 is the deepest target time and Vstack is calculated from section K shoul be less than 12%

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Migration Aperture

Additional area added to seismic survey to allow for the proper migration of the data set. The apron will be smaller for geologic setting with little or no dip and larger for steep dips and deeper reflectors. The amount of increase area is not necessary the same in the dip and strike direction

Migration apron is necessary because the reflected energy that is offset in the subsurface and result in the false positioning of reflector can be converged to proper position. It is considered that for the dipping reflector the migration apron helps as a flat reflector.

Inline

M

Migration Aperture

A

MA=Tang Z Subsurface

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Fold Taper

It is the area extended on the surface to increase the full fold to a great degree, it represents the margin area

Fold taper is not necessarily to be the same in inline and cross line direction, its width is equal to of the patch size in inline and cross line direction. The purpose is to get maximum fold coverage (high s/n ratio) over the targeted

area. The maximum fold achieved within the patch is called nominal fold while full fold is the multiple of nominal fold corresponding to inline and cross line patch movement. we can calculate fold taper by the formula

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Important Parameters

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3D Design Diagram

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What is the shallowest layer to be mapped or that is necessary for static correction

What is the deepest layer to be mapped What are the resolution requirements What is the maximum recorded frequency

What are the maximum dips expected What are the S/N ratio requirements What is the necessary fold What is the target size or area

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We know that

Fold Bin size

gives RI SI Xmin RLI,SLI Xmax Active channels Migration Aparon calculated by software Fold Taper Calculated by software

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3D Geometries

1.

Swath Geometry

The earliest geometry used for 3D seismic surveys, normally less cost In this geometry source and receiver lines are parallel and on the same line. This geometry is actually the modification of 2d geometry. All the source points are recorded on the same line but the receivers points are used along the source line and neighboring receiver lines This geometry gives the very good inline offset and midpoint coverage but cross line bin distribution is very poor. The azimuth distribution is also very poor in this geometry. For very low cost survey or in very restricted field area this geometry is used and now a days it is very rarely used.

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Swath Geometry

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Orthogonal geometry

Source and receiver lines are laid out orthogonal to each other.

It is a very common geometry used for 3d surveys. This geometry is some times also called patch geometry. The source point is located at the center and the corresponding recording patch is surrounded in the rectangular shape.

The inline and cross line offsets depends upon the target depth and further it is bounded or limited by NMO stretch.

This geometry is highly dependant of defined by aspect ratio for the required interests. Normally, orthogonal geometry is operated by symmetric pattern but this is not necessary. In case of steeper dips region ,we can use asymmetric pattern also.

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Orthogonal geometry

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Brick geometry

Brick geometry is developed to improve the offset and azimuth distribution as compared to orthogonal geometry

The largest minimum offset is less in brick geometry as compared to orthogonal geometry The sources are placed between two alternating receiver lines to a half source

line position, in this way more random offset distribution Brick geometry is used in areas where permitting is not a problem and easy access is available as in the deserts

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Brick geometry

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It is used to get better offset distribution than the brick

geometry with some disadvantages as well Since the angle is involved in the source point design, so more care has to be taken before deciding sp interval. So that all source point lie in the same mid points Slanted geometry also cause to improve the Xmin.

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Slant Geometry

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Noisy traces are identified according to the energy

distribution before first break. The energy preserved in the noisy traces have different amplitudes as compared to normal signal trace Noise is identified with its specific design pattern Leakage, open ,tilt traces are easily recognized on display. All theses noises are easily removed in frequency domain.

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3D Refraction statics

Concept: all the shot and receiver points are lowered down from topographic

surface to shallow refractor using the weathering velocity and then moved up to flat datum using refractor velocity e.g. (1800 m/s)

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3D Velocity Dependence

The accurate investigation of propagation velocity is very important in all seismic prospects.

First, we need to calculate nmo velocity (rms velocity) for the reflectors to align and later with the help of this calculated rms velocity we can easily find out interval velocity and average velocity.

The normal move out velocity in 2D is only dependant on offset for the CDP but for 3D move out in the CMP bin ,it is dependant on offset , Azimuth and dip of the reflector.

Insufficient offset can produce NMO stretches and more azimuth produce high frequency attenuation.

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3d normal swath shooting geometry generates common cell gathers in which all mid points coincide with the cell centre. But this assumption or ideal condition is highly disturbed by irregular offset geometry and 3d big azimuths.

The large variation of azimuth for the shots result in travel time deviations and the reflections from the dipping interface do not align along a single hyperbolic move out curve. In this way single nmo velocity yields stacked trace with higher frequencies attenuated. Stack attenuation increases with increasing shot-receiver azimuth range. The azimuth direction is measured in terms of angle theta from dip line direction(along the dip azimuth angle is zero and along the strike azimuth is 90 degree). We must apply dip move out DMO along with NMO before stacking to avoid the effect of azimuth and irregular geometry.

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