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Vectors
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Contents

Components of a vector; column representation. and diffence of two vectors; the zero the vector v. by scalar kv of a vector |v|

Sum

Multiplication Magnitude

j i , , k

Unit vectors; base vectors, i, j and k vectors OA = a

Position

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Vector
Scalar:

Magnitude

Vectors:

Magnitude

Direction Sense

A Vector : v= AB Magnitude: |AB|

Vectors

r r ab r r ab

a and b have the same direction but different magnitudes

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Vectors

a and b have the same magnitude but different direction

r ra and b have same magnitude and Vectors a =b direction

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Definition

1. Two vectors u and v are equal if they have the same magnitude and direction.

Definition

denoted

2. The negative of a vector u,

u, is a vector with the same magnitude but opposite direction.

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P T

Q S

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Component form
If

u2 u=(u1,u2) or

a u vector in the plane with initial point (0,0) and terminal point (u1,u2), the component of u1 u is

The

length of vector u can be given using Pythagoras 2theorem and/or thhe distance u12 + u2 = ( x2 x1 ) 2 + ( y 2 y1 ) 2 formula:

|u|=

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Find

the components and the length of the vector between the points P(-2,3) and Q(4,7)

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Vector operations
Scalar

multiplication

Its

a multiplication of the scalar value k, times each component of the vector v.

If u= (u1,u2) then v = ku = k(u1,u2) = (ku1,ku2) As you can conclude, u and v are parallel.

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Vector operations
Vector

addition

Addition

realized between each component separately and independently from each term.

= u + w = (u1,u2) + (w1,w2) = (u1+w1,u2+w2)

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Triangle Method
20 30

steps East steps North

Resulta nt

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Parallelogram Method
Vectors

extension

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Polygon Method

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A=

3 units, 40 B= 6 units, 150 C= 2 units, 70

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Homework
Research

what are unit vectors and the direction angle.

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Base vectors

These vectors represent a vector of magnitude 1 in the positive x-axis and y-axis. i = (1,0) j=(0.1) = (u1,u2) = u1 i + u2 j

ij

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Position vectors
A

vector connected from the origin (O) to any point (A) is represented has OA or a.

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Algebra laws
Commutative

law for addition : a + b = b + a

Associative

b+c)

law for addition: (a + b )+c = a+(

Commutative

= am

law for scalar multiplication: ma

Distributive

Law (1): (m+n) a = ma+na

u= (2,-3) w= (1,3) v=2u |u| |v| u+w v+2w u-w v-2w

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Unit vectors
Consider

vector u=3i+4j and obtain its magnitude. And divide it by each component:

|u|= 5

3 u 4 = i+ j 5 5 5

And what happens if we obtain the magnitude 2 2 of that vetor?

u 3 4 = + 5 5 5

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u
u | u| |u| cos

|u| sin

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Dirention angle?
Obtaining

the angle that forms the vector we use the already known method from trigonometry.

r | u | sin u2 tan = r = | u | cos u1


1

u2 = tan u1

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Parallel vector

To obtain a m magnitude vector parallel to a u vector.

u m m = (u1i + u2 ) j 2 2 u u1 + u2

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Example
Find

the direction angle (to the nearest degree) of each vector, and find a vector of magnitude 7 that is parallel to each.

u=2i+2j v=-3i+3j w=3i-4j

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Product between two vectors


There

are two types of vector multiplications:

Scalar or dot product.

Vector

or cross product.

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Scalar product
The

scalar product between vectors a and b, denoted by ab is defined as the product of magnitudes of the vectors times the cosine of the angle between them:

ab = |a| |b| cos

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Juay de rito? (Dot product)


ab

= |a| |b| cos

a cos

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Angle between vectors

ab = |a| |b| cos

ab cos = |a| |b|

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Properties of dot product

a b = b a 0 = 0 a = 0 (b +c) = a b + a c a = |a|2 (a b) = ka b = a kb

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Find

the angle between and w = 2i 4j

= -3i + 3j

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Dot product 2.0


Theorem If

vectors are expressed in component form,

u = u1i + u2j and v = v1i + v2j then uv = (u1i + u2j)(v1i + v2j ) = u1v1+u2v2

Prove it !!

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u u

= 2i - 3j v = 3i + 2j

v = ? And find the angle between them.

The instrument panel in a plane indicates that its


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airspeed (the speed of the plane relative to the surrounding air) is 200km/h and that its compass heading (the direction in which the planes nose is pointing) is due at N 45 E. There is a steady wind blowing from the west at 50 km/h. Because of the wind, the planes true velocity is different from the panel reading. Find the true velocity of the plane, also find its true speed and direction. p

Consider

_B(3,1).

the segment AB with A(-2,-3) and

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Use dot product to find the equation of the For that, we must consider any point C(x,y), on the circle circle. whose diameter is AB.

C A

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Remember

= ( x 3, y 1) BC

= ( x + 2, y + 3) AC

the dot product must be zero between perpendicular vectors.