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PRESENTED BY: Akshay Negi-09EES11 Avnish Kumar-09EES12 Ayesha Hussain-09EES13 Bodhpriya Ashok-09EES14 subtitle style Click to edit Master SUPERVISED BY: Prof. Mini S. Thomas


To study the use of PMUs, also called synchrophasors, in measuring electrical waves on an electrical grid, using a common time source for synchronization and its specific application to Wide Area Monitoring Systems(WAMS).


What is a Phasor?


Phasor representation of a sinusoid.

What is a synchrophasor?
Synchrophasor is a term used to describe a phasor which has been estimated at an instant known as the time tag of the synchrophasor. To have truly synchronized phasor measurements over a wide area it is essential to have synchronized time tags.


What is the Phasor Technology?

It basically means to sample analog voltage and current waveform data in synchronism with a GPS-clock and compute the corresponding 60 Hz phasor component from widely dispersed locations. This synchronized sampling process of the different waveforms provides a common reference for the phasor calculations at all the different locations.

One of the phasor measurements is chosen as the reference and the difference between all the other phase angle measurements (also known as the absolute phase angle) and this common reference angle is computed and referred to as the relative phase angles with respect to the chosen reference. 8/28/12

Fig. Phase angle difference at various positions in a line.


Phasor synchronisation


Why is the PMU technology needed?

Introduced in 1980s, the occurrence of major blackouts in electrical power systems has provided a new impetus to its application in Wide Area Management Systems(WAMS). PMU generated data is highly accurate, making it possible to determine the exact sequence of events that lead to the blackouts, eventually also pinpointing the exact cause.

Other reasons are:

The PMU setup in the Energy Systems Research Laboratory of Florida International 8/28/12 University.

How does a PMU work?


Hardware Elements
The Primary Hardware Elements in a Phasor Network are: Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) PMUs are located at key substations and are capable of gathering better data at higher sampling rates than analog monitoring devices. The PMU time stamps the local frequency, voltage and line currents at a rate of 30 to 60 times per second. Substation PMU phasor data is transmitted to a PDC at a central location.

Block diagram of the Phasor Measurement Unit


GPS Receiver

The GPS system consists of 24 satellites in six orbits. The positioning of orbital plane and satellete in orbit is such that at any given instant, at least 4 satellites are in view from any point on the surface of earth. The GPS system transmits positional coordinates of the satellites from which the location of a receiver station on the earth could be determined.

Sources for Phasor Measurement

Current Transformer Potential Transformer Burden Attenuator PMU Computer



Benefits of PMUs system over SCADA system

Attribute Measurement Resolution Observability Monitoring Phasor Angle Measurement SCADA Analogue 2-4 samples per cycle Steady State Local No PMUs Digital Up to 60 samples per cycle Dynamic/Transient Wide-Area Yes


Phasor Technology Industry Applications

Phasor technology allows monitoring of Substations and transmission lines on a wide-area basis. System operators and planners can use data gathered by PMUs for a host of applications, including: State estimation

Advance control schemes

Real-time wide area monitoring(WAMS)


What is WAMS?

A network of PMUs is known as the Wide Area Monitoring System(WAMS). The WAMS data is analyzed for multiple purposes, including major blackout analysis, model validation, 8/28/12 modal analysis &


Comprehensive wide-area view of the system. Rapid assessment of actual system conditions. Allow corrective action before voltage collapse. Facilitate prompt post-disturbance analysis sequence of events readily 8/28/12 available synchronized data

[1] Jamie De La Ree, Senior Member IEEE, Virgilio Centeno, Senior Member IEEE, James S. Thorp, Life Fellow, IEEE, and A.G Phadke, Life Fellow IEEE, Synchronized Phasor Measurement Applications in Power Systems IEEE Transactions On Smart Grid, Vol. 1, No. 1, June 2010. [2] Bindeshwar Singh, N.K Sharma, A.N Tiwari, K.S Verma, S.N Singh, Applications of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in electric power system networks incorporated with FACTS controllers International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2011, pp. 8/28/12