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Management development

topics to be covered
Management Development Management Development Technique Human Resource Development Function Training And Development Performance Appraisal Career Development

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT
Management Development is the process by which Managers acquire not only skills and competencies in their present jobs but also capabilities for future managerial tasks of increasing difficulties and scope.

NATURE OF MANAGERIAL DEVELOPMENT


Educational Process

Behavioral Change

Nature of Management Development

Self Development

Continuous Process

GOALS OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT


To increase the overall knowledge and conceptual and decision making skills of executives. To improve the performance of managers in their present positions. To ensure an adequate reserve of capable well trained managers for future needs. To influence the behavior of workers through the executives.

To introduce change in the organization by developing executives into change agent or facilitators. To provide opportunities to the managers for their career advancement. To prevent obsolescence of executives by providing them opportunities for updating their knowledge and skills.

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUE


ON THE JOB METHODS 1. On the Job coaching. 2. Under study. 3. Job Rotation. 4. Multiple Management. 5. Committee Assignment.

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUE


OFF THE JOB METHOD 1. Special Courses. 2. Specific Readings. 3. Special Project. 4. Conference Training. 5. Sensitivity Training. 6. Role Playing. 7. Programmed Instructions. 8. Simulation Techniques. 9. Transactional Analysis.

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT FUNCTIONS

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT


Human resource development refers to the process whereby the employees are continuously helped in a planned way to Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various tasks associated with their present/future expected roles.
Develop their general capabilities as individuals so that they are able to discover and exploit their own inner potential for their own and/or organizational development purpose.

Develop an organizational work culture where: superior-subordinate relationships, team work and collaboration among different units are strong and contribute to the professional well-being, motivation and pride.

Functions
Conducting job analysis (determining the nature of each employee's job) Planning labor needs and recruiting job candidates
Selecting job candidates Orienting and training new employees Managing Wages and Salaries (how to compensate employees) Providing incentives and benefits Appraising performance and Communicating (interviewing, counseling, disciplining)

Functions (Cont.)
Training and developing

Building employee commitment


Equal opportunity and affirmative action Employee health and safety Grievances and labor relations

Importance of HRM functions


As managers none of us would like to make the following mistakes. To hire the wrong person for the job

To experience high turnover


To find our people not doing their best To waste time with countless and useless interviews To have our company sued for our discriminatory actions.

Importance of HRM functions (Cont.)


To be quoted under bad example of unsafe practices
To have some of your employees think their salaries are unfair and inequitable relative to others in the organization To allow a lack of training to undermine your department's effectiveness

To commit any unfair labor practices

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

TYPES OF TRAINING
Induction Or Orientation Training. Job Training. Apprenticeship Training. Internship Training. Refresher Training Or Retraining. Training For Promotion.

In-Basket Technique
It provides trainees with a log of written text or information and requests, such as memos, messages, and reports, which would be handled by manger, engineer, reporting officer, or administrator.

IN BASKET TECHNIQUE
In this technique, trainee is given some information about the role to be played such as, description, responsibilities, general context about the role. The trainee is then given the log of materials that make up the in-basket and asked to respond to materials within a particular time period.

After all the trainees complete in-basket, a discussion with the trainer takes place.
In this discussion the trainee describes the justification for the decisions. The trainer then provides feedback, reinforcing decisions made suitably or encouraging the trainee to increase alternatives for those made unsuitably.

IN BASKET TECHNIQUE (Contd.)


This technique focuses on:
Building decision making skills Assess and develops Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSAs) Develops of communication and interpersonal skills Develops procedural knowledge Develops strategic knowledge

In-Basket Technique (Contd)

METHOD of TRAINING
On the Job Training Off the Job Training Vestibule Training

DEVELOPING A JOB-TRAINING PROGRAM


Training plan: A detailed plan for carrying out employee training for a unit of work. 1st- establish performance standards: they provide a ready made structure for a training program. 2nd- write a training objective derived form above. 3rd- Develop standard procedures (list tasks and spell them out).

BENEFITS of TRAINING
Increase Confidence. Develop New Skills. Quick Promotion. Higher Earning. Increase Safety.

Then why is training often neglected?


Urgency of need Training time Costs Employee turnover Short-term worker Diversity of worker Kinds of jobs (simplecomplex) Not knowing exactly what you want your people to do and

How employees learn the best ?


When they are actively involved in the learning process-(to do this choose a appropriate teaching method). Training is relevant and practical. Training material is organized and presented in chunks. Training is in an informal, quiet, and comfortable setting. When they have a good trainer. When they receive feedback on performance. When they are rewarded.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

WHAT IS PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL?


In simple terms, performance appraisal may be understood as the assessment of an individuals performance in a systematic way, the performance being measured against such factors as job knowledge, quality and quantity of output, initiative, leadership abilities, supervision, dependability, co-operation, judgment, versatility, health and the alike. Assessment should not be condensed to past performance alone. Potentials of the employee for future performance must also be assessed. A formal definition of performance appraisal is: It is the systematic evaluations of the individual with respect to his her performance on the job and his or her potential for development.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL COMPARISION


Job Analysis: Describe work and requirement of a particular job. Performance Standards: Translate job requirements into levels of acceptable or unacceptable performance Performance Appraisal: Describe the job-relevant strengths and weaknesses of each individual

OBJECTIVES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL


Broadly, performance appraisal serves four major objectives Development uses Administrative uses/decisions Organizational maintenance/objectives, and Documentation purposes

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PROCESS


Various Steps involved into process are as follows Objectives of Appraisal: Establish job Expectation Design Appraisal Program Appraise performance Performance review Use appraisal Data for appropriate purposes

ESTABLISH JOB EXPECTATIONS


The second step in the appraisal process is to establish job expectations. This includes informing the employee what is expected of him or her on the job. Normally, a discussion is held with his or her superior to review the major duties contained in the job description. Individuals should not be expected to begin the job until they understand what is expected of them.

WHAT SHOULD BE RATED?


One of the steps in designing an appraisal programme is to determine the evaluation criteria .It is obvious that the criteria should be related to the job. The six criteria for assessing performance are: Quality Quantity Timeliness Cost of Effectiveness Need for supervision. Interpersonal impact

METHODS OF APPRAISAL
Numerous methods have been devised to measure the quantity and quality of employees job performance. Each of the methods discussed could be effective for some purposes, for some organizations. None should be dismissed or accepted as appropriate except as they relate to the particular needs of the organization or of a particular type or employees. Broadly, all the approaches to appraisal can be classified into
Past-oriented methods Future-oriented methods

PAST-ORIENTED METHODS
Rating scales Checklists Forced choice method Critical incident method Field review method Performance tests and observations Annual confidential reports Essay method Cost accounting approach Comparative evaluation approach

FUTURE-ORIENTED METHODS
Management by objective 360-Degree appraisal Psychological appraisals Assessment centers

USE OF APPRAISAL DATA


The final step in evaluation process is the use of appraisal data. The data and information generated through performance evaluation must be used by the HR dept. In one way or the other, data and information outputs of performance-appraisal program can critically influence these coveted employer-employee reward opportunities. Specifically, the data and information will be useful in the following areas in HRM: Remuneration administration Validation of selection programs Employee training and development programs Promotion, transfer and lay-off decisions Grievance and discipline programs HR planning.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT

WHAT IS A CAREER?
A career is a persons chosen profession or occupation. The general course or progression of your working life or your professional achievement. A career may include several jobs.

CAREER STAGES
Exploration. Establishment. Mid Career. Late Career. Decline.

MAKING CAREER DECISIONS


This is the step when you pull together the information you have gathered and you: Establish goals (career and educational) Make plans to attain those goals Implement plans step-by-step Evaluate goals and progress continuously Adjust as you and/or situations change Continue to evaluate and re-prioritize

CAREER DEVELOPMENT
Career development is a set of activities undertaken by the individual employees and the organization to meet career aspirations and job requirement. The most important requirement of career development is that every employee must accept his/her responsibility for development.

The Career Development Process


The career development process involves four basic steps: Self -awareness and assessment Career awareness and exploration Career decision-making Career planning and placement

CAREER DEVELOPMENT:A COMMITMENT


Career development programs are most valuable when they are: Offered regularly Open to all employees Modified when evaluation indicates that change is necessary