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Chapter 15 Active Filters

Objectives
Describe the frequency response of basic filters
Describe the three basic filter response characteristics Analyze low, high, band-pass, and band-stop filters

Analyze the operation of log and antilog amplifiers


Discuss two methods for measuring frequency response

Introduction
Active filters combine solid state amplification and passive filter circuits. The amplification is used to augment a passive filters characteristics. The action of the passive filter is no different than when used by itself.

Basic Filter Responses


The basic low-pass filter response is from 0Hz to the upper critical frequency (fcu). Note the passband of the ideal (shaded area) versus the realistic. The fcu can be by the formula the formula below.

fcu = 1/2RC

Figure 151

Low-pass filter responses.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Basic Filter Responses


A high-pass filter effectively blocks below fc and allowing only the frequencies above fc to pass. The same formula is used for the critical frequency for both low and high pass filters.

Figure 152

High-pass filter responses.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

The band-pass filter allows frequencies between a lower critical frequency (fc1) and an upper critical frequency (fc2) to pass while effectively blocking all others. The narrower the bandwidth, the higher the quality (Q) of the filter. The formula for the Q of a band-pass filter is shown below. f0 = center frequency.

Basic Filter Responses

Q = f0/BW

Basic Filter Responses


The band-stop filter is just the opposite of a band-pass. Frequencies above and below fc1 and fc2 are passed while effectively blocking the frequencies between.

Filter Response Characteristics


The Butterworth, Bessel, and Chebyshev are three response curves that can be produced from filter circuits. These responses are easily identifiable and are produced with selection of certain component values.

The Butterworth characteristic response is very flat. The roll-off rate 20 dB per decade. This is the most widely used. The Chebyshev characteristic response provides a roll-off rate greater than 20 dB but has ripples in the passband and a nonlinear phase response. The Bessel characteristic response exhibits the most linear phase response making it ideal for filtering pulse waveforms with distortion.

Filter Response Characteristics

The damping factor of an active filter determines the type of response characteristic. The output signal is fed back into the filter circuit with negative feedback determined by the combination of R1 and R2. The negative feedback ultimately determines the type of filter response is produced. The equation below defines the damping factor. DF = 2 - R1/R2

Filter Response Characteristics

Figure 157

First-order (one-pole) low-pass filter.

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Filter Response Characteristics


Greater roll-off rates can be achieved with more poles. Each RC set of filter components represents a pole. Cascading of filter circuits also increases the poles which results in a steeper rolloff. Each pole represents a 20 dB/decade increase in roll-off.

Figure 159

Single-pole active low-pass filter and response curve.

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Active Low-Pass Filters


The Sallen-Key low-pass filter is one of the most common configurations for a second-order (two-pole) filter. The cutoff frequency for this type of filter can be determined by the formula below. Greater roll-off can be achieved by cascading.

fc = 1/2 RARBCACB

Figure 1511

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1512

Cascaded low-pass filters.

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1513

Single-pole active high-pass filter and response curve.

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1514

High-pass filter response.

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Active High-Pass Filters


The Sallen-Key high pass configuration is a second order filter for high pass filters. Note that the positions of the resistors and capacitors are opposite of the low-pass type.

Figure 1516

Sixth-order high-pass filter.

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

A cascaded arrangement of a low-pass and high-pass filter forms a band-pass filter.

Active Band-pass Filters

Active Band pass Filters


The upper and lower cutoff frequencies and center frequencies can be determined with the previously discussed formulas for RC filter circuits.

Active Band-pass Filters


Another type of filter configuration is the multiplefeedback band-pass filter. The low-pass circuit consists of R1 and C1. The high-pass circuit consists of the of the R2 and C2. The feedback paths are through C1 and R2.

Active Band-pass Filters


The center frequency for a the multiple-feedback band-pass filter can be determined by the formula below.

f0 = 1/2(R1R3)R2C1C2

Figure 1519

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Active Band-pass Filters


The state-variable band-pass filter is widely used for bandpass applications. It consists of a summing amplifier and two integrators. It has outputs for low-pass, high-pass, and band-pass. The center frequency is set by the integrator RC circuits. R5 and R6 set the Q (bandwidth).

Active Band-Pass Filters


The band-pass output peaks sharply the center frequency giving it a high Q.

Figure 1522

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1523

A biquad filter.

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Active Band-Stop Filters


The band-stop filter is opposite of band-pass in that it blocks a specific band of frequencies. The multiplefeedback design is similar to a band-pass with exception of the placement of R3 and the addition of R4.

Figure 1525

State-variable band-stop filter.

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1526

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Filter Response Measurements


Measuring frequency response can be performed with typical bench-type equipment. It is a process of setting and measuring frequencies both outside and inside the known cutoff points in predetermined steps. Use the output measurements to plot a graph.
More accurate measurements can be performed with sweep generators along with an oscilloscope, a spectrum analyzer, or a scalar analyzer.

Figure 1527

Test setup for discrete point measurement of the filter response. (Readings are arbitrary and for display only.)

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1528

Test setup for swept frequency measurement of the filter response.

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Summary
The bandwidth of a low-pass filter is the same as the upper critical frequency. The bandwidth of a high-pass filter extends from the lower critical frequency up to the inherent limits of the circuit. The band-pass passes frequencies between the lower critical frequency and the upper critical frequency. A band-stop filter rejects frequencies within the upper critical frequency and upper critical frequency. The Butterworth filter response is very flat and has a roll-off rate of 20 B.

The Chebyshev filter response has ripples and overshoot in the passband but can have roll-off rates greater than 20 dB.

Summary

The Bessel response exhibits a linear phase characteristic, and filters with the Bessel response are better for filtering pulse waveforms.
A filter pole consists of one RC circuit. Each pole doubles the roll-off rate. The Q of a filter indicates a band-pass filters selectivity. The higher the Q the narrower the bandwidth.

The damping factor determines the filter response characteristic.

Figure 1529

Basic block diagram of an FM receiver system.

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1530

Channel filter board.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1531

Channel separation circuits. The circuits on the filter board are shown in the green blocks.

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1532

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1533 Multisim file circuits are identified with a CD logo and are in the Problems folder on your CD-ROM. Filenames correspond to figure numbers (e.g., F15-33).

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1534

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1535

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1536

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1537

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1538

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.