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Chapter 18 Voltage Regulators

Objectives
Describe the basic concept of voltage regulation Discuss the principles of series, shunt, and switching voltage regulation Discuss IC voltage regulators and some of their applications

Introduction
The purpose of voltage regulation is to maintain a precise voltage output from a power supply despite load and input voltage variations. There are basically two categories: linear and switching. As with many systems, discrete device circuits are being replaced with integrated circuits. We will discuss a few of the IC type regulators.

Line regulation is the maintenance of a specific output voltage despite changes in input voltage. How well a regulator performs line regulation can be determined by the formula below. Line Regulation = (VOUT/VIN)100%

Voltage Regulation

Load regulation is the maintenance of a precise output voltage despite changes in load resistance. How well a regulator performs load regulation can be determined by the formula below. Load Regulation = (VNL - VFL) /VFL100%

Voltage Regulation

Figure 183

Thevenin equivalent circuit for a power supply with a load resistor.

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Basic Series Regulators


With series regulation the control element is in series with the input and output.

Basic Series Regulators


The zener diode sets the reference voltage for the noninverting input of the op-amp. Any changes in the output are fed back to the inverting input of the op-amp. The difference voltage output of the op-amp biases the transistor to correct the output voltage for the overall circuit. The output of this regulator can be determined by the formula below.

VOUT (1 + R2/R3)VREF

Figure 186

Illustration of series regulator action that keeps VOUT constant when VIN or RL changes.

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Figure 187

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Basic Series Regulators


Overload protection for a series regulator protects the control element in the case of a short or an unusually heavy load (low RL). Q2 is biased by the voltage drop across R4. When load current exceeds the predetermined level Q2 diverts current from the base of Q1 causing Q1 to conduct less. The load current maximum can be determined by the formula below.

IL(max) = .7V/R4

Figure 189

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Basic Series Regulators


Fold-back current limiting allows operation up to peak load current. With a shorted output the current is dropped to a lower value (folded back). VR5 + VBE must be overcome before Q2 conducts to limit current.

Figure 1811

Fold-back current limiting (output voltage versus load current).

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Basic Shunt Regulators


In shunt regulation the control element is in parallel with the load.

Figure 1813

Basic op-amp shunt regulator with load resistor.

Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, 7e

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1814 Sequence of responses when VOUT tries to decrease as a result of a decrease in RL or VIN (opposite responses for an attempted increase).

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1815

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Basic Switching Regulators


The switching regulator is more efficient than the linear series or shunt type. This type regulator is ideal for high current applications since less power is dissipated. Voltage regulation in a switching regulator is achieved by the on and off action limiting the amount of current flow based on the varying line and load conditions. With switching regulators 90% efficiencies can be achieved.

Basic Switching Regulators


With the step-down (output is less than the input) configuration the control element Q1 is pulsed on and off at variable rate based on the load current. The pulsations are filtered out by the LC filter.

Figure 1816

Basic step-down switching regulator.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1817 Switching regulator waveforms. The VC waveform is shown for no inductive filtering to illustrate the charge and discharge action (ripple). L and C smooth VC to a nearly constant level, as indicated by the dashed line for VOUT.

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Figure 1818

Basic regulating action of a step-down switching regulator.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Basic Switching Regulators


The step-up configuration works much the same as the stepdown. The difference is in the placement of the inductor and the fact that Q1 is shunt configured. During the time when Q1 is off the VL adds to VC stepping the voltage up by some amount.

Figure 1820

Basic action of a step-up regulator when Q1 is on.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1821

Basic switching action of a step-up regulator when Q1 turns off.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Basic Switching Regulators


With the voltage-inverter configuration the output voltage output is of opposite polarity of the input. This is achieved by VL forward-biasing reverse-biased diode during the off times producing current and charging the capacitor for voltage production during the off times. With switching regulators 90% efficiencies can be achieved.

Figure 1822

Basic inverting switching regulator.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1823

Basic inverting action of an inverting switching regulator.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1824

Basic regulating action of an inverting switching regulator.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

IC Regulators
Regulation circuits in integrated circuit form are widely used. Their operation is no different but they are treated as a single device with associated components. These are generally three terminal devices that provide a positive or negative output. Some types are have variable voltage outputs.

A typical 7800 series voltage regulator is used for positive voltages. The 7900 series are negative voltage regulators. These voltage regulators when used with heatsinks can safely produce current values of 1A and greater. The capacitors act as line filtration.

IC Regulators

Figure 1825

The 78XX series three-terminal fixed positive voltage regulators.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1826

The 79XX series three-terminal fixed negative voltage regulators.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

IC Regulators
Adjustable IC regulators are available with either positive or negative output. They can be set to produce a specific voltage by way of an external reference voltage divider network. Switching regulators are also available in IC form.

Figure 1828

Operation of the LM317 adjustable voltage regulator.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1829

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Figure 1830

The LM337 three-terminal adjustable negative voltage regulator.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1831

The 78S40 switching regulator.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

To increase the current capability of an IC regulator an external pass transistor can be used.

IC Regulators

Figure 1833

Operation of the regulator with an external pass transistor.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

A current limiting circuit similar to the one discussed earlier can be used to protect the external pass transistor.

IC Regulators

Figure 1835

The current-limiting action of the regulator circuit.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1836

The three-terminal regulator as a current source.

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Figure 1837

A constant-current source of 1 A.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1838

The step-down configuration of the 78S40 switching regulator.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1839

The step-up configuration of the 78S40 switching regulator.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Summary
Voltage regulators keep a constant dc output despite input voltage or load changes. The two basic categories of voltage regulators are linear and switching. The two types of linear voltage regulators are series and shunt. The three types of switching are step-up, step-down, and inverting.

Switching regulators are more efficient than linear making them ideal for low voltage high current applications.

Summary
IC regulators are available with fixed positive or negative output voltages or variable negative or positive output voltages. Both linear and switching type regulators are available in IC form.

Current capacity of a voltage regulator can be increased with an external pass transistor.

Figure 1840

Block diagram of the dual-polarity power supply.

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Figure 1841

The dual-polarity power supply circuit board.

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Figure 1842

The dual-polarity power supply schematic.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1843

Results of tests on four faulty power supply boards.

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Figure 1844

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Figure 1845 Multisim file circuits are identified with a CD logo and are in the Problems folder on your CD-ROM. Filenames correspond to figure numbers (e.g., F1845).

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Basic Shunt Regulators


The shunt regulator is similar in design to the series. With attempted changes in output voltage, Q1 is biased to conduct more or less. This dynamic collector-emitter resistance and R1 act as a voltage divider network that maintains a specific voltage across the load. R1 limits current in the case of a short.

Figure 1846

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Figure 1847

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Figure 1848

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Figure 1849

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Figure 1850

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Figure 1851

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Figure 1852

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Figure 1853

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