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Aerodynamics
2009/2010
Prof Andrew Rae
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 2
Learning Outcomes and Assessment Methods
Learning Outcomes  On successful completion of this
module, the student will be able to:
Assessment Methods
1. Identify and analyse the aerodynamic forces on an
aircraft. Explain the effects of airflow at subsonic,
transonic and supersonic speeds.
Exam
2. Discuss the different types of aerodynamic
experimental methods and the advantages and
disadvantages of each method.
Assignment
3. Describe the factors leading to flow separation and
solve simple boundary layer and skin friction problems,
using standard basic results.
Exam
4. Discuss the relative merits of standard wing planforms
and explain the use and benefits of lift augmentation
devices.
Exam/Assignment
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 3
Content (1)
Fundamentals:
• Static dynamic and total pressure; Bernoulli‟s principle; Speed of
sound and Mach number; ISA tables.
Lift generation:
• Circulation, lift and downwash; Kutta condition; KuttaJoukowski
theorem; spanwise lift distribution, loads and bending moment.
Subsonic Flows:
• Contributions to subsonic drag; zerolift drag, skinfriction;
„Horseshoe‟ vortex system; wing planforms in subsonic flow;
induced drag; span efficiency; tip devices; wing design through twist
and camber including “washout” and “washin”.
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 4
Content (2)
Viscosity:
• Definition; boundary layers; Reynolds number; velocity profiles; no
slip condition; effect of surface roughness on skin friction; laminar
and turbulent flows; local and global skin friction calculations;
boundary layer thickness definition; momentum and displacement
thickness; equivalent body in inviscid flow; transition and flow
separation.
Aerodynamic methods;
• History of aerodynamic testing; Wind tunnel types; low speed and
high speed testing; Open and closed circuit (Eiffel/Goettingen) type
tunnels; Open, closed and slotted/porous working section type
tunnels; Flight testing; Model mounting systems; upwash, buoyancy
and blockage correction methods; Mach similarity; Methods of
increasing Reynolds number; Powered wind tunnel models;
Pressurised, cryogenic, heavy gas and water tunnels; Introduction to
CFD; Description of CFD; Advantages and disadvantages of CFD;
Examples/demonstration of CFD usage.
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 5
Content (3)
Lift augmentation and flow control devices;
• The need for high lift; history of high lift; slats, flaps and other high
lift devices; the effects of slots; Coanda effects and blown devices;
powered high lift devices; vortex generators.
Supersonic Flows:
• Critical Mach Number; formation of shockwaves; Normal and
oblique shockwaves; Effect of wing thickness and camber; Wave
drag and methods of reducing wave drag (Wing Sweep, Transonic
Area Ruling, Supercritical Aerofoil design, Wing design); Shockwave
control and the Shockinduced separation.
Swept wings:
• Swept wing flows; Effect of spanwise and normal velocity
components; qualitative description of 3D boundary layers on swept
wings; Forward, rearward and variable sweep wings; control surface
effects; delta wings and vortical flows; vortex flap; aerodynamics of
aircraft at high incidences.
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 6
• Static dynamic and total pressure;
Bernoulli‟s principle; Speed of sound and
mach number; ISA tables.
Fundamentals
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 7
• Circulation, lift and downwash; Kutta
condition; KuttaJoukowski theorem;
spanwise lift distribution, loads and
bending moment.
Lift Generation
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 8
Lift generation (1)
Circulation
– A term meaning rotation, which in aerodynamics is usually associated
with vorticity.
– An commonly seen example is a type of forced circulation called the
Magnus effect
• If a cylinder or sphere is made to
rotate as it travels through air,
friction causes:
– the air on the forward moving side
to slow down
– the air on the rearward moving
side to speed up
– a differential pressure (Bernoulli)
and a lift force
The object moves sideways
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 9
A David Beckham
free kick
Lift generation (2)
Slice on a golf ball
Some you might have seen…..
A „curve‟ ball
Spin on a tennis ball
Purposely ignoring cricket  polishing, seam, boot studs, etc. are all
separation control (dimples on a golf ball)….see later….
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 10
• An aerofoil is a body that induces the same effect through shape
only.
• Consider first inviscid flow (no friction)
Lift generation (3)
• The flow around a body produces changes in velocity and thus
changes in pressure
– but the pressure variations are symmetrical, i.e. no lift
Note: Pictures from „An Album of Fluid Motion‟ (Parabolic
Press)
Dye injection shows the streamlines in water flowing at
1mm/s between glass plates spaced 1mm apart. It is
interesting that the best way of showing the unseparated
patterns of inviscid flow (which would be spoiled by
separation in a real fluid of even the slightest viscosity) is to
go to the extreme of creeping flow in a narrow gap, which is
dominated by viscous forces, i.e. boundary layers.
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 11
• So, in inviscid flow, the pressures on the upper and lower surfaces
of an aerofoil are equal and thus so are the velocities:
• In real life (air, water) the flow is viscous:
– The flow on the lower surface will not traverse the sharp trailing edge –
there is a limiting curvature (pressure gradient) round which a viscous
fluid will flow (spoon under a tap)
– By not doing so it creates a creates a partial vacuum (low pressure) on
the trailingedge upper surface
– This draws the uppersurface flow down to the trailing edge too
– Both upper and lowersurface flows leave smoothly at the aerofoil at the
trailingedge
– the Kutta Condition (M.Wilhelm Kutta, Germany, 1902)
Lift generation (4)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 12
• So, the combination of pressure gradients and the Kutta condition
results in higher velocity air over the upper surface and lower
velocity air over the bottom surface and hence lift
• A mathematical way of representing this is to take the inviscid flow…
Lift generation (5)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 13
• So, the combination of pressure gradients and the Kutta condition
results in higher velocity air over the upper surface and lower
velocity air over the bottom surface and hence lift
• …and add circulation (rotation, a vortex)
Lift generation (6)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 14
• As with the Magnus effect, the result of the circulation (vortex) is lift:
Lift generation (7)
=
• This circulation is also known as the „bound‟ vortex and forms part of
the horseshoe vortex system (see later)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 15
• The vorticity is not just a mathematical device, it is a real effect and
can be seen most obviously when it is shed from a wing tip.
• In addition, the velocity gradients in the boundary layer produce
vorticity that is thus distributed along the aerofoil surface.
Lift generation (8)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 16
• The circulation (vortex) has a strength (I) and the lift generated by
a 2D aerofoil (or per unit span for a 3D wing) is given by:
(the KuttaJoukowski Theorum)
where µ is the density of the air and U is the velocity of the aerofoil.
– Thus for a given speed and altitude, higher lift means stronger
vorticity.
• So, could there be lift without friction?
– Lift is a result of the surface pressure distribution
• an inviscid phenomenon
– But the differential pressure between upper and lower surfaces is a
result of the Kutta condition
• a viscous phenomenon
I = U L µ
Lift generation (9)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 17
• For a finite wing, the combination of
bound and shed (free) vorticity is called
the horseshoe vortex system
• A simple, finite, rectangular wing can be
represented as a single bound vortex of
constant strength, and a pair of semi
infinite trailing vortices
• The bound vortex is located at the
centre of pressure (~c/4)
Lift generation (10)
Anderson „Fundamentals of Aerodynamics‟
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 18
• The starting vortex
– When an aerofoil starts
moving the flow tried to curl
around the trailing edge
– In so doing the flow velocities
there become very large
– Consequently a thin region of
very large velocity gradient
(and thus high vorticity) is
formed at the trailing edge
– Once the flow is established,
the flow leaves the trailing
edge smoothly (Kutta
condition) and the velocity
gradients disappear
– The shed vorticity rolls up into
a starting vortex
Lift generation (11)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 19
• Trailing vorticity – an aside (#1)
– Crow instability
– Condensation trails from a B
47 taken at 15s intervals after
its passage
Lift generation (12)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 20
• Trailing vorticity – an aside (#2)
– Wake vorticity and wake
encounters
– Especially on descent (µ U I)
Lift generation (13)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 21
• The bound and trailing vortices are examples of vortex
filaments:
– Lines of constant strength (point) vorticity
– They can be curved but for current purposes we will consider only
straight filaments
• The vortex filament will induce flow around it, depending on its
strength and direction of circulation
– E.g. the bound vortex….
– ….and the trailing vortices too
Lift generation (14)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 22
• Based on the BiotSavart Law (see Anderson, „Fundamentals of
Aerodynamics‟ Section 5.2), the magnitude of the velocity (V) at a point (P)
that is at a perpendicular distance (h) from a vortex filament of strength Γ is
given by the equation:
• The magnitude of the induced velocity decreases with increasing distance
from the vortex
h
V
t 4
I
=
h
V
Γ
Lift generation (15)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 23
• So from before, with the horseshoe vortex system, the downwash
(w) induced along the span of the wing by the trailing vortices can
be shown as:
Anderson „Fundamentals of Aerodynamics‟
Lift generation (16)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 24
• The angle of attack
(α) between the
chord line and the
free stream (V
∞
) is
the geometric angle
of attack
Lift generation (17)
• The downward component of velocity generated by downwash at
the wing is w, producing a local relative wind inclined from the
below V
∞
the induced angle of attack α
i
. This has two effects:
– The angle of attack seen by the aerofoil is less than the geometric
angle of attack and is known as the effective angle of attack
α
eff
= α – α
i
– The local lift vector is perpendicular to the local relative wind and
thus is now inclined behind the vertical by the angle α
i
and thus has
a longitudinal component which contributes to drag, D
i
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 25
• But what is wrong with this picture?
– Only applicable to rectangular wings
• No taper, no twist, no sweep
– Not even brilliant for that:
• Downwash of infinite value at the wing tip?
• Consider the concept of lift distribution
– The variation of lift along the span
• For the horseshoe vortex system, the bound vortex is of constant
strength and the lift is thus constant across the span
BUT
• The equalisation of pressure at the wing tip (bleed between upp an
lower surfaces) means that in reality there is zero lift at the wing tip
Lift generation (18)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 26
• The lift distribution of a simple horseshoe vortex system would thus
be draw as:
• Whereas it should be:
(The local lift is the local height of the lift distribution and the total lift is the area under the lift distribution curve)
y
Lift generation (19)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 27
• To model reality better we introduce a concept called the lifting line
– Ludwig Prandtl (Göttingen, 19111918)
• What happens if we take a single horseshoe vortex and add
another of smaller span on same chordline?
∞
∞
2
b
÷
2
b
Γ
1
Γ
1
Γ
1
Γ
1
∞
∞
Γ
2
Γ
2
Γ
2
Γ
2
Lift generation (20)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 28
• By playing games with the number, span and strength of the
horseshoe vortices we can achieve any lift distribution to define any
planform
– Still used today for preliminary calculations, bearing in mind its
limitations (inviscid, incompressible)
Lift generation (21)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 29
• Wing loading
– The mass of an aircraft divided by the area of its wing planform
• A useful indicator of an aircraft‟s handling and performance
&
• Takeoff and landing performance
– Rearranging the equation for lift coefficient gives
and therefore
– So for aircraft with the same lift coefficient at takeoff and landing (and
in the same atmospheric conditions) the aircraft with the bigger wing
will need less speed at takeoff and landing, or less lift coefficient at
the same speed
S V
L
C
L
2
2
1
µ
=
g W
S
Mg
C V
S
L
S L
= = =
2
2
1
µ
C
L
= lift coefficient
ρ = pressure
V = velocity
S = wing area
M = aircraft mass
g = acceleration due to gravity
W
S
= wing loading
L
S
C
W g
V
µ
2
=
S
W α V
Lift generation (22)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 30
• Initial climb rate
– Newton‟s Second Law; F = Ma
– At rotation, the lift generated is greater than that needed to balance the
aircraft weight otherwise the aircraft would not get airborne.
– The vertical force due to the difference between the lift generated and
the aircraft weight is thus
Lift – Weight = L – Mg
=
– And the vertical acceleration can then be found from
– So for the same lift coefficient the aircraft with the lower wing loading will
have the greater initial climb
Mg C S V
L
÷
2
2
1
µ
C
L
= lift coefficient
ρ = pressure
V = velocity
S = wing area
M = aircraft mass
g = acceleration due to gravity
W
S
= wing loading
a
v
= vertical acceleration
g M C S V a M
L v
÷ =
2
2
1
µ g C V
W
a
L
S
v
÷ = µ
2
2
1
Lift generation (23)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 31
• Turning performance
– An aircraft performing a constantspeed,
constant radius turn obeys the mathematical
rules of circular motion
• The velocity (rate of change of position) is the
distance travelled around the circle (the
circumference) divided by the time taken to
complete a rotation. i.e.
• The acceleration is rate of change of velocity
divided by the time taken to complete a
rotation. The velocity rotates by 2π in time T.
• Rearranging and substituting gives
C
L
= lift coefficient
ρ = pressure
V = velocity
S = wing area
M = aircraft mass
g = acceleration due to gravity
W
S
= wing loading
a
v
= vertical acceleration
a
c
= centripetal acceleration
T
R
V
t 2
=
T
V
a
c
t 2
=
R
V
a
c
2π
R
V
a
c
2
=
Lift generation (24)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 32
• Turning performance (continued)
– The centripetal force is given by
Newton‟s 2
nd
Law and is equal to
the horizontal component of lift, so
C
L
= lift coefficient
ρ = pressure
V = velocity
S = wing area
M = aircraft mass
g = acceleration due to gravity
W
S
= wing loading
a
v
= vertical acceleration
a
c
= centripetal acceleration
θ = bank angle
L
θ
u µ u µ
u µ
sin
2
sin
2
sin
2
1
2
2
L
S
L
L
C
W
C S
M
R
S C V
R
V M
= =
=
– And thus turn radius (R) is proportional
to wing loading
Lift generation (25)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 33
• Gust response
– The acceleration due to a gust (a transient
increase or decrease in lift) is, from Newton‟s 2
nd
Law:
– Thus an aircraft with higher wing loading has
better „ride quality‟
C
L
= lift coefficient
ρ = pressure
V = velocity
S = wing area
M = aircraft mass
g = acceleration due to gravity
W
S
= wing loading
a
v
= vertical acceleration
a
c
= centripetal acceleration
θ = bank angle
S
v
W
L
M
S L
a
A
=
A
=
Lift generation (26)
N.B. – These analyses are good indicators of aircraft performance
and handling but should be treated with care as they are
essentially static assessments of what are, in reality, dynamic
manoeuvres
– Mean wind direction, turbulence, aircraft pitch, roll, yaw, etc.
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 34
• A lot of mathematical analysis, but what does it mean in practice?
• Landing and takeoff performance
– Airbus aircraft have lower wing loading than Boeing aircraft and thus can
trade this for lower C
L
at takeoff and landing
• Simpler and lighter highlift devices (see later)
Lift generation (27)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 35
• Initial climb rate
– The original A340 is underpowered but gets way with it because of low
wing loading
– It can achieve a certifiable climb rate even with relatively small engines
• CFM56 on A340200 and 300 (34,000 lb
f
each)
• RR Trent 500 on A340500 and 600 (60,000 lb
f
each)
Lift generation (28)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 36
• Turning performance
– Fighter aircraft
• The difference between fighter and interceptor
Lift generation (29)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 37
• Turning performance
– Fighter aircraft
• The Spitfire had much lower
wing loading
BUT
• The Bf109 had automatic
leadingedge slats
Higher C
L
Lift generation (30)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 38
• Gust response
– Airbus (low wing loading)
• Lower landing and takeoff speeds, better initial climb
vs
• Boeing (high wing loading)
• Smoother cruise
Lift generation (31)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 39
• Gust response
Lowlevel bomber vs highlevel bomber
Lift generation (32)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 40
• Returning to lift distribution
– The load resulting from the lift generated by a wing requires a structure
strong enough to sustain it
– The lift can be idealised as acting at the centroid of the lift distribution:
– So the wing tries to bend upwards when it generates lift
• This load must be absorbed by the wing spar
• Bending moment is dependent on the magnitude of the lift and how far it acts
from the wing root
Lift generation (33)
Moment arm
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 41
• Wing root bending moment
– 0g to 1g flight
– 2.5g gust and manoeuvre load
Lift generation (34)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 42
• Ways to alleviate wing root bending moment
– Engines
– Winglets
Lift generation (35)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 43
• Contributions to subsonic drag; zerolift
drag, skinfriction; „Horseshoe‟ vortex
system; wing planforms in subsonic flow;
induced drag; span efficiency; tip devices;
wing design through twist and camber
including “washout” and “washin”.
Subsonic Flows
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 44
• Definition; boundary layers; Reynolds
number; velocity profiles; noslip condition;
effect of surface roughness on skin
friction; laminar and turbulent flows; local
and global skin friction calculations;
boundary layer thickness definition;
momentum and displacement thickness;
equivalent body in inviscid flow; transition
and flow separation.
Viscosity
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 45
• What is viscosity?
– The material property that measures a fluid's resistance to flowing
• It concerns the transport of mass, momentum and energy when the
molecules move.
– It results in friction between air and any surface over which it flows
Viscosity (1)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 46
• Boundary Layers
– A thin region of the flow adjacent to a surface, where the flow is retarded
by the influence of friction between a solid surface and the fluid
(Anderson, „Fundamentals of Aerodynamics‟)
– Its characteristics (size, composition, etc.) are determined by a variety of
things
• viscosity (friction)
• Shape (pressure gradient)
• Reynolds number (density, velocity)
– Extremely difficult to measure
– Still not fully understood
• Transition mechanisms
• The limit on many numerical
methods
Viscosity (2)
y (v)
x (u)
u=U
∞
y=0, u=0, v=0
U
∞
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 47
• Boundary Layers
– Inviscid vs Viscous
Viscosity (3)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 48
• Reynolds number
– A nondimensional measure of the ratio of inertia forces (µU
2
) to
viscous forces (μU/d)
• Where µ = density
U = velocity
d = reference length
μ = viscosity
– Which gives
µ
µ d U
= Re
Viscosity (4)
– One of the most powerful parameters
in fluid dynamics
• Helps assess the similarity or
equivalence of differing flow
conditions
• Scale effect
– High Re flows approach inviscid
conditions (thin boundary layers)
Stokes
Reynolds
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 49
• Reynolds number
Viscosity (5)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 50
• Reynolds number
– Some examples
Viscosity (6)
Gliders
Re <20000
X15
Re = 6 million
A380
Re = 80 million
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 51
• Reynolds number
– Wind tunnel coverage
• (see „Aerodynamics Methods‟)
EWA Wind Tunnel Performance Envelopes
0
5
10
15
20
25
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50
Mach Number
R
e
y
n
o
l
d
s
n
u
m
b
e
r
(
m
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
p
e
r
m
e
t
r
e
)
QinetiQ5m
ONERAS1MA
CIRAIWT
VZLU 3 m
ONERAF1
FOI LT1
DNWLLF
EWA Wind Tunnel Performance Envelopes
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40
Mach Number
R
e
y
n
o
l
d
s
n
u
m
b
e
r
(
m
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
p
e
r
m
e
t
r
e
)
ONERAS2MA
DNWHST
ONERAS1MA
ARATWT
CIRAPT1
VZLU A1
CIRAIWT
FOI T1500
FOI S4
FOI S5
FOI TVM500
EWA Wind Tunnel Performance Envelopes
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00
Mach Number
R
e
y
n
o
l
d
s
n
u
m
b
e
r
(
m
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
p
e
r
m
e
t
r
e
)
ONERAS2MA
DNWSST
FOI T1500
FOI S4
FOI S5
FOI TVM500
Lowspeed w/t
Transonic w/t
Supersonic w/t
European
Wind Tunnels
ETW (Cryogenic)
Viscosity (7)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 52
• Velocity profiles
– The rate at which the velocity increases from zero at the wall to
freestream velocity at the edge of the boundary layer
– The edge of the boundary layer can be difficult to define so a
(sometimes artificial) definition is imposed:
u = 0.99 U
∞
– The boundarylayer depth (the distance from the surface where u =
0.99 U
∞
) is defined as δ
Viscosity (8)
y (v)
x (u)
u=0.99U
∞
y=0, u=0, v=0
U
∞
Boundarylayer
velocity profile
δ
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 53
Viscosity (9)
• Shear Stress
– The assertion that the velocity at the surface is zero
– The action of viscosity tugs at the surface (rubbing hands together)
• Generates shear stress (τ
xy
)
dy
du
dy
du
xy
µ t = ·
– You can imagine this as two adjacent layers of
fluid, each at different velocities rubbing
against each other
– The shear stress is thus related to the
difference in velocity between the two layers
and that is defined by the velocity gradient
(du/dy), so
• In reality there is a semiinfinite number of
adjacent layers (solid boundary)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 54
Viscosity (10)
• Noslip condition
– The noslip condition maintains
that the flow at the surface is
stationary
• i.e. that u = 0 at y = 0
– This is difficult to justify
theoretically and is
demonstrably not true in many
cases
– But it is close enough to the
truth (and the convenience of it
as a boundary condition so
large) that its consequences
are accepted
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 55
Viscosity (11)
• Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers
– When a boundary layer starts on a surface it is laminar, i.e. smooth with the
stream lines roughly parallel to the surface
– At some point a transition occurs (due to roughness, contamination, pressure
gradients, etc.) to a turbulent boundary layer
– There is a general mean motion roughly parallel to the surface, but in addition
there are local rapid, random fluctuations in velocity direction and magnitude
– These fluctuations provide a powerful mechanism for mixing within the layer
– Just as viscosity give rise to shear stress, the turbulent fluctuations give rise to
eddy shear stresses
– Consequently there a important differences between the characteristics of
laminar and turbulent boundary layers
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 56
Viscosity (12)
• Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers
– Boundarylayer profile
Steeper profile
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 57
Viscosity (13)
• Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers
– Boundary layer on a flat plate
– Boundary layers on a wing combine to form the wake (profile drag, C
Do
)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 58
Viscosity (14)
• Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers (see also later)
– Transition
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 59
Viscosity (15)
• Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers
– Characteristics which encourage transition
• Increased surface roughness
– Boundarylayer tripping on wind tunnel models
– Dimples on a golf ball
• Increased freestream turbulence
– Wind tunnel comparisons
• Adverse pressure gradients
– Amplification of instabilities
– Sailplane wing profiles
• Heating of the fluid by the surface
– Amplification of instabilities
– The inverse of all these encourage laminar
boundary layers
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 60
Viscosity (16)
• Reynolds Experiment
– Classic experiment examining
laminar and turbulent flow in pipes
• Flow through a pipe metered by a
stopcock
• Dye injection at the centreline of the
tube mouth
• Reynolds noted that low speed the
dye filament remained smooth and
narrow
• At higher speed the filament broke
up and diffused throughout the
cross section
• The speed at which it occurred was
different for pipes of different
diameter
– Relationship to U
∞
and d, i.e Re
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 61
Viscosity (17)
• Reynolds Experiment
a & b – laminar
c  turbulent
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 62
Viscosity (18)
• Reynolds Experiment
Results
– Recreation at the
University of
Manchester using
Reynolds original
apparatus a century
later
Laminar
Transitional
Turbulent
Turbulent
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 63
• Blasius’ Equation
– Uses the boundary layer equations
• Reduction of the NavierStokes equations
to simpler forms which apply to boundary
layers
– Continuity
– x momentum
– y momentum
– Uses a function to turn a set of partial
differential equations into a single
ordinary differential equation
– See Anderson „Fundamentals of Aerodynamics‟, Chapter 18.2
0 2
' ' ' ' '
= + f f f
( )
·
·
= =
V
u
f
x
V
y q
u
q
'
Viscosity (19)
0 =
c
c
+
c
c
y
v
x
u
2
2
y
u
y
v
v
x
u
u
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
u
0 =
c
c
y
p
µ µ u ÷
Where υ is the kinematic
viscosity , defined as
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 64
Viscosity (20)
• Blasius’ Equation
– The important result is that the solution of the
equation is a velocity profile and that it is a function
of η only
– This form of the velocity profile is independent of the
distance along a surface (x)
– Selfsimilar solutions
– If f’=u/U
o
,
the b.l. edge is at f’=0.99 and η =5.0
x
x
x
V
x
V
y
Re
0 . 5
0 . 5
=
= = =
· ·
o
u
o
u
q
– The reduction of the boundary layer
equations to an ODE is only valid for
certain conditions
• E.g. flow on a flat plate
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 65
Viscosity (21)
• Local Skin Friction
– Remember that shear stress within
the boundary layer was defined as
– So shear stress at the wall (skin
friction) is given by
– And the local coefficient of skin
friction (c
f
), the skin friction at a point
x along a surface, is given by
– And is the local coefficient of drag
due to viscosity
dy
du
xy
µ t =
0 =


.

\

=
y
w
dy
du
µ t
2
2
1
· ·
=
V
c
w
f
µ
t
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 66
Viscosity (22)
• Local Skin Friction
– From the boundary layer and Blasius equations
1
it can be shown that
– And so the local shear stress is given by
– Reference [2] describes a numerical solution of the Blasius equation
and tabulates the results, giving f’’(0) = 0.4696, so
– Where Re
x
is the local Reynolds
number
( ) 0
2
' '
0
f
x
V
V
dy
du
y
u
·
·
=
=


.

\

( ) 0
2
2
' '
2 2
2
1
f
x
V
V
V V
c
w
f
u
µ
µ µ
t
·
·
· · · ·
= =
( )
( )
x
f
f
f
x V
c
Re
0
2
2
0
2
2
' '
' '
= =
· ·
µ
µ
x
f
c
Re
664 . 0
=
1 Anderson „Fundamentals of Aerodynamics‟, 3
rd
Edition,
Chapter 18.2
2 Schlichting, „Boundary Layer Theory‟, 8
th
Revised and
Enlarged Edition, Page 158 and Table 6.1
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 67
Viscosity (23)
• Global Skin Friction
– If the local skin friction drag coefficient is c
f
, the global or total drag due to
friction on that surface (say the chord of a wing, c) is found by integrating
the local skin friction over the length of that surface. i.e.
– Substituting the previous expression for local skin friction coefficient gives
– And
– Where Re
c
is the Reynolds number based on the wing chord
}
=
c
f f
dx c
c
C
0
1
c
f
C
Re
328 . 1
=
· · · ·
= =
}
÷
V
c
c
dx x
V c
C
c
f
µ
µ
µ
µ 328 . 1
) 664 . 0 (
1
0
2
1
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 68
Viscosity (24)
• Boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness
– Remember we described the boundary layer thickness, δ, as being the
distance from the surface where u = 0.99U
∞
– We now introduce the concept of displacement thickness, δ
*
y (v)
x (u)
u=0.99U
∞
y=0, u=0, v=0
U
∞
δ
y (v)
x (u)
u=0.99U
∞
δ u=0.99U
∞
Shaded regions have equal area
δ
*
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 69
Viscosity (25)
• Boundary layer displacement thickness
– The displacement thickness can be thought of in two ways:
– (a) The thickness representing the missing mass flow if it were crammed
into a flow with the free stream characteristics (cf. inviscid)
– (b) The boundary layer displaces the flow around an object by acting as
additional volume
y (v)
x (u)
u=0.99U
∞
δ u=0.99U
∞
Shaded regions have equal area
δ
*
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 70
Viscosity (26)
• Boundary layer displacement thickness derivations
– (a) Missing mass flow
}
1
0
y
dy u µ – The actual mass flow between y=0 and y=y
1
is
– The hypothetical mass flow between y=0 and
y=y
1
if the boundary layer were not present is
– The difference between the two is the missing
mass flow
– And this can be expressed in terms of δ
*
}
1
0
y
e e
dy u µ
( )
}
÷
1
0
y
e e
dy u u µ µ
*
o µ
e e
u
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 71
Viscosity (27)
• Boundary layer displacement thickness derivations
– (a) Missing mass flow (continued)
– So
– Or
( )
}
÷ =
1
0
*
y
e e e e
dy u u u µ µ o µ
} 

.

\

÷ =
1
0
*
1
y
e e
dy
u
u
µ
µ
o
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 72
Viscosity (28)
• Boundary layer displacement thickness derivations
– (b) Displacement of external streamlines
}
=
1
0
.
y
e e
dy u m µ
} 

.

\

÷ =
1
0
*
1
y
e e
dy
u
u
µ
µ
o
– The mass flow at Station 1
– At Station 2, the mass flow between
the surface and the same streamline is
– Since the surface and the streamline
form the boundaries of a stream tube,
the mass flow must be constant, i.e.
Or
*
0
.
1
o µ µ
}
+ =
y
e e
u dy u m
*
0 0
1 1
o µ µ µ
} }
+ =
y
e e
y
e e
u dy u dy u
as before
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 73
Viscosity (29)
• Boundary layer displacement thickness
– The displacement of external streamlines raises the idea of simulating a
viscous flow using inviscid methods by modelling an effective or
equivalent body
– The viscous flow is modelled by expanding the shape by the
displacement thickness
• Should be an iterative process!
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 74
Viscosity (30)
• Boundary layer momentum thickness
– While the displacement thickness accounted for the „missing mass flow‟
another important boundarylayer characteristic accounts for loss of
momentum within the boundary layer
– The mass flow across dy (dm) = µ u dy
– Now, momentum flow across dy in the b.l. = dm u = µ u
2
dy
– Momentum across dy if it were in the freestream = dm u
e
= (µ u dy)u
e
– Therefore, the loss in momentum associated with dm = µ u(u
e
–u)dy
– So the total momentum deficit from y=0 to y=y
1
= ( )
}
÷
1
0
y
e
dy u u u µ
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 75
Viscosity (31)
• Boundary layer momentum thickness
– We can now introduce a thickness (θ) representing the missing
momentum if it were crammed into a flow with the free stream
characteristics, i.e.
– The missing momentum flow = µ
e
u
e
2
θ =
– And so
– This momentum thickness (θ) is the height of a hypothetical
streamtube carrying the missing momentum flow at freestream
conditions
– The momentum thickness can be used to generate a similar effective or
equivalent body, this time representing a body exhibiting an equivalent
momentum loss
( )
}
÷
1
0
y
e
dy u u u µ
} 

.

\

÷ =
1
0
1
y
e e e
dy
u
u
u
u
µ
µ
u
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 76
Viscosity (32)
• Methods of measuring boundary layer state
– Hot wires
– Hot films
• Measurement element is one arm of a Wheatstone
bridge
• Measure the voltage changes required to keep a
constant current (CCA), or the current changes
require to keep a constant temperature (CTA)
– Sublimation/Evapouration
– Heat transfer (IR)
– All have difficulties
• Intrusion, chemicals, temperature gradients, viewing
angle, calibration, interpretation
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 77
Viscosity (33)
• Boundary layer transition
– From Reynolds‟ pipe flow experiment a critical Reynolds number was
observed, below which the flow was laminar and above which it was
turbulent.
– The discovery that transition occurred on surfaces did not come until
much later
– Transition on a flat plate
2300 Re =

.

\

=
crit
crit
d u
u
6 5
10 10 5 . 3 Re ÷ × =

.

\

=
·
crit
crit x
x U
u
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 78
Viscosity (34)
Factors affecting
transition
• Pressure gradient
– Positive pressure
gradients suppress
turbulence
– Adverse pressure
gradients amplify
them
Flow direction
Disturbances suppressed by positive pressure gradient
Disturbances amplified by negative pressure gradient
Shape of the profile
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 79
Viscosity (35)
Factors affecting transition
• Pressure Gradient
– On a wing transition generally occurs at or just after C
Pmin
where the
pressure gradient changes from +ve to –ve (e.g. laminar separation
bubble): 5% is a rule of thumb
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 80
Viscosity (36)
Factors affecting transition
• Pressure Gradient
– Turbulent vs Laminar
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 81
Viscosity (37)
• Factors affecting transition
– Surface roughness
• Imperfections or roughness elements
act like little bluff bodies, shedding
eddies which disturb a laminar boundary
layer and can induce transition
• It is possible to reduce drag by inducing
transition through roughness
– Only if separation is normally of a
laminar boundary layer
– A turbulent boundary layer is more
resistant to separation than a laminar
one
– Triggering transition before separation
means the boundary layer will separate
later
Golf Ball
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 82
Viscosity (38)
• Factors affecting
transition
– Surface
roughness
– Addition of a trip
wire
Laminar
separation
Transition
at the wire
Turbulent
separation
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 83
Viscosity (39)
• Factors affecting transition
– Surface roughness
– Ice
– Liquids (rain & deicing fluid)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 84
Viscosity (40)
• Factors affecting transition
– Freestream turbulence (and noise)
• E.g. on a flat plate, transition starts
with the formation of Tollmien
Schlichting (TS) waves
• External excitation (especially of
matching frequencies) can amplify
the waves and hasten transition
– 3D geometries (e.g. swept wings)
• In addition to chordwise
disturbances we now have
spanwise flow and spanwise
disturbance.
• Traditional civil aircrafttype wings
are fully turbulent
– Attachment line transition
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 85
Viscosity (41)
Boundary layer separation
– Once the pressure gradient on a
surface becomes positive the
pressure rises with distance
– The effect of which is shown [top
right]
• Loss of kinetic energy which is only
partially compensated for by mixing
within the boundary layer
• The velocity profile becomes less full
with the inner part of the layer
slowing down w.r.t. the outer
– The shear stress at the wall reduces
– With a sufficiently large pressure
gradient a point where the shear
stress becomes zero and the flow on
the surface is on the point of
reversing
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 86
Viscosity (42)
Boundary layer separation
• The reversed flow forms a large eddy under the outer
part of the boundary layer (wakes)
• Open separations are generally unstable and highly
dynamic
• Closed separations exist (laminar bubbles) but even
these are unsteady
• Classic wind tunnel surface flow visualisation can
indicate these regions
– Oil flow (time averaged)
– Tufts (point data)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 87
Viscosity (43)
Boundary layer separation
• Bluff body separations
– E.g. delta vortices
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 88
Viscosity (44)
• Boundary layer modelling
– It is important to capture the boundary layer with sufficient fidelity in
viscous CFD methods
• Concentration of mesh points close to the surface
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 89
• History of aerodynamic testing; Wind tunnel types; low
speed and high speed testing; Open and closed circuit
(Eiffel/Goettingen) type tunnels; Open, closed and
slotted/porous working section type tunnels; Flight
testing; Model mounting systems; upwash, buoyancy
and blockage correction methods; Mach similarity;
Methods of increasing Reynolds number; Powered wind
tunnel models; Pressurised, cryogenic, heavy gas and
water tunnels; Introduction to CFD; Description of CFD;
Advantages and disadvantages of CFD;
Examples/demonstration of CFD usage.
Aerodynamic Methods
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 90
• The need for high lift; history of high lift;
slats, flaps and other high lift devices; the
effects of slots; Coanda effects and blown
devices; powered high lift devices; vortex
generators.
Lift Augmentation and Flow
Control Devices
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 91
• Early (propellordriven) aircraft had low wing loadings and thus
low takeoff and landing speeds
– Highlift systems were either not needed or were relatively simple
• Leadingedge devices, at least on civil aircraft, were rare
• Trailingedge devices were primarily plain or split flaps
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (1)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 92
• The advent of the jet engine saw an increase in cruise speed
and wing loading
– Highlift systems became necessary for takeoff and landing (improved
C
L
/C
D
and C
Lmax
)
• Slotted leadingedge slats and trailingedge flaps became commonplace and
some were extremely complex.
– But the technology of slotted devices was born around 1920
• A mixture of careful design and pure accident
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (2)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 93
• HandleyPage
– In 1911 Sir Frederick HandleyPage noted that square wings (AR=1)
maintained lift to a much higher incidence than more conventional
rectangular wings (AR≈6)
– In 1917 he and his aerodynamicist (R.O.Boswell) tried to combine the
low drag characteristics of high aspect ratio with the delayed stall of low
aspect ratio by incorporating chordwise slots in a conventional wing
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (3)
– Wind tunnel test results
were disappointing
– Despite many variations
in shape, gap and
proportion the idea could
not be made to work
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 94
• HandleyPage
– At some point someone (whether HandleyPage, Boswell or one of the
carpenters, it is not clear who) had the idea of cutting spanwise slots
• Parallel to the leading edge, at about c/4 and sloping upwards and rearwards
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (4)
– The initial tests on a RAE15
aerofoil gave a spectacular
25% increase in maximum lift
– An improved slot shape in a
RAE6 aerofoil gave a 50%
increase, with only a slight
increase in drag
– Various test throughout 1918
and 1920 showed that
chordwise location was
crucial
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 95
• Lachmann
– Independently, a parallel investigation was being conducted by a
German engineerpilot, Gus Lachmann.
• He transferred to the flying corps from the cavalry in 1917 but stalled and
spunin during an early training flight, breaking his jaw
– In hospital he pondered the cause of his accident and how stall could be
prevented, concluding that a cascade of small aerofoils within a normal
wing profile might be better
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (4)
– He took his idea to the
German patent office in
February 1918 but this was
rejected unless he could
prove experimentally that the
idea would work
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 96
• Lachmann
– He approached Prof Ludwig Prandtl at Gottingen who agreed to do the
tests for £50
– Lachmann had no money and so borrowed it from his mother
– The results convinced the patent office to grant his application
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (5)
– Lachmann ended up working for
HandleyPage after the end of
WW2

– The consensus was that the slot
behaves as a boundarylayer
control device
• The jet through the slot
– It was not until 1972 (A.M.O.
Smith) that the correct physical
principles underlying its operation
were finally understood
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 97
• Types of highlift device  trailing edge
• Takeoff
– Predominantly Fowler motion
• Landing
– Fowler motion plus deflection
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (6)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 98
• Types of highlift device  leading edge
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (7)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 99
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (8)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 100
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (9)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 101
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (10)
HIGHLIFT SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY
Slat
Cove
Shroud
Fixed leading
edge (Dnose)
Vane
Main flap
Main element
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 102
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (11)
• Takeoff
– Slat deployment and takeoff flap setting (large Fowler motion and a little
deflection)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 103
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (12)
• Landing
– Slat deployment, landing flap setting (large Fowler motion and large
deflection) and spoilers (shroud) after weight on wheels
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 104
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (13)
BOEING TRAILINGEDGE SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 105
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (14)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 106
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (15)
So what effects do highlift systems have?
• Flaps shift the C
L
α curve
– Greater lift at a given incidence and greater C
Lmax
, but
– Reduction in maximum α
• Slats extend the C
L
α curve, increased α
max
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 107
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (16)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 108
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (17)
• An example of how certification requirements lead to design choices
– e.g. Airbus A340
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 109
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (18)
• An example of how each design choice affects others
– e.g. fuselage length, fuselage shape and undercarriage height
(γ = climb angle)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 110
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (19)
• The National HighLift
Programme (NHLP)
– Instigated by the RAE in the
late 1960s in response to a
perceived American lead in
highlift system design
• Current UK designs (BAC111,
Trident, VC10) had much
simpler leading and trailing
edge devices than their US
equivalents (707, 727, 737,
747, DC8, DC9, DC10)
– It was considered that more
complex meant more powerful
– UK industry had been
combined into BAC and HAS
which was contemplating the
next generation civil transport
Boeing 737
HS Trident
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 111
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (20)
• The National HighLift
Programme (NHLP)
– Lasted through to the late 1970s
and its legacy continues today
– Combinations and permutations of 8
different leadingedge devices and
11 different trailingedge devices
– Defined the design philosophy for
the Airbus A320 and all subsequent
Airbus aircraft
• Flap chord, slat chord, shroud
length, deflections, etc.
– Identified Reynolds number (scale
effect) and testing fidelity as
important design parameters
• RAE (QinetiQ) 5m Pressurised
Wind Tunnel
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 112
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (21)
• So how do highlift systems really work?
– A.M.O. Smith (Douglas) illuminated the aerodynamics community in 1972
• The lowspeed aerodynamicists equivalent of Darwin‟s „Origin of the Species‟
but nowhere near as easy to read!
– Prior to 1972:
• Fresh momentum through the
slot
• High energy air from lower
surface to upper surface
– A.M.O. Smith
• LeadingEdge Slat Effect
• Circulation Effect
• Dumping Velocity
• OffSurface Recovery
• Fresh Start for the boundary
layer on each element
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 113
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (22)
• LeadingEdge Slat Effect
– The leadingedge of a downstream
element benefits from the
circulation of an upstream element
– The velocity induced by the
upstream element runs counter to
that of the downstream element
Reduction of the pressure peak on
the downstream element and a
resilience to high angle of attack
– Works mainly at high angle of
attack when the slat is generating
a lot of lift and where the main
element is highly loaded
– The main element has a similar
effect on the flap
Load on the main element is reduced, but
the combination of slat and main element
is positive
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 114
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (23)
• Circulation (Flap) Effect
– The trailingedge of an upstream element benefits from the circulation
of a downstream element
– The velocity induced
by the downstream
element reinforces
that of the
downstream element
– Increased resistance
to main element
trailingedge flow
separation and a
resilience to high
angle of attack
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 115
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (24)
• Dumping Effect
– The circulation effect not only improves the performance of the upstream
element
– The increased trailingedge velocity due to the circulation of the
downstream element means that the boundary layer (wake) from the
upstream element is accelerated
Relieves the pressure rise on the trailingedge of the downstream
element and improves its ability to resist flow separation
• Off Surface Pressure Recovery
• The boundary layer of the upstream
element is dumped at higher
velocity and impinges upon the
boundary layer of the downstream
element
• The deceleration of the upstream
wake is thus more efficient than if it
were in contact with a solid
boundary
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 116
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (25)
• Fresh Boundary Layer Effect
– Each element starts with a fresh boundary layer at the leading edge
– Thin boundary layer can withstand stronger adverse pressure gradients
than thick ones
• Viscous Effects and Separation
– Confluent boundary layers modify pressure gradients and boundary
layer velocity gradients
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 117
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (26)
• HighLift Optimisation
• All of the above means that each element has an optimum position
relative to its neighbour
• That position will change with the position of further upstream or
downstream elements
• In practice, for a 3element system (slat, main element, flap) the flap
position is optimised using a (e.g. 9 point) optimisation matrix, then the
slat is optimised in a similar way. The flap is then reoptimised with the
slat in its new position and ditto for the slat
• The optimisation of a system with a tripleslotted flap is not trivial!
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 118
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (27)
• Coanda Effect
– The tendency of a fluid jet to be attracted to a nearby surface
– Used to enhance lift usually either by using the engine exhaust or
dedicated blowing of engine bleed air through slots
• Blown devices (boundary layer
control)
• Counteracts the deceleration and
growth of the boundary layer by
injection of momentum
• Over blowing (jet effect) can
produce lift enhancement over and
above potential flow theory
• (F104 Starfighter, F4 Phantom, A
5 Vigilante, Buccaneer, TSR.2. etc)
• Engine exhaust
• (Antonov 72/74, YC, Boeing
Globemaster III)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 119
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (28)
• Blown devices (boundary layer control)
– Reduces engine performance
– Requires internal ducting
• Weight
• Volume
• Maintenance
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 120
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (29)
• Flow control
– Which for high lift usually means separation control
• Entraining or redistributing higher momentum air close to the flap surface
and delay flow separation
– Vortex generators
• Small blades (rectangular or triangular) that create vortices close to the
surface
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 121
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (30)
Flow control – An example of
Aerodynamics Research
– Conventional vortex generators can cause a
significant drag penalty
– Hence the concept of subboundarylayer vortex
generators (SBVGs)
2D separation control using SBVGs
400 300 200 100 0 100
x (mm)
100
200
300
400
z
(
m
m
)
10mm Wheeler Wedge with 1h gap
x=52h from separation
spacing = 12h
400 300 200 100 0 100
x (mm)
100
200
300
400
z
(
m
m
)
10mm Wheeler Wedge
x = 52h from separation
spacing = 12h
0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.1
x (m)
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
z
(
m
)
5mm wedges
x=104h from separation
spacing = 12h
400 300 200 100 0 100
x (mm)
100
200
300
z
(
m
m
)
10mm wedges
x= 52h fromseparation
spacing = 12h
300 200 100 0 100
x (mm)
50
100
150
200
250
300
z
(
m
m
)
Umean: 5.0 5.0 15.0 25.0 35.0
No VG's
a) Basic flow (no control)
c) Joined Counterrotating vanes
b) Forwards wedges
d) Counterrotating vanes spaced
apart by 1h
a) Basic flow (no control)
b) Forwards wedges
c) Joined Counterrotating vanes
d) Counterrotating vanes spaced apart
by 1h
Regions of constant streamwise velocity ‘above’ the bump in vertical plane of symmetry.
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 122
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (31)
Extension to 2.75D (sweep and taper)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 123
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (32)
Extension to fully 3D and to high
Reynolds number
340 flap flow separation (AWIATOR)
No VGs
VGs on
A380 in QinetiQ 5m Wind Tunnel
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 124
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (33)
Flow control
• Alternative flow control devices
– Air jet, Synthetic jets
• Thousands of devices
– Networked, Sequenced
– Rapid response
• Manufacturing
– Embedding in composite/metal structures
– Power supply
– Calibration
• Maintenance
– Robustness
• Certification
– Consequences of failure
• Flow control
• Loads control
– Performance degradation
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 125
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (34)
Flow control
• Also used for as separation
control on:
– Pylon/slat junction
• Douglas invention
• Big effect on C
Lmax
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 126
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (35)
Flow control
• Pylon/slat junction
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 127
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (36)
Flow control
• Also used for as separation control on:
– Flight control devices
Gloster Javelin
Boeing 727
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 128
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (37)
Flow control
• Also used for as separation control on:
– Afterbody
Rockwell B1 Lancer
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 129
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (38)
Flow control
• Also used for as separation control on:
– Shock/boundary layer interaction
Boeing 737
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 130
• Factors affecting highlift
performance
– Surface roughness
– Ice
– Liquids (rain & deicing fluid)
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (39)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 131
• Abnormal use of highlift
devices
– British Airways Boeing 777
crash at Heathrow (January
2008)
– Glide approach due to loss
of power
– Correct selection of takeoff
setting
– Maximum L/D
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (40)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 132
Lift augmentation and flow control devices (41)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 133
• Critical Mach Number; formation of
shockwaves; Normal and oblique
shockwaves; Effect of wing thickness and
camber; Wave drag and methods of
reducing wave drag (Wing Sweep,
Transonic Area Ruling, Supercritical
Aerofoil design, Wing design); Shockwave
control and the Shockinduced separation.
Supersonic Flows
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 134
• Incompressible flow
– Most of our analysis so far has assumed that the flow is incompressible
– We do this because it allows us to simplify things in two important ways
• The density is known and can be treated as a constant in, for example, the
continuity equation
µ
1
u
1
A
1
= µ
2
u
2
A
2
• The interaction between mechanical and thermal energy is weak which permits
use of a simplified version of the energy equation
– This assumption does not, however, match reality
• All fluids are compressible, even liquids
– If the pressure changes in a flow are sufficient to cause significant density
changes we have to abandon the incompressible flow assumption
– It is more likely to be of concern in a gas than in a liquid
• A pressure change of 500kPa (~72psi) causes a density change of 0.024% in
water but 250% in air
Supersonic flows (1)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 135
• Forward influence
– In subsonic flow pressure changes are
propagated through the fluid at the
speed of sound through pressure waves
– The pressure changes caused by a
body moving through a fluid are thus
transmitted through the fluid
– The air ahead of a subsonic aircraft, for
example, therefore „knows‟ that it is
coming because the pressure changes
are transmitted forward
– The degree to which the flow ahead of
body is altered depends greatly on the
pressure changes on the body itself and
these are dependent on its shape and
speed
– This effect is known as forward
influence and can be a very important
consideration
Supersonic flows (2)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 136
• Compressible flow
– As an aircraft approaches the
speed of sound, the difference
between the speed at which the
pressure waves are transmitted
ahead of it and that of the aircraft
reduces
– So the time between the
pressure wave and aircraft
passing through the same point
reduces
– When the aircraft reaches the
speed of sound (Mach 1) the air
receives no „warning‟ and so has
to react instantly to the presence
of the aircraft
– This instantaneous change can
lead to shock waves
Supersonic flows (3)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 137
• Compressible flow
– An aircraft does not have to be travelling at the speed of sound to
generate shock waves
– The wings are designed to accelerate the air to produce lift so shock
waves will form at relatively low Mach number
Supersonic flows (4)
– Shock waves can be
a problem even at
landing speed
• the acceleration
generated by a slat
can be so severe
as to cause near
sonic flow on its
upper surface as is
a design limit
• C
L
for C
p
10
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 138
• Critical Mach number
– The speed at which sonic flow occurs on a body is called the critical
Mach number
– Shock waves cause drag (wave drag) (see later) and so the speed at
which they start to form is important
– For example, the economy of a civil aircraft reduces dramatically once
strong shock waves form its wings and the point at which this occurs is
the drag rise Mach number
• the wing section must be designed so that the design cruise speed is below
the drag rise Mach number
Supersonic flows (5)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 139
• Mach wave
– If we imagine a stationary disturbance emitting pressure waves (e.g.
sound) the waves will propagate uniformly from the source
• Ripples in the surface of water
– The waves will travel at the speed of sound (c) so that after a time interval
(Δt) the waves will have travelled a distance of cΔt
Supersonic flows (6)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 140
• Mach wave
– Now suppose that there is a flow over the disturbance travelling at Mach
0.5, i.e. V = ½c
– In addition to spreading into the fluid, the waves will also be swept
downstream by the flow
– As a result the waves bunch up on the upstream side and spread out on
the downstream side and the rate at which the fluid experiences the
disturbances is greater on the upstream side than the downstream
• If the disturbance was sound an upstream listener would here a different
frequency to one downstream
Doppler effect
Supersonic flows (7)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 141
• Mach wave
– Now suppose that the flow past the disturbance is sonic, i.e. at a speed
exactly equal to the speed of sound (M =1, V = c)
– In this case the waves are swept downstream at exactly the same speed
at which they spread
– The waves cannot propagate upstream and the fluid is not affected by the
disturbance until it arrives at it
Supersonic flows (8)
– The upstream waves will sit on
top of each other forming an
envelope
– The fluid experiences the total
effect of all of the waves at once
upon crossing the envelope
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 142
• Mach wave
– Finally suppose that the fluid flows past the disturbance at supersonic
speed, i.e. a speed greater than the speed of sound (M > 1, V > c)
– At supersonic speed the disturbances are swept downstream faster than
they can spread
– All the waves are confined to a triangular (in 2D) or conical (in 3D)
region extending downstream from the disturbance
– The waves form an envelope of half angle μ
Supersonic flows (9)
– Only the fluid inside the
envelope is affected by the
disturbance
• If it were sound it would be
silent outside the envelope
– The envelope is called the Mach
wave (in 2D) or the Mach cone
(in 3D)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 143
Supersonic flows (10)
• Mach angle
– The half angle of the envelope can be calculated
– So the Mach angle (μ) is given by:
– Because the fluid experiences
the combined effects of a
disturbance almost
instantaneously, the fluid
property and velocity variations
may be discontinuous
– E.g. density changes
• Schlieren technique
M V
c
t V
t c 1
sin = =
A
A
= µ
M
1
sin
1 
= µ
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 144
Supersonic flows (11)
• Shock waves
– A finite strength disturbance (e.g. a sharp wedge or cone) in supersonic
flow creates a finite strength wave which is stationary with respect to the
disturbance
– These finite strength disturbances are known as shock waves
– They are extremely thin and fluid properties change dramatically across
them
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 145
Supersonic flows (12)
Shock wave on an A320 in cruise
Supercritical wing design (see later)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 146
Supersonic flows (13)
• Normal and oblique shock waves
– A shock wave that is perpendicular to the upstream flow is a normal
shock
– One that is inclined at a constant angle to the upstream flow is an oblique
shock
– A curved shock has a varying angle between it and the upstream flow
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 147
Supersonic flows (14)
• Normal shock waves
– Consider a normal shock wave of zero thickness as shown in the picture
– The continuity equation along a streamline is µ
1
u
1
A
1
= µ
2
u
2
A
2
– For a section of the shock wave, the area before and after the shock will
be equal, i.e. A
1
= A
2
= A, so
µ
1
u
1
= µ
2
u
2
– The ideal gas law is
– And we can write the velocity as
– So µ
1
u
1
= µ
2
u
2
becomes
→
or
T R
p
= µ
T R M Mc u ¸ = =
2 2
2
2
1 1
1
1
T R M
T R
p
T R M
T R
p
¸ ¸ =
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
T
p
p
M
M
T
M p
T
M p
= =
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 148
Supersonic flows (15)
• Normal shock waves
– Now consider the forces acting across the shock wave
– The momentum equation gives
– The force is equal to the pressure difference across the shock wave
= pressure x area = p
1
A = p
2
A
– Therefore
or
and
A u A u F
x
2
1 1
2
2 2
µ µ ÷ = E
A u A u A p A p
2
1 1
2
2 2 2 1
µ µ ÷ = ÷
T R
p
T R M Mc u
=
= =
µ
¸
) 1 (
) 1 (
2
2
2
1
1
2
M
M
p
p
¸
¸
+
+
=
) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
2 2
2
1 1
M p M p ¸ ¸ + = +
2
1 1
2
2 2 2 1
u u p p µ µ ÷ = ÷
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 149
Supersonic flows (16)
• Normal shock waves
– We also need to make use of the energy equation
– The state of a gas is defined by several properties including the
temperature, pressure, and the volume which the gas occupies.
– From the first law of thermodynamics (conservation of energy) we find
that the internal energy of a gas is also a state variable
• That is, a variable which depends only on the state of the gas and not on any
process that produced that state
– We are free to define additional state variables which are combinations of
existing state variables
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 150
Supersonic flows (17)
• Normal shock waves
– The new variables often make the analysis of a system much simpler
– For a gas, a useful additional state variable is the enthalpy (H) which is
defined to be the sum of the internal energy E plus the product of the
pressure p and volume V, i.e. H = E + pV
– The enthalpy can be made into a specific variable ( ) by dividing by the
mass
– Propulsion engineers use the specific enthalpy (or more often the
change in specific enthalpy) in engine analysis more than the enthalpy
itself
h
~
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 151
Supersonic flows (18)
• Normal shock waves
– How do we use this new variable called enthalpy?
– Let's consider the first law of thermodynamics for a gas
– For a system with heat transfer Q and work W, the change in internal
energy E from State 1 to State 2 is equal to the difference in the heat
transfer into the system and the work done by the system:
E
2
 E
1
= Q  W
– The work and heat transfer depend on the process used to change the
state.
– For the special case of a constant pressure process, the work done by the
gas is given as the constant pressure p times the change in volume V. i.e.
W = p (V
2
 V
1
)
– Substituting into the first equation, we have:
E
2
 E
1
= Q  p (V
2
 V
1
)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 152
Supersonic flows (19)
• Normal shock waves
– Let's group the conditions at State 2 and the conditions at State 1 together:
E
2
 E
1
= Q – p (V
2
 V
1
)
becomes
(E
2
+ p V
2
)  (E
1
+ p V
1
) = Q
– The (E + pV) can be replaced by the enthalpy H
H
2
 H
1
= Q
– From the definition of the heat transfer, we can represent Q by some heat
capacity coefficient C
p
times the temperature T
H
2
 H
1
= C
p
(T
2
 T
1
)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 153
Supersonic flows (19)
• Normal shock waves
– We have previously divided by the mass of gas to produce the specific
enthalpy equation version
– The specific heat capacity (c
p
) is called the specific heat at constant
pressure
– This final equation is used to determine values of specific enthalpy for a
given temperature
– Across shock waves, the total enthalpy of the gas remains a constant
( ) ( )
2 2 1 2 1 2
~ ~ ~
T c h T T c h h
p p
= ÷ = ÷
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 154
Supersonic flows (20)
• Normal shock waves
– The energy equation for this situation is:
where is the heat transfer rate,
is power (rate of work),
is mass flow rate,
and is specific enthalpy.
– Work is the energy transfer by the action of a force through a distance
– Because we have defined the thickness of the shock wave to be zero, there
can be neither heat transfer or work as they require finite volumes
– So the equation reduces to:


.

\

÷ + ÷ = ÷
2 2
~ ~
2
1
2
2
1 2
u u
h h m W Q
s
h
m
W
Q
s
~
2
~
2
~
2
2
2
2
1
1
u
h
u
h + = +
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 155
Supersonic flows (21)
• Normal shock waves
– So we now have five equations:
Continuity µ
1
u
1
= µ
2
u
2
(1)
Momentum (2)
Energy (3)
Enthalpy (4)
Equation of state p
2
= µ
2
R T (5)
– And five unknowns, the flow conditions after the shock wave:
µ
2
, u
2
,
p
2
,
, and T
2
– These equations then are sufficient to calculate these unknown conditions
in an ideal gas
2
~
2
~
2
2
2
2
1
1
u
h
u
h + = +
2
1 1
2
2 2 2 1
u u p p µ µ ÷ = ÷
2 2
~
T c h
p
=
2
~
h
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 156
Supersonic flows (22)
• Normal shock waves
– Using the continuity and momentum equations
– We introduce a characteristic Mach number
where a
*
is the value of the speed of sound at sonic conditions, not the
actual local value, and
2
2 2
2
1
1 1
1
u
u
p
u
u
p
+ = +
µ µ
1 2
2 2
2
1 1
1
u u
u
p
u
p
÷ = ÷
µ µ
1 2
2
2
2
1
2
1
u u
u
a
u
a
÷ = ÷
¸ ¸
µ ¸ p a =


=
a
u
M
 
= T R a ¸
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 157
Supersonic flows (23)
• Normal shock waves
– The energy equation we had as
where u
1
and u
2
are velocities at any two points along a 3D streamline
– We had that for a perfect gas, , so
– Also for a perfect gas, c
p
– c
v
= R
– Which we can modify by dividing through by c
p
to give
or
2
~
2
~
2
2
2
2
1
1
u
h
u
h + = +
T c h
p
=
~
2 2
2
2
2
2
1
1
u
T c
u
T c
p p
+ = +
c
p
 specific heat at constant pressure
c
v
 specific heat at constant volume
p v
p
p p
p
c
R
c
c
c
R
c
c
= ÷ = = ÷
¸
¸
1
1 1 so and
1 ÷
=
¸
¸ R
c
p
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 158
Supersonic flows (24)
• Normal shock waves
– So
remember
so
– If we make the Point 2 on the streamline
represent sonic flow, then u = a
*
so that
or
2 1 2 1
becomes
2 2
2
2 2
2
1 1
2
2
2
2
1
1
u T R u T R u
T c
u
T c
p p
+
÷
= +
÷
+ = +
¸
¸
¸
¸
T R a ¸ =
2 1 2 1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
u a u a
+
÷
= +
÷ ¸ ¸
2 1 2 1
2
*
2
* 2 2
a a u a
+
÷
= +
÷ ¸ ¸
2
*
2 2
( 2
1
a
u a
1) 2 1 ÷
+
= +
÷ ¸
¸
¸
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 159
Supersonic flows (25)
• Normal shock waves
– Rearranging the equation and applying it
first ahead of the shock wave and then behind it, we get
a* is the same constant value because the flow is adiabatic, i.e. one in
which no heat is added or removed from the system
– Substituting this pair into
– Gives
2
*
2 2
1) ( 2
1
2 1
a
u a
÷
+
= +
÷ ¸
¸
¸
2
2
2
* 2
2
2
1
2
* 2
1
2
1
2
1
and
2
1
2
1
u a a u a a
÷
÷
+
=
÷
÷
+
=
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
1 2
2
2
2
1
2
1
u u
u
a
u
a
÷ = ÷
¸ ¸
1 2 2
2
2
*
1
1
2
*
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
u u u
u
a
u
u
a
÷ =
÷
÷
+
÷
÷
÷
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 160
Supersonic flows (26)
• Normal shock waves
– Rearranging
– Gives
– Dividing by u
2
 u
1
gives
– Which can be rearranged and solved for a* to give
a* = u
1
u
2
– This is called the Prandtl relation and is a useful intermediate relation for
shock waves
1 2 2
2
2
*
1
1
2
*
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
u u u
u
a
u
u
a
÷ =
÷
÷
+
÷
÷
÷
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 2 1 2
2
*
1 2
2 1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
u u u u a u u
u u
÷ = ÷
÷
+ ÷
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 2
2
*
2 1
2
1
2
1
u u a
u u
÷ =
÷
+
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 161
Supersonic flows (27)
• Normal shock waves
– The usefulness of the Prandtl relation is shown if we recall the equation
– Dividing through by u
2
gives
– And converting to Mach number
– And rearranging gives
2
*
2 2
1) ( 2
1
2 1
a
u a
÷
+
= +
÷ ¸
¸
¸
2
* 2
1) ( 2
1
2
1
1
) / (


.

\

÷
+
= +
÷ u
a u a
¸
¸
¸
2
1 1
1) ( 2
1
1
) / 1 (
2
*
2
÷

.

\

÷
+
=
÷ M
M
¸
¸
¸
2
2
2
*
2
*
2
( 2
) 1 (
( ) / ) 1 ((
2
M
M
M
M
M
1)
or
1)
÷ +
+
=
÷ ÷ +
=
¸
¸
¸ ¸
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 162
Supersonic flows (28)
• Normal shock waves
– We now take the Prandtl relation and incorporate the characteristic Mach
number (M* = u/a*)
a* = u
1
u
2
becomes → or
– On the previous page we derived the equation
– Substituting this into
– Gives
– And solving for M
2
2
 
=
a
u
a
u
2 1
1
*
1
*
2
*
2
*
1
1
1
M
M M M = =
2
2
2
*
( 2
) 1 (
M
M
M
1) ÷ +
+
=
¸
¸
*
1
*
2
1
M
M =
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
) 1 ( 2
) 1 (
) 1 ( 2
) 1 (
÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷ +
+
=
÷ +
+
M
M
M
M
¸
¸
¸
¸
 
2 / ) 1 (
2 / ) 1 ( 1
2
1
2
1
2
2
÷ ÷
÷ +
=
¸ ¸
¸
M
M
M
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 163
Supersonic flows (29)
• Normal shock waves
– The equation is an important result
– It shows that the Mach number after a normal shock wave is dependent
only upon the Mach number before it
– If M
1
=1, then M
2
=1 and this is an infinitely weak shock wave, or Mach wave
– If M
1
>1, then M
2
<1, i.e. the flow after the shock wave will be subsonic
– As M
1
increases above 1 the shock wave becomes progressively stronger
and M
2
becomes progressively less than 1
– As M
1
→ ·, M
2
approaches a finite minimum value
which for air (¸ = 1.4) is 0.378
 
2 / ) 1 (
2 / ) 1 ( 1
2
1
2
1
2
2
÷ ÷
÷ +
=
¸ ¸
¸
M
M
M
¸ ¸ 2 / ) 1 (
2
÷ ÷ M
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 164
Supersonic flows (30)
• Normal shock waves
– Now we have a way of determining the relationship between the Mach
numbers before and after a normal shock wave
– We also need to determine the relationships between the other flow
parameters µ
2
/µ
1
, p
2
/p
1
, and T
2
/T
1
– Using the
continuity equation (
µ
1
u
1
= µ
2
u
2
) and the Prandtl relation
(a* = u
1
u
2
) we get
– Substituting into the above equation
– Gives
2
*
1
2
*
2
2 1
2
1
2
1
1
2
M
a
u
u u
u
u
u
= = = =
µ
µ
2
2
2
*
( 2
) 1 (
M
M
M
1) ÷ +
+
=
¸
¸
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
( 2
) 1 (
M
M
u
u
1) ÷ +
+
= =
¸
¸
µ
µ
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 165
Supersonic flows (31)
• Normal shock waves
– To obtain the pressure ratio we combine the continuity equation with the
momentum equation
µ
1
u
1
= µ
2
u
2
and
– To give
– Dividing by p
1
and recalling that
– For u
2
/u
1
in this equation we can substitute


.

\

÷ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
1
2
2
1 1 2 1 1 1
2
2 2
2
1 1 1 2
1 ) (
u
u
u u u u u u p p µ µ µ µ
2
1 1
2
2 2 2 1
u u p p µ µ ÷ = ÷
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
( 2
) 1 (
M
M
u
u
1) ÷ +
+
= =
¸
¸
µ
µ
1 1
2
1 1 1 1
µ ¸ µ ¸ p a p a = = or


.

\

÷ =


.

\

÷ =


.

\

÷ =
÷
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1 1
1
1 2
1 1 1
u
u
M
u
u
a
u
u
u
p
u
p
p p
¸
¸
¸
µ ¸
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 166
Supersonic flows (32)
• Normal shock waves
– The substitution gives
– Which simplifies to
– To get the temperature ratio we use the gas equation p = µ R T, i.e.
– Which gives
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷ +
÷ =
÷
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1 2
) 1 (
( 2
1
M
M
M
p
p p
¸
¸
¸
1)
) 1 (
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
÷
+
+ = M
p
p
¸
¸


.

\



.

\

=
2
1
1
2
1
2
µ
µ
p
p
T
T
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
) 1 (
( 2
) 1 (
1
2
1
M
M
M
h
h
T
T
+
÷ +
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+
+ = =
¸
¸
¸
¸ 1)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 167
Supersonic flows (33)
• Normal shock waves
– So now we have
) 1 (
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
÷
+
+ = M
p
p
¸
¸
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
) 1 (
( 2
) 1 (
1
2
1
M
M
M
h
h
T
T
+
÷ +
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+
+ = =
¸
¸
¸
¸ 1)
 
2 / ) 1 (
2 / ) 1 ( 1
2
1
2
1
2
2
÷ ÷
÷ +
=
¸ ¸
¸
M
M
M
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
( 2
) 1 (
M
M
u
u
1) ÷ +
+
= =
¸
¸
µ
µ
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 168
Supersonic flows (34)
• Normal shock waves
– Note that all these relationships are in terms of upstream Mach number
(M
1
) only
– M
1
is the determining parameter for changes across a normal shock wave
in a perfect gas
– This is a good example of the power of the Mach number as a governing
factor in compressible flow
– As before, at M=1 p
1
=p
2
, µ
1
=µ
2
, and T
1
=T
2
and we have a normal shock
wave of vanishing strength; a Mach wave
– As M
1
increases above 1, p
2
, µ
2
and T
2
all progressively increase
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 169
Supersonic flows (35)
• Normal shock waves
– In the limiting case, where M
1
→ ·
· = =
÷
+
=
· = =
÷
=
· ÷ · ÷
· ÷ · ÷
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1 1
1 1
lim
1
1
lim
lim
2
1
lim
p
p
p
p
M
M M
M M
6
0.378
¸
¸
µ
µ
¸
¸
– So as the upstream Mach
number increases towards
infinity
• the downstream Mach number
decreases to a finite value
• density increases to a finite
number
• but temperature and pressure
can increase without bound
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 170
Supersonic flows (36)
• Measurement of velocity in compressible flow
– In lowspeed, incompressible flow, the velocity can be measured using a
Pitotstatic tube
• The total pressure is measured by the Pitot tube and the static pressure from a static
pressure orifice
• Bernoulli gives the dynamic pressure as the difference between the two
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 171
Supersonic flows (37)
• Measurement of velocity in compressible flow
– The same is true in highspeed, compressible flow if we use Mach number
instead of velocity, although the formulae are different for each Mach
number regime
• Subsonic compressible
• Supersonic compressible
– For Region 1 the isentropic flow
relationships hold
– (see slides „A‟ at the end of the section
for derivation if desired)
– Solving for M
1
2
gives
) 1 (
2
1
1
1 , 0
2
1
1
÷

.

\

÷
+ =
¸ ¸
¸
M
p
p
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷


.

\

÷
=
÷
1
1
2
) 1 (
1
1 , 0 2
1
¸ ¸
¸ p
p
M
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 172
Supersonic flows (38)
• Measurement of velocity in compressible flow
– Using the relationship for Mach number
– becomes
– So, unlike incompressible flow, a
knowledge of the total and static
pressures is not enough
– We also need to know the freestream
speed of sound, a
1
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷


.

\

÷
=
÷
1
1
2
) 1 (
1
1 , 0 2
1
¸ ¸
¸ p
p
M
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷


.

\

÷
=
÷
1
1
2
) 1 (
1
1 , 0
2
1
2
1
¸ ¸
¸ p
p
a
u
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 173
Supersonic flows (39)
• Measurement of velocity in compressible flow
– Now in supersonic flow the Pitot tube creates a stagnation region and the
flow is brought to rest at the throat
– However, because the upstream flow is supersonic and the Pitot tube is an
obstruction, there will be a bow wave ahead of it
– The centreline streamline crosses the
normal portion of the bow shock
– So the flow is decelerated to subsonic
speed (nonisentropically) through the
shock wave
– And then (isentropically) to zero velocity
at the throat
– The total pressure measured by the
Pitot tube is (p
0,1
) but of the flow behind
a normal shock wave (p
0,2
)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 174
Supersonic flows (40)
• Measurement of velocity in compressible flow
– However, knowing the freestream static pressure (p
1
) and the throat total
pressure (p
0,2
) is still enough to calculate the freestream Mach number (M)
– Where p
0,2
/p
2
is the ratio of total and
static pressure after the shock and
p
2
/p
1
is the static pressure ratio across
the shock
1
2
2
2 , 0
1
2 , 0
p
p
p
p
p
p
=
) 1 (
2
2
2
2 , 0
2
1
1
÷

.

\

÷
+ =
¸ ¸
¸
M
p
p
] 2 / ) 1 [(
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1
2
1
2
1
2
2
÷ ÷
÷ +
=
¸ ¸
¸
M
M
M
) 1 (
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
÷
+
+ = M
p
p
¸
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 175
Supersonic flows (41)
• Measurement of velocity in compressible flow
– Substituting rearranging and simplifying gives
– This is called the Rayleigh Pitot tube formula
– It relates the Pitot pressure measured by the
tube (p
0,2
) and the freestream static pressure
(p
1
) to the freestream Mach number (M
1
)
1
2 1
) 1 ( 2 4
) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 , 0
+
+ ÷


.

\

÷ ÷
+
=
÷
¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸
¸ ¸
M
M
M
p
p
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 176
Supersonic flows (42)
• Oblique shock waves
– Most shock waves form an oblique angle with the upstream flow
– Normal shock waves are just a special case of oblique shock wave where
the angle is 90°
– In addition to oblique compression waves where the pressure increases
discontinuously across the shock wave, there are expansion waves
where the pressure decreases continuously across the shock wave
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 177
Supersonic flows (43)
• Oblique shock waves
– Consider supersonic flow encountering a concave corner
– The wall is turned upwards at an angle θ
– An oblique shock wave will form at the corner where the streamlines before
and after the shock are all parallel, deflected through the angle θ
– The Mach number suddenly
(discontinuously) decreases while
the pressure, density and
temperature all suddenly increase
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 178
Supersonic flows (44)
• Oblique shock waves
– Now consider the same supersonic flow encountering a convex corner
– The wall is turned downwards at an angle θ
– A series oblique shock waves form an expansion fan will form at the
corner
– The fan opens continuously away from the corner
– Again the streamlines before and after are all parallel, deflected
continuously and smoothly through the expansion angle θ
– The Mach number smoothly
(continuously) increases while the
pressure, density and temperature
all smoothly decrease
– In contrast to essentially 1D normal
shock waves, oblique shock and
expansion waves are inherently 2D
• i.e. the flow field properties are a
function of x and y
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 179
Supersonic flows (45)
• Oblique shock waves
– If we return to the oblique compression
wave, this is representative of supersonic
flow past a wedge
– The wedge semiangle is now θ and the
angle of the oblique shock wave is β
– The relationship between the shock
angle (β), the wedge angle (θ) and the
upstream Mach number (M
1
) is given by
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

+
+
+
÷
÷ =
÷
2
1
2 1
1
1
2
1
1 1
M ¸

¸
¸
 
 u sin
cos sin
tan
– (See slides „B‟ at the end of the section for derivation if desired)
– This is the θβM relation and it specifies θ as a unique function of M
1
and β
– The results from the equation are plotted graphically on the next slide
and the graph is used to solve oblique shock problems
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 180
Supersonic flows (46)
Oblique shock
waves
The wedge angle
(θ) plotted against
shock angle ( β)
for varying
upstream Mach
number (M
1
)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 181
Supersonic flows (47)
• Oblique shock waves
– The graph illustrates a lot of physical
phenomena associated with oblique
shock waves:
– For any given upstream Mach number
M
1
, there is a maximum deflection
angle, θ
max
– If the physical geometry is such that
θ > θ
max
then no solution exists for a
straight oblique shock wave
– Nature establishes a curved shock wave
detached from the corner or the nose of
a body
– Note that as the freestream Mach
number increases, θ
max
also increases
• straight oblique shock waves can exist at
higher deflection angles at higher speed
– But there is a limit (for gamma = 1.4)
• θ
max
→ 45.5° as M
1
→ ·
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 182
Supersonic flows (48)
• Oblique shock waves
– For any given θ less than θ
max
there are
two straight oblique shock solutions for a
given upstream Mach number
– E.g. if M
1
=2.0 and θ
=15° then β can equal
either 45.3 or 79.8°
– The smaller value is called the weak shock
solution and the larger value is the strong
shock solution
– The terms “weak” and “strong” derive from
the fact that the for a given upstream Mach
number (M
1
), the larger the wave angle the
larger the normal component of upstream
Mach number (M
n,1
) and thus the larger the
pressure ratio p
2
/p
1
– That is, the higherangle shock wave will
compress the air more than the lower
angle shock wave
– In nature the weak shock solution usually
prevails
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 183
Supersonic flows (49)
• Oblique shock waves
– Whenever you see straight, attached oblique
shock waves (as shown in the bottom picture)
they are almost always the weak shock
solution
– It is safe to make this assumption unless you
have information to the contrary
– Note that the locus of points connecting all the
values of θ
max
divides the weak and strong
shock solutions
• Above the curve the strong shock prevails
• Below the curve the weak shock prevails
– There is another curve just below this one
– This is the dividing line above which the
downstream Mach number is subsonic (M
2
<
1) and below which it is supersonic (M
2
> 1)
– For the strong solution the downstream Mach
number is always subsonic
– For the majority of weak shock solutions the
downstream Mach number is supersonic
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 184
Supersonic flows (50)
• Use of oblique shock waves
– Engine inlets
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 185
Supersonic flows (51)
• Critical Mach number
– We saw before that the
freestream Mach number at
which the flow on an aerofoil
first becomes sonic is the
critical Mach number, M
cr
– If we define the static pressure
in the freestream as p
·
and
that at a point A on an aerofoil
as p
A
, we can use the
isentropic pressure ratio (slide
169) to give us
) 1 (
2
2
0
0
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1
÷
·
· ·


.

\

÷ +
÷ +
= =
¸ ¸
¸
¸
A
A A
M
M
p p
p p
p
p
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 186
Supersonic flows (52)
• Critical Mach number
– Recall that pressure coefficient is given by
where
– So
·
·
÷
=
q
p p
C
p
2
2
1
· · ·
= V q µ
) (
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 2
2
2 2
· · · · ·
·
·
·
·
· ·
·
·
· · ·
= =


.

\

=
= =
µ ¸
¸
¸
µ ¸
µ
¸
¸
µ
p a M p
V
p
p
V
p
p
V q


.

\

÷ =
· ·
1
2
2
p
p
M
C
p
¸
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 187
Supersonic flows (53)
• Critical pressure coefficient
– So the pressure coefficient at point A is
given by
– This is the compressible equivalent of
the Bernoulli equation, relating local
pressure to the local Mach number
– The critical pressure coefficient
(C
p,cr
) is the pressure coefficient at the
point where the flow on the aerofoil first
becomes sonic, i.e. M
A
=1
– This equation allows us to calculate the
pressure coefficient at any point where
the local Mach number is 1 (i.e. along
the sonic line)
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷


.

\

÷ +
÷ +
=
÷
·
·
1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1 2
) 1 (
2
2
2
,
¸ ¸
¸
¸
¸
A
A p
M
M
M
C
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷


.

\

÷ +
÷ +
=
÷
·
·
1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1 2
) 1 (
2
2
,
¸ ¸
¸
¸
¸
M
M
C
cr p
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 188
Supersonic flows (54)
• Critical pressure coefficient
– When the freestream Mach number is
precisely equal to the critical Mach number,
there is only one point on the aerofoil where
M=1, namely point A
– In this case M
·
= M
cr
and
– This equation has no connection with aerofoil
shape and is thus a universal relationship
which can be used for all aerofoils
– The PrandtlGlauert rule relates the
incompressible pressure coefficient (C
p,0
) to a
compressible one:
– (Other approximations exist, but this is the
simplest and most common)
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷


.

\

÷ +
÷ +
=
÷
1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1 2
) 1 (
2
2
,
¸ ¸
¸
¸
¸
cr
cr
cr p
M
M
C
2
0 ,
1
·
÷
=
M
C
C
p
p
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 189
Supersonic flows (55)
• Critical pressure coefficient
– To estimate the critical Mach number we need
to:
• By some means (either experimental or
theoretical) obtain the lowspeed,
incompressible value of C
p,0
at the minimum
pressure point on the aerofoil
• Using a compressibility correction (e.g. Prandtl
Glauert) plot the variation of C
p
with M
·
(curve
B)
• The point where curve B crosses the line
representing
• Is the point where sonic flow occurs at the
minimum pressure location on the aerofoil
• The value of M
·
at this intersection is thus the
critical Mach number M
cr
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷


.

\

÷ +
÷ +
=
÷
1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1
] 2 / ) 1 [( 1 2
) 1 (
2
2
,
¸ ¸
¸
¸
¸
cr
cr
cr p
M
M
C
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 190
Supersonic flows (56)
• Critical pressure coefficient
– The graph is not an exact determination of M
cr
• The curve for C
p.cr
is exact, but curve B is only an approximation
– Hence the value of M
cr
obtained is only approximate
– However, such an estimate is useful for preliminary design and the
results are accurate enough for most applications
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 191
Supersonic flows (57)
• Effect of thickness
– Thicker aerofoils perturb the airflow more and create greater suction on
the top surface than thinner aerofoils
– That is, on a thick aerofoil the value of the pressure coefficient at the
minimum pressure location will be a larger negative number than the
equivalent value on a thin aerofoil
– Plotting this results
shows immediately that
a thick aerofoil has a
lower critical Mach
number than a thin one
– For highspeed aircraft it
is desirable to have a
high value of M
cr
and
this drives the designer
towards a thinner wing
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 192
Supersonic flows (58)
• Effect of thickness
– For example a Lear Jet has a 9% thick aerofoil, while the Piper Aztec
has one that is 14% thick
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 193
Supersonic flows (59)
• Dragdivergence Mach number
– As we increase the freestream Mach number (M
·
), from a to b, for a
given aerofoil the drag remains virtually constant
– We then encounter the critical Mach number where the flow on the
aerofoil first becomes sonic, point c
– As we increase M
·
to slightly above M
cr
(to point d) a finite region of
supersonic flow appears on the aerofoil
– As we nudge M
·
still
higher we encounter
point e where the drag
suddenly starts to
increase.
– The value of M
·
where
this sudden increase in
drag starts is called the
dragdivergence Mach
number
Douglas dC
d
/dM > 0.1
Boeing ΔC
d
= 0.002
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 194
Supersonic flows (60)
• Dragdivergence Mach number
– Beyond the dragdivergence Mach number the drag coefficient can be
very large, typically increasing by a factor of 10 or more
– This drag increase is associated with an extensive region of supersonic
flow over the aerofoil terminating in a shock wave
– For an aerofoil design for lowspeed application, the local Mach number
can reach 1.2 or higher and the terminating shock can be very strong
– These shocks generally cause severe flow separation, with an
attendant increase in drag (wave drag)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 195
Supersonic flows (61)
• Drag rise reduction
– Research since 1945 has focused on reducing the large drag rise
– Instead of a factor of 10 increase in drag at Mach 1, can reduce it to 2
or 3?
– Several design ploys have been utilised to achieve this
– The first was the use of thin aerofoils
– We have already seen that thinner aerofoils have higher critical Mach
numbers than thicker ones
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 196
Supersonic flows (62)
• Drag rise reduction
Variation of thicknesstochord ratio for a representative selection of different aircraft
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 197
Supersonic flows (63)
• Drag rise reduction
– The second design ploy was to use
swept wings
– Imagine a straight wing with a
thicknesstochord ratio (t/c) of 0.15
– If we sweep the same wing at 45°
the flow sees the same physical
thickness but the chord has
extended
and the thicknesstochord ratio
has reduced
– Thus by sweeping the wing the flow
behaves as if the aerofoil is thinner
and it has a higher critical Mach
number
c
c
c 1.41
cos
=
O
=
2
North American F86 Sabre
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 198
Supersonic flows (64)
• Area rule
– Beside using thin, swept
aerofoils to reduce the drag
rise at Mach 1, two other
concepts have been
developed
– The first of these is the area
rule
– The early jets did not have
enough thrust to overcome
the massive drag rise near
Mach 1
– Even the early “century”
series aircraft designed to
provide the UASF with
supersonic fighters in the
early 1950s (e.g. the
Convair F102 Delta
Dagger) could not at first
penetrate the sound barrier
in level flight
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 199
Supersonic flows (65)
• Area rule
– The picture shows the area distribution (the variation of crosssectional
area with distance along the aircraft axis) of a typical US aircraft of that
period
• Note the discontinuities in the distribution
– Ballisticians had known for almost a century that bullets and shells with
smoothly varying crosssections were faster than those with those with
abrupt or discontinuous shape changes
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 200
Supersonic flows (66)
• Area rule
– The NACA engineer Richard Whitcomb applied this knowledge to the
problem of transonic aircraft
– He reasoned that the area distribution should be as smooth as possible
– This meant that, in the region of the wing and tail, the fuselage cross
sectional area had to reduce to compensate for the additional area of
these structures
– This led to the “coke bottle” shape and the design philosophy is called
the area rule
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 201
Supersonic flows (67)
• Area rule
– The F102 was redesigned and rebuilt in 118 days and achieved M1.22
F102
Straightsided fuselage
F102A
Coke bottle fuselage
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 202
Supersonic flows (68)
• Area rule
– Other ways of area ruling
Boeing 747100
Boeing 747400
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 203
Supersonic flows (69)
• Area rule
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 204
Supersonic flows (70)
• Area rule
– Some aircraft cannot change the fuselage shape so extra volume is
added to smooth the area distribution
• Kuchemann “carrots”
Convair CV990
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 205
Supersonic flows (71)
• The supercritical aerofoil
– While thinner aerofoils help reduce the drag rise near Mach 1, there is a
practical limit on how thin an aerofoil can be
• Spar depths and fuel volume
– So is there a way we can delay the drag rise to higher Mach numbers for
an aerofoil of given thickness?
– Increasing M
cr
is one
way, but another is to
increase the increment
between the critical
Mach number and the
dragdivergence Mach
number
• i.e. increase the gap
between point c and
point e
– An aerofoil which does
this is known as a
supercritical aerofoil
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 206
Supersonic flows (72)
• The supercritical aerofoil
– The shape of a supercritical aerofoil is compared to a common NACA 64
series aerofoil in the picture
– The supercritical aerofoil has a relatively flat top leading to a region of
supersonic flow with lower Mach number than the NACA 64series
– In turn, the terminating
shock is much weaker
and thus creates less
drag
– The picture shows the
NACA section at a
lower Mach number
but the supersonic
region is taller, the
local Mach numbers
higher and the
terminating shock
stronger than the
supercritical aerofoil at
a higher speed
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 207
Supersonic flows (73)
• The supercritical aerofoil
– The picture shows experimental data from the two aerofoils
– The drag divergence Mach number for the NACA 64series aaerofoil is
0.67 and for the supercritical aerofoil is 0.79
– The relatively flat upper
surface is achieved
through negative camber
for the forward 60% of
the aerofoil
– This lowers the lift which
is compensated by
extreme positive camber
on the rearward 30%
– This produces the cusp
like shape of the lower
surface near the trailing
edge
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 208
Supersonic flows (74)
• The supercritical aerofoil
Handley Page Victor
Airbus A300
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 209
Supersonic flows (75)
• Shockinduced separation
– The onset of transonic shockinduced
flow separation is not confined to
large increases in drag
– It can also trigger a variety of
aeroelastic instability and response
phenomena including flutter,
oscillations and control surface buzz,
shockinduced oscillations
– That is, the shock is not always static
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 210
Supersonic flows (76)
• Shockinduced separation
– We might wish, therefore, to consider some form of shock wave
control
– This will consist of either
• Modification of the geometry at the foot of the shock wave to either
smear a single shock into a series of weaker ones or fix its location
(shock bump)
• Modification of the boundary layer to withstand the pressure gradient
across the shock (passive or active vortex generators, suction or
blowing)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 211
Supersonic flows (77)
• Shockinduced separation
– Shock bodies
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 212
Supersonic flows (77)
• Shockinduced separation
– To maintain their operational
ceiling of 70,000 feet
(21,000 m), the U2A and U2C
flew very near their maximum
speed
– However, the aircraft's stall
speed at that altitude is only
10 knots less than its maximum
speed
– There was a danger when
turning that the inner wing
stalled because it was going too
slow and the outer wing stalled
because of shock formation and
shockinduced separation
– This point of the flight
enveloped was referred to by
the pilots as "coffin corner"
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 213
Supersonic flows (78)
• Total aircraft drag
Trim Drag
Wave (Wing) Drag
Parasitic Drag
Nacelle Interaction Drag
Unaccounted Drag
Vortex (Induced) Drag
Profile drag
Drag Breakdown of a Representative 4 Engine Civil
Transport Aircraft
At Design Cruise Mach Number & Lift Coefficient
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 214
Supersonic flows (79)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 215
Supersonic flows (A1)
• Isentropic flow (derivations)
– The basic equations:
Continuity µ
1
u
1
A
1
= µ
2
u
2
A
2
Momentum
Energy
Enthalpy
i.e.
Equation of state
Speed of sound
2
~
2
~
2
2
2
2
1
1
u
h
u
h + = +
0 ) )( (
1 2 2 1 2
1
2 2 1 1 2
2
2 2 1
2
1 1
= ÷ + + ÷ + ÷ A A p p A p A p A u A u µ µ
2 2 1 1
~
,
~
T c h T c h
p p
= =
2
2 2
1
2
2
1 2
1
1
u T c u T c
p p
+ = +
2 2
2
1 1
1
T
p
T
p
µ µ
=
M
u
T c T R
p
a
p
= ÷ = = = ) 1 (¸ ¸
µ
¸
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 216
Supersonic flows (A2)
• Isentropic flow (derivations)
– The energy equation
– Thus becomes
– Or
– If we take p
1
as p
0
(stagnation conditions) and p
2
as p (local conditions) and
rearrange the equations, we get
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
) 1 ( 2 ) 1 ( 2 µ ¸
¸
µ ¸
¸
÷
+ =
÷
+
p u p u
) 1 (
2
0
2
1
1
÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+ =
¸ ¸
¸
M
p
p
2
2 2
1
2
2
1 2
1
1
u T c u T c
p p
+ = +
1 2 1 2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
÷
+ =
÷
+
¸ ¸
a u a u
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 217
• Oblique shock angle (derivation)
– The basic equations (note the resolution of the velocity vector into
components normal to and tangential to the shock wave):
Continuity µ
1
V
1n
= µ
2
V
2n
Momentum (normal to the shock wave)
Momentum (parralel to the shock wave)
• i.e. no change in pressure)
Energy (from slide „Supersonic flows (25)‟)
(a
*
is the value of the speed of sound at sonic conditions and is constant)
2
1 1
2
2 2 2 1 n n
V V p p µ µ ÷ = ÷
t n t n
V V V V
1 1 1 2 2 2
0 µ µ ÷ =
2
*
2 2
1) ( 2
1
2 1
a
u a
÷
+
= +
÷ ¸
¸
¸
Supersonic flows (B1)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 218
• Oblique shock angle (derivation)
– Applying the energy equation before and after the shock gives
– From µ
1
V
1n
= µ
2
V
2n
and it follows that V
1t
=V
2t
– i.e. the tangential velocity is the same on both sides of the shock
– Since the tangential velocity doesn‟t change we just need to determine the
normal velocity after the shock
– Again using continuity we get
– Where p
2
/µ
2
and p
1
/µ
1
can be eliminated using the equations at the top of
the slide
n n
n n
V V
V
p
V
p
2 1
1 1
1
2 2
2
÷ = ÷
µ µ
t n t n
V V V V
1 1 1 2 2 2
0 µ µ ÷ =
2
*
1
1
2
1
2
1
( 2
1
2
a
p V V
t n
1) 1  ÷
+
= +
+
¸
¸
µ ¸
¸
Supersonic flows (B2)
2
*
2
2
2
2
2
2
( 2
1
2
a
p V V
t n
1) 1  ÷
+
= +
+
¸
¸
µ ¸
¸
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 219
• Oblique shock angle (derivation)
– Dropping the station subscript (1 or 2) for V
t
(because V
1t
= V
2t
) gives
– Which we arrange to the form
– This equation is satisfied when either factor is zero
– The solution that the second factor is zero (i.e. V
1n
– V
2n
= 0, or V
1n
= V
2n
)
corresponds to a shock wave of zero intensity, or a Mach wave
– Setting the first factor to zero gives a nontrivial solution:
2
2
2 1
1
1
t n n
V a V V
+
÷
÷ =

¸
¸
n n
n
t
n
n
t
n
n n
V V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V V
a
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1 2
2
*
2
1 1 1
2
1
÷ =
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

+ ÷


.

\

+
÷
+


.

\

÷
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
Supersonic flows (B3)
0 ) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1
2 1
2
2 1
2
*
= ÷


.

\

+ ÷
÷
+
n n
n n
t
n n
V V
V V
V
V V
a
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 220
• Oblique shock angle (derivation)
– From the picture we get V
1n
= V
1
sinβ and V
t
= V
1
cosβ and we substitute
these into the previous equation to get
– Which can be written as
– And we can replace a*/a
0
and a
0
/V
1
for terms involving ¸ and M to give


¸
¸
 sin
cos
1 sin
2
1
1
2
2
1
V
V
a
V
n
+
÷
÷ =

Supersonic flows (B4)
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷
÷


.

\

=


¸
¸

2
2
1
0
0
1
2
1
cos
1 sin V
a
a
a V
V
n
(
¸
(
¸
+
+
+
÷
=
2
1
2
1
2
1 2 1
M
V
V
n
1
sin
1 sin ¸

¸
¸

Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 221
Supersonic flows (B4)
• Oblique shock angle (derivation)
– From the picture we can see that V
2n
is related to the wave angle( β)and
deflection angle (θ) by
V
2n
= V
t
tan(β  θ) = V
1
cosβ tan(β  θ)
– Which may be equated to the equation
at the bottom of the previous slide to give
– Or


.

\

+
+
+
÷
= ÷
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1 1
) (
M ¸

¸
¸
 
u  sin
cos sin
tan
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

+
+
+
÷
÷ =
÷
2
1
2 1
1
1
2
1
1 1
M ¸

¸
¸
 
 u sin
cos sin
tan
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 222
• Swept wing flows; Effect of spanwise and
normal velocity components; qualitative
description of 3D boundary layers on
swept wings; Forward, rearward and
variable sweep wings; control surface
effects; delta wings and vortical flows;
vortex flap; aerodynamics of aircraft at
high incidences.
Swept Wings
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 223
• Why sweep the wings
– We‟ve already seen that wing sweep increases the effective t/c
– But it also moves the wings behind the bow shock
Swept wings (1)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 224
• Incidence of a shock on a
wing
– Sweeping the wing back alters
the onset Mach number, i.e.
that normal to the leading
edge, M
· n
– If the wing is swept at the
angle of the Mach line
M
· n
= M
·
cos (90°μ)
= M
·
sin μ
=1
– That is, the normal Mach
number is unity
– Sweeping it back further
reduces the normal Mach
number to subsonic
Swept wings (2)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 225
• Bell X1 and X2
Swept wings (3)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 226
• Effect of sweep on pressure
– Recall that the pressure
coefficient is dependent on
onset Mach number only
– So the normal pressure
distribution is thus related to
the normal Mach number
– And thus varies with sweep
Swept wings (4)


.

\

÷ =
· ·
1
2
2
p
p
M
C
p
¸


.

\

÷ =
· ·
1
2
2
p
p
M
C
n
pn
¸
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 227
• Velocity components
– Sweep introduces a
spanwise component
of the freestream
velocity on the wing
– Transition of the
boundary layer can
now occur in each
direction
– The surface flow is
different to the
freestream
– This creates shear
stresses and an
additional transition
mechanism
Swept wings (5)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 228
• Crossflow instabilities
– The shear causes waves and vorticity in a spanwise direction
– In addition to 2D transition (TollmienSchlichting waves) there is
additional 3D transition mechanism due to these spanwise
disturbances or crossflow instabilities
Swept wings (6)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 229
• Stall characteristics
– Rectangular wings have larger downwash
angles at the tip than at the root
– The effective angle of attack at the tip is
therefore lower at the tip and it will stall
last
– However, rectangular wings are not very
efficient
• They have more induced drag than the
ideal elliptical planform
– A compromise is to taper the wing
– But with a small tip chord come reduced
local Reynolds number, increased
effective angle of attack and thicker
boundary layers (due to spanwise flow)
– This generally leads to swept, tapered
wings being prone to tip stall
Swept wings (7)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 230
• Tip stall
– Tip stall is not good!
– Ailerons become ineffective
– Loss of lift means the aerodynamic centre moves forward
– Pitch up
Swept wings (8)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 231
• Methods to
prevent pitchup
– Wing twist
– By twisting the
wing tip nose
downwards
(washout), the
local angle of
attack is reduced
Swept wings (9)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 232
• Methods to
prevent pitchup
– Wing fences
– Reduces or stops
the spanwise flow
Swept wings (10)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 233
• Methods to prevent pitch
up
– Wing snags, saw teeth,
dog teeth
– Generate discrete, strong
vorticity that helps the flow
remain attached
Swept wings (11)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 234
• Methods to prevent pitch
up
– Forward sweep
– The spanwise velocity is in
the other direction – tip to
root
– Other advantages include:
• Better pilot vision as the
wing root is relatively far
aft
• Wing spars can be placed
behind a weapons bay
rather than through it
• Controllability to much
higher angle of attack
(67° for the X29)
Swept wings (12)
Grumman X29
Schleicher ASK 13
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 235
• Methods to prevent pitch
up
– Forward sweep
– The main disadvantage is
structural
– The wing tip tends to twist
up, increasing the local
load and thus increasing
the twist even more
– An unfortunate tendency
that can be countered by
strengthening the structure
of a metal wing or using
cunning layups of carbon
fibre
– Aeroelastic tailoring
Swept wings (13)
Junkers Ju 287
Hansa HFB320
Sukhoi Su47
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 236
• Variable sweep wings
– We have seen that a swept wing is more suitable for high speeds
– An unswept wing is suitable for lower speeds
– A variablesweep wing allows a pilot (or flight control system) to
select the correct wing configuration for the plane's intended speed
– The variablesweep wing is most useful for those aircraft that are
expected to function at both low and high speed, and for this reason it
has been used primarily in military aircraft
Swept wings (14)
Messerschmitt Me P.1101
Bell X5
Grumman XF10F Jaguar
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 237
• Variable sweep wings
– But the extra mechanisms are heavy
Swept wings (15)
Tornado
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 238
• Variable sweep wings
Swept wings (16)
Sukhoi Su17
Rockwell B1
Tupolev Tu160
Grumman F14
General Dynamics F111
MiG23
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 239
• Delta wings
– Delta wings are a special form of swept wing pioneered by Lippisch
– The wing leading edge remains behind the shock wave generated by the
nose of the aircraft when flying at supersonic speeds
– While this is also true of ordinary swept wings, the delta's planform carries
across the entire aircraft which has structural advantages
– Another advantage is vortex lift
– Beyond a certain angle of attack, the wing leading edge generates a stable
vortex which remains attached to the upper surface of the wing
– This gives delta wings a relatively high stall angle
Swept wings (17)
Convair XF92
Lippisch P.13
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 240
• Delta wings
– Types of delta wing
Swept wings (18)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 241
• Vortex lift
– Leading edge boundary layer rolls up into a vortex
Swept wings (19)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 242
• Vortex lift
– The wing generates lift like a conventional aerofoil at low angles of attack
– The leading edge vortices form at increasing angle of attack and
contribute significant lift and enable stability and control at relatively high
angles of attack
Swept wings (20)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 243
• Vortex lift
– The solution for lowspeed, highlift performance of Concorde (Kuchemann
at RAE)
Swept wings (21)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 244
• Vortex lift
– Aircraft that wish to operate at high angles of attack tend to generate and
utilise vortex lift
– This can be from areas other than the wing, e.g. leadingedge extensions
(LEX)
• N.B. Fin Buffet
Swept wings (22)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 245
• Vortex lift
– The limiting factor is a phenomenon called vortex burst
– Vortex bursting is a phenomenon in which the structured character of the
vortex is destroyed resulting in a loss of most of the vortex lift
Swept wings (23)
– It occurs due to
adverse pressure
gradients acting
on the vortex
– When the vortex
burst occurs on
the wing (as
opposed to
downstream of the
wing) the lift drops
substantially.
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 246
• Vortex flap
– The concept of the vortex flap was to reposition the leadingedge vortex
system which normally develops over a delta (or highsweep) wing at high
angles of attack onto a forward facing flap surface
– This results in a reduction of induced drag due to a thrust component
derived from the low pressure on the flap.
Swept wings (24)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 247
• Vortex flap
– NASA Langley conducted flight tests on a modified NF106B Delta
Dagger
Swept wings (25)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 248
• Vortex flap
– NASA Langley conducted flight tests on a modified NF106B Delta
Dagger
Swept wings (26)
α =9°, 30° vortex flap
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 249
• Vortex flap
Swept wings (27)
α =13°, 30° vortex flap
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 250
• Vortex flap
Swept wings (28)
α =13°, 40° vortex flap
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 251
• Vortex flap
– The flow
visualisation shows
that the flowfield
does not behave as
anticipated
– The vortex flap
generates lots of
weak vortices rather
than a single strong
one
– The next vortex
along the span is
triggered by the
secondary vortex of
the previous one
Swept wings (29)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 252
• Vortex flap
– Never really adopted
operationally
– Typhoon uses a drooped nose
device not dissimilar to the A380
Swept wings (30)
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 253
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