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« Freedom Unplugged »
Part I - Concept •History :: The GNU Project, The Linux Kernel •Philosophy Behind Free Software •Advantages :: Technical and Economical •Help and Support :: Community •Free Software Alternatives
and Open Source Initiative
Part II – Hands On •Installing Ubuntu 8.04 •The Linux File System •Installing Additional Software :: Repository, Internet •OpenOffice :: Writer, Spreadsheet, Presentation •Using Brasero, K3B •Mounting Drives :: USB Mass Storage Devices
Copyright (C) 2008 Anoop John
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
Part I - Concept
General Operating Systems
Mac OS X
Some Unix Operating Systems
The GNU Project
Richard Matthew Stallman
Richard Stallman (RMS)
An American software freedom activist, hacker (programmer) and software developer Launched the GNU Project In September 1983 Idea was to create a free Unix-like operating system Started the free software movement In October 1985, setup the Free Software Foundation. The concept of Copyleft.
The GNU Project (continuation)
The GNU Project is a free software, mass collaboration project. The founding goal of the project was to develop "a sufficient body of free software to get along without any software that is not Wildebeest (gnu), native to Africa free.“ GNU is a recursive acronym that stands for
"GNU's Not Unix"
This goal was achieved in 1992 when a kernel, was filled by a third-party Unix-style kernel called "Linux"
The Linux Kernel
The Open Source Initiative
Philosophy Behind Free Software
“Free as in freedom, not as in free beer”
Definition of Free Software
Freedom 0 :: The freedom to run the program, for any
Freedom 1 :: The freedom to study how the program
works, and adapt it to your needs . (Access to the source code
is a precondition for this.)
Freedom 2 :: The freedom to redistribute copies so you
can help your neighbor.
Freedom 3 :: The freedom to improve the program,
and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits. (Access to the source code is a
precondition for this.)
Technical and Economical Advantages of Free Software
◦ 100% free from Virus ◦ Faster bug fixing
◦ Start from Zero Investment ◦ Calculate the cost of software in 1000 computers
Help and Support
◦ www.ubuntu.com ◦ www.ilug-tvm.org
Debian Ubuntu IT@School
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Fedora CentOS Mandriva
Linux in Consumer Electronic devices
Motorola mobile, generally based on MontaVista Linux, include the RAZR² V8, Motorola RAZR² V8, ROKR E2, ROKR E6, A780, E680, A910, A1200 Nokia's N810 N800 Panasonic P901i Philips LPC3180
Motorola RAZR2, uses embedded Linux
Free Software Alternatives
◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ MS Office Internet Explorer Outlook Express Photoshop Winamp Windows media player ◦ Nero
◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ OpenOffice Mozilla Firefox Thunderbird GIMP XMMS SMPlayer K3B
Part II – Hands On
Installing Ubuntu 8.04
At least 256 MB of RAM is required to run the alternate install CD 384MB of RAM is required to use the live CD based installer. Install requires at least 4GB of Hard disk space.
Request a CD
X Window System Desktop Environment
Desktop environment is a collection of software designed to give functionality and a certain look and feel to an operating system. DEs usually provide utilities to set wallpapers and screensavers, display icons on the desktop, and perform some administrative tasks. They may optionally include word processors, CD/DVD writing applications, web browsers and e-mail clients. The fundamental part of a Desktop environment are
1. Window Manager
◦ It manages the various application windows, keeping track of which ones are open and providing features to switch between them. ◦ It provides file operations like viewing, copying or moving, changing permissions and deleting.
2. File Manager
Most Popular Desktop Environments
◦ K Desktop Environment
Most Popular Desktop Environments
◦ GNU Network Object Model Environment
Comparison of GNOME and KDE
Main objective Programming language Additional library dependencies Toolkit used Size (base system, X installed)
Creating an attractive desktop environment using outstanding graphical design that can be used by everyone Mainly C, as GTK+ is written in C Mainly C++, as Qt is written in C++
GTK+ and GTK2+
Default Programs of Desktop Environments GNOME
X window manager X display manager File manager Widget toolkit Terminal emulator Text editor Video player Audio player CD burners CD ripper Image viewer Office suite Web browser E-mail client Contacts Instant messenger Archive manager PDF viewer Metacity GDM Nautilus GTK+ GNOME Terminal gedit Totem Rhythmbox Brasero Sound Juicer Eye of GNOME GNOME Office Epiphany Novell Evolution Novell Evolution Empathy File Roller Evince KWin KDM
Konqueror/Dolphin (KDE4) Qt Konsole Kate Dragon Player JuK K3b KAudioCreator Gwenview KOffice Konqueror Kmail Kontact Kopete Ark Okular
The Linux File System
Directory /bin /boot
Content Common programs, shared by the system, the system administrator and the users. The startup files and the kernel, vmlinuz. In some recent distributions also grub data. Grub is the GRand Unified Boot loader and is an attempt to get rid of the many different bootloaders we know today. Contains references to all the CPU peripheral hardware, which are represented as files with special properties. Most important system configuration files are in /etc, this directory contains data similar to those in the Control Panel in Windows Home directories of the common users. (on some distributions) Information for booting. Do not remove! Library files, includes files for all kinds of programs needed by the system and the users. Every partition has a lost+found in its upper directory. Files that were saved during failures are here. For miscellaneous purposes. Standard mount point for external file systems, e.g. a CD-ROM or a digital camera.
/dev /etc /home /initrd /lib /lost+foun d /misc /mnt
Directory /net /opt
Content Standard mount point for entire remote file systems Typically contains extra and third party software. A virtual file system containing information about system resources. More information about the meaning of the files in proc is obtained by entering the command man proc in a terminal window. The file proc.txt discusses the virtual file system in detail. The administrative user's home directory. Mind the difference between /, the root directory and /root, the home directory of the root user. Programs for use by the system and the system administrator. Temporary space for use by the system, cleaned upon reboot, so don't use this for saving any work! Programs, libraries, documentation etc. for all user-related programs. Storage for all variable files and temporary files created by users, such as log files, the mail queue, the print spooler area, space for temporary storage of files downloaded from the Internet, or to keep an image of a CD before burning it.
/root /sbin /tmp /usr
Installing Additional Software
By adding Repository DVDs
How to create a document How to save and retrieve data compatible to Microsoft Office.
Using Brasero, K3B
Mounting Drives ::
USB Mass Storage
Anoop John CEO, Zyxware Technologies
GNU/Linux Training is in partnership with,