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Procedure of writing the standard references in technical reports and publications

Presentation By Prof. Mahajan, and Mr. Mate

Normal references to be quoted


Journal papers Conference or proceeding papers Reference of books Reference of codes Reference of web pages Reference of thesis Reference of documents

General format : Journal references


Author name and year of Publication Full stop as a separator

Title of Publication in double quotes

Full stop as a separator

Name of source, publication number

Full stop as a separator

Page number of publication

Final Full Stop

Example for Journal paper published by single author


Author name and year of Publication Start with surname, initials (year) Surname with capital start then comma space First initial capital then full stop space Second initial then full stop space In bracket year Gupta, L. M. (2003). Mahajan, M. M. (2007).

Example for Journal paper published by single author (Cont.)


Title of Publication in double quotes Start with double quotes then First letter of the publication capital and type normal then full stop then immediately complete the quotes

Factors of safety in construction.


Parametric study of well foundation.

Example for Journal paper published by single author (Cont.)


Name of source, publication number For journal type J. only in italic font then space then name of journal in short but in italic then comma space followed by publishing agency name end with comma & space then volume number in normal font then complete it with comma J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 122(2), J. Bridge Eng., ASCE, 122, This has volume number only and no part number

Example for Journal paper published by single author (Cont.)


Page number of publication
First page number then dash last page number then full stop in regular font. 285-293.

Example for Journal paper published by single author (Cont.)


Final reference to put
First example
Gupta, L. M. (2003). Factors of safety in construction. J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 122(2),
285-293.

Second example
Mahajan, M. M. (2007). Parametric study of well foundation. J. Eng. Mech., ASCE, 122, 385-393.

Example for Journal paper published by double author (Cont.)


Author name and year of Publication Start with surname, initials (year) Surname of first author with capital start then comma space First initial capital then full stop space Second initial then full stop space comma followed by letter and thereafter second author surname with capital start then comma space First initial capital then full stop space Second initial then full stop pursued by year in bracket and again full stop

Jaiswal, O. R., and Ingle, R. K. (2006). Gupta, L. M., and Ronghe, G. N. (2008).

Example for Journal paper published by double author (Cont.)


Remaining things are same as that mentioned in first author example

Jaiswal, O. R., and Ingle, R. K. (2006). Analysis and design of water tank. Earthquake Engrg. and Struct. Dyn., 8, 425-432.

Gupta, L. M., and Ronghe, G. N. (2008). Parametric study of prestress steel composite. Eng. Struct., 122(2), 285-293.

Example for Journal paper published by triple author (Cont.)


Author name and year of Publication Start with surname, initials (year) Surname of first author with capital start then comma space First initial capital then full stop space Second initial then full stop space comma followed by second author details as that of first author then followed by letter and thereafter third author details end with full stop pursued by year in bracket and again full stop

Bakre, S. V., Khatri, A. P., and Kumar, R. (2009). Mahajan, M. M., Sonparote, R. S., and Vyavahare, A. Y. (2005).

Example for Journal paper published by triple author (Cont.)


Remaining things are same as that mentioned in first author example

Bakre, S. V., Khatri, A. P., and Kumar, R. (2009). Seismic vulnerability of buildings. Struct. Eng. and Earthquake Eng., 44(4), 61-73.

Mahajan, M. M., Sonparote, R. S., and Vyavahare, A. Y. (2005). Numerical procedure for nonlinear analysis of building deep foundation. J. Sound Vib., 131(4), 1012-1025.

Example for Journal paper published by multiple author (Cont.)


Author name and year of Publication Start with surname, initials (year) Surname of first author with capital start then comma space First initial capital then full stop space Second initial then full stop space comma followed by multi author details as that of first author then followed by letter and thereafter last author details end with full stop pursued by year in bracket and again full stop

Ingle, R. K., Jaiswal, O. R., Bakre, S. V., Sonparote, R. S., Datta, D., and Kumar, R. (2010). Gupta, L. M., Mahajan, M. M., Ronghe, G. N., Vyavahare, A. Y., Borghate, S. B., and Khatri, A. P. (2006).

Example for Journal paper published by multiple author (Cont.)


Remaining things are same as that mentioned in first author example

Ingle, R. K., Jaiswal, O. R., Bakre, S. V., Sonparote, R. S., Datta, D., and Kumar, R. (2010). Team of structural dynamics and earthquake engineering. Probab. Eng. Mech., 15(4),

309-315.

Gupta, L. M., Mahajan, M. M., Ronghe, G. N., Vyavahare, A. Y., Borghate, S. B., and Khatri, A. P. (2006). Team of structural engineering. Struct. Safety, 7, 57-66.

General format of conference or proceeding references


Author name and year of Publication Full stop as a separator

Title of Publication in double quotes

Full stop as a separator Comma for separator and space

Name of conference and its detail

Page number of publication

Final Full Stop

Example for conference paper published by single author (Cont.)


Author name and year of publication Start with surname, initials (year) Surname with capital start then comma space First initial capital then full stop space Second initial then full stop space In bracket year Gupta, L. M. (2011). Mahajan, M. M. (2003).

Example for conference paper published by single author (Cont.)


Title of Publication in double quotes Start with double quotes then First letter of the publication capital and type normal then full stop then immediately complete the quotes

Factors of safety in construction.


Parametric study of well foundation.

Example for conference paper published by single author (Cont.)


Name of conference and its details

Type all in italic case initially write Proc then full stop followed immediately by comma then conference title in full form then full stop space type conference in round bracket the conference short name dash and year complete the bracket followed by comma space then type in normal case the place of event separated with comma and space then comma and space then type country name end with comma Proc., 4th International Conference on Structural Stability and Dynamics. (ICSSD-2011), MNIT, Jaipur, Rajasthan state, India,
Proc., 11th World Congress on Structural Engineering. (WCSE2003), Washington D.C., USA,

Example for conference paper published by single author (Cont.)


Page number of publication
First page number then dash last page number then full stop in regular font. 285-293.

Example for Journal paper published by single author (Cont.)


Final reference to put
First example
Gupta, L. M. (2011). Factors of safety in construction. Proc., 4th International Conference on Structural Stability and Dynamics. (ICSSD-2011), MNIT, Jaipur, Rajasthan state, India,
285-293.

Second example
Mahajan, M. M. (2003). Parametric study of well foundation. Proc., 11th World Congress on Structural Engineering. (WCSE-2003), Washington D.C., USA, 385-393.

Example for conference paper published by double author (Cont.)


Author name and year of Publication Start with surname, initials (year) Surname of first author with capital start then comma space First initial capital then full stop space Second initial then full stop space comma followed by letter and thereafter second author surname with capital start then comma space First initial capital then full stop space Second initial then full stop space pursued by year in bracket and again full stop

Jaiswal, O. R., and Ingle, R. K. (2009). Gupta, L. M., and Ronghe, G. N. (2003).

Example for conference paper published by double author (Cont.)


Remaining things are same as that mentioned in first author example
Jaiswal, O. R., and Ingle, R. K. (2009). Analysis and design of water tank. Proc., 14th Symposium on Earthquake Engineering. (14 SEE -2009), IIT Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India,

425-432.

Gupta, L. M., and Ronghe, G. N. (2003). Parametric study of prestress steel composite. Proc., 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. (13 WCEE -2003), Vancouver,

B.C., Canada, 285-293.

Example for conference paper published by triple author (Cont.)


Author name and year of Publication Start with surname, initials (year) Surname of first author with capital start then comma space First initial capital then full stop space Second initial then full stop space comma followed by second author details as that of first author then followed by letter and thereafter third author details end with full stop pursued by year in bracket and again full stop

Bakre, S. V., Khatri, A. P., and Kumar, R. (2010). Mahajan, M. M., Sonparote, R. S., and Vyavahare, A. Y. (2007a).

Example for conference paper published by triple author (Cont.)


Remaining things are same as that mentioned in first author example
Bakre, S. V., Khatri, A. P., and Kumar, R. (2010). Seismic vulnerability of buildings. Proc., 9th Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering. (PCEE-2010), Auckland, New Zealand, 61-73.

Mahajan, M. M., Sonparote, R. S., and Vyavahare, A. Y. (2007a). Numerical procedure for nonlinear analysis of building deep foundation. Proc., International Conference on Innovations in Building Materials Structural Designs and Construction Practices , (IBMSCDP-2007), Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Erode, Tamilnadu , India, 10121025.

Example for conference paper published by multiple author (Cont.)


Author name and year of Publication Start with surname, initials (year) Surname of first author with capital start then comma space First initial capital then full stop space Second initial then full stop space comma followed by multi author details as that of first author then followed by letter and thereafter last author details end with full stop pursued by year in bracket and again full stop

Ingle, R. K., Jaiswal, O. R., Bakre, S. V., Sonparote, R. S., Datta, D., and Kumar, R. (2011). Gupta, L. M., Mahajan, M. M., Ronghe, G. N., Vyavahare, A. Y., Borghate, S. B., and Khatri, A. P. (2007).

Example for conference paper published by multiple author (Cont.)


Remaining things are same as that mentioned in first author example

Ingle, R. K., Jaiswal, O. R., Bakre, S. V., Sonparote, R. S., Datta, D., and Kumar, R. (2011). Team of structural dynamics and earthquake engineering. National level technical paper

presentation contest for staff . (STHAPANA 2K11), VNRVJ Institute of Technology,


Hyderabad, A.P. India, 309-315.

Gupta, L. M., Mahajan, M. M., Ronghe, G. N., Vyavahare, A. Y., Borghate, S. B., and Khatri, A. P. (2007). Team of structural engineering. Proc., National Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology (FRONTIER 2007), BNCOE, Pusad, Yeotmal, Maharashtra, India, 57-66.

General format of book references


Author name and year of Publication Title of Publication in italic case Full stop as a separator

Comma as a separator

Name of publisher in normal case

Comma as a separator

District state and country of publisher separated with comma and space in normal case

Final Full Stop

Example for book published by single author


Author name and year of Publication Start with surname, initials (year) Surname with capital start then comma space First initial capital then full stop space Second initial then full stop space In bracket year Gupta, L. M. (2005). Mahajan, M. M. (2009).

Example for book published by single author (Cont.)


Title of publication in italic case Type in italic form

Composite steel structures


Reinforced concrete analysis and design

Example for book published by single author (Cont.)


Name of publisher in normal case Type in regular case the name of the publisher in full form

Wiley & Sons McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Example for book published by single author (Cont.)


District state and country of publisher separated with comma and space in normal case
Type brief address of publisher start with district comma space then state comma space and country followed immediately a full stop

New York, USA.


Bangkok, Singapore.

Example for book published by single author (Cont.)


Final reference to put
First example
Gupta, L. M. (2005). Composite steel structures, Wiley & Sons, New York, USA.

Second example
Mahajan, M. M. (2009). Reinforces concrete analysis and design, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Bangkok, Singapore.

Example for book published by double author (Cont.)


Author name and year of Publication Start with surname, initials (year) Surname of first author with capital start then comma space First initial capital then full stop space Second initial then full stop space comma followed by letter and thereafter second author surname with capital start then comma space First initial capital then full stop space Second initial then full stop pursued by year in bracket and again full stop

Jaiswal, O. R., and Ingle, R. K. (2008). Gupta, L. M., and Ronghe, G. N. (2010).

Example for book published by double author (Cont.)


Remaining things are same as that mentioned in first author example
Jaiswal, O. R., and Ingle, R. K. (2008). Analysis and design of water tank, Tata-McGraw Hill Publishing Company, New Delhi, India.

Gupta, L. M., and Ronghe, G. N. (2010). Parametric study of prestress steel composite, PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi, India.

Example for book published by triple author (Cont.)


Author name and year of Publication Start with surname, initials (year) Surname of first author with capital start then comma space First initial capital then full stop space Second initial then full stop space comma followed by second author details as that of first author then followed by letter and thereafter third author details end with full stop pursued by year in bracket and again full stop

Bakre, S. V., Khatri, A. P., and Kumar, R. (2011). Mahajan, M. M., Sonparote, R. S., and Vyavahare, A. Y. (2007b).

Example for book published by triple author (Cont.)


Remaining things are same as that mentioned in first author example

Bakre, S. V., Khatri, A. P., and Kumar, R. (2011). Seismic vulnerability of buildings, Pearson Education in South Asia, Chennai, India.

Mahajan, M. M., Sonparote, R. S., and Vyavahare, A. Y. (2007b). Numerical procedure for nonlinear analysis of building deep foundation, Thomson Asia Private Limited, Singapore.

Example for book published by multiple author (Cont.)


Author name and year of Publication Start with surname, initials (year) Surname of first author with capital start then comma space First initial capital then full stop space Second initial then full stop space comma followed by multi author details as that of first author then followed by letter and thereafter last author details end with full stop pursued by year in bracket and again full stop

Ingle, R. K., Jaiswal, O. R., Bakre, S. V., Sonparote, R. S., Datta, D., and Kumar, R. (2012). Gupta, L. M., Mahajan, M. M., Ronghe, G. N., Vyavahare, A. Y., Borghate, S. B., and Khatri, A. P. (2008).

Example for book published by multiple author (Cont.)


Remaining things are same as that mentioned in first author example

Ingle, R. K., Jaiswal, O. R., Bakre, S. V., Sonparote, R. S., Datta, D., and Kumar, R. (2012). Team of structural dynamics and earthquake engineering, Imperial College Press, London,

UK.

Gupta, L. M., Mahajan, M. M., Ronghe, G. N., Vyavahare, A. Y., Borghate, S. B., and Khatri, A. P. (2008). Team of structural engineering, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA.

General format of code references


Code number Full stop as a separator

Year of publication in bracket

Full stop as a separator

Full title of code in italic case

Comma as a separator

Address of code publisher separated with comma and space

Final Full Stop

Example for code


Code number All letters capital type code number in short form along with space only , if the code is have some sub number then write it in bracket form, these entire statement is ended with full stop AASHTO. IS 456. IS 1893. (Part 1)

Example for code (Cont.)


Year of publication in bracket Year of publication should be written in bracket and ends with full stop after the bracket (2004). (2000). (2002).

Example for code (Cont.)


Full title of code in italic case Write down the full title of code, type entire statement in italic case only with first letter capital LRFD bridge design specification Plain and reinforced concrete code of practice (fourth revision) Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures, Part 1 general provision and buildings (fifth revision)

Example for code (Cont.)


Address of code publisher separated with comma and space
Type name of publishing agency district state and country separated with comma and space and ends with full stop Washington, D.C., USA. BIS, New Delhi, India.

Example for code (Cont.)


Final reference to put First example
AASHTO. (2004). LRFD bridge design specification, Washington, D.C., USA.

Second example
IS 456. (2000). Plain and reinforced concrete code of practice (fourth revision), BIS, New Delhi, India.

Third example
IS 1893. (Part 1) (2002). Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures, Part 1 general provision and buildings (fifth revision), BIS, New Delhi, India.

General format of web page references


Name of the author Full stop as a separator Year of publication in bracket Full stop as a separator

Full title of document in italic case


Address of agency separated with comma and space Web link in triangular bracket

Comma as a separator

Comma as a separator Date of downloading in rounded bracket end with full stop after the bracket

Example for web page reference


Name of the Author Type name of author in regular font ended with full stop U.S. Dept. of the Army.

Example for web page reference (Cont.)


Year of publication in bracket Year of publication should be written in rounded bracket and ends with full stop after the bracket

(2002).

Example for web page reference (Cont.)


Full title of document in italic case Write down the full title of code, type entire statement in italic case only with first letter capital

Field manual: Military nonstandard fixed bridging,

Example for web page reference (Cont.)


Address of agency separated with comma and space
Type in normal font name of publishing agency district state and country separated with comma and space and ends with comma U.S. Dept. of the Army, Washington, D.C.,

Example for web page reference (Cont.)


Web link in triangular bracket
Type web link in triangular bracket in normal font without space

<http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/334-343/index.html>

Example for web page reference (Cont.)


Date of downloading in rounded bracket end with full stop after the bracket

(March 8, 2009).

Example for web page reference (Cont.)


Final reference to put First example
U.S. Dept. of the Army. (2002). Field manual: Military nonstandard fixed bridging, U.S. Dept. of the Army, Washington, D.C., <http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/3-34343/index.html > (March 8, 2009).

Second example
The Mathworks, Inc. (2007). Optimization Toolbox users guide: MATLAB Programming, <http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk/help/toolbox/optim/> (June 10, 2007).

General format of thesis references


Name of the author Full stop as a separator

Year of publication in bracket

Full stop as a separator

Full title of thesis in italic case Details of thesis along with the address of institute

Full stop as a separator

Final full stop

Example for thesis reference


Name of the Author Type name of author in regular font ended with first surname letter capital followed by comma space then first initial letter in capital full stop space then second initial letter in capital full stop Gupta, L. M.

Mahajan , M. M.

Example for thesis reference (Cont.)


Year of publication in bracket Year of publication should be written in rounded bracket and ends with full stop after the bracket

(1995).

(1988).

Example for thesis reference (Cont.)


Full title of thesis in italic case Write down the full title of thesis, type entire statement in italic case only with first letter capital this ended with full stop.

Prestress steel composite. Analysis and design of well foundation.

Example for thesis reference (Cont.)


Details of thesis along with the address of institute Write in normal font thesis submitted for the course then provides institute name and address in brief separated with comma and space type district state and country this statement end with full stop Ph. D. Thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. M. Tech. Thesis, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Example for thesis reference (Cont.)


Final reference to put

Gupta, L. M. (1995). Prestress steel composite. Ph. D. Thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Mahajan, M. M. (1988). Analysis and design of well foundation. M. Tech. Thesis, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Example for document or report references


Report on Jabalpur development plan (1999), Directorate of urban & rural development, Bhopal.
CBRI Report no. S(S)-008 (2002), Earthquake behavior of masonry and prefabricated buildings, CBRI, Roorkee. Research need. (1991). Research Bulletin Board. Structural Engineers Association of Northern California (SEAONC) Res. Com., San Francisco, California, USA.

Final list of references to be written in report


AASHTO. (2004). LRFD bridge design specification, Washington, D.C., USA. Bakre, S. V., Khatri, A. P., and Kumar, R. (2009). Seismic vulnerability of buildings. Struct. Eng. and Earthquake Eng., 44(4), 61-73. Bakre, S. V., Khatri, A. P., and Kumar, R. (2010). Seismic vulnerability of buildings. Proc., 9th Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering. (PCEE2010), Auckland, New Zealand, 61-73. Bakre, S. V., Khatri, A. P., and Kumar, R. (2011). Seismic vulnerability of buildings, Pearson Education in South Asia, Chennai, India. CBRI Report no. S(S)-008 (2002), Earthquake behavior of masonry and prefabricated buildings, CBRI, Roorkee. Gupta, L. M. (1995). Prestress steel composite. Ph. D. Thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Gupta, L. M. (2003). Factors of safety in construction. J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 122(2), 285-293. Gupta, L. M. (2005). Composite steel structures, Wiley & Sons, New York, USA. Gupta, L. M. (2011). Factors of safety in construction. Proc., 4th International Conference on Structural Stability and Dynamics. (ICSSD-2011), MNIT, Jaipur, Rajasthan state, India, 285-293.

Gupta, L. M., and Ronghe, G. N. (2003). Parametric study of prestress steel composite. Proc., 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. (13 WCEE -2003), Vancouver, B.C., Canada, 285-293. Gupta, L. M., and Ronghe, G. N. (2008). Parametric study of prestress steel composite. Eng. Struct., 122(2), 285-293. Gupta, L. M., and Ronghe, G. N. (2010). Parametric study of prestress steel composite, PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi, India. Gupta, L. M., Mahajan, M. M., Ronghe, G. N., Vyavahare, A. Y., Borghate, S. B., and Khatri, A. P. (2006). Team of structural engineering. Struct. Safety, 7, 57-66. Gupta, L. M., Mahajan, M. M., Ronghe, G. N., Vyavahare, A. Y., Borghate, S. B., and Khatri, A. P. (2007). Team of structural engineering. Proc., National Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology (FRONTIER 2007), BNCOE, Pusad, Yeotmal, Maharashtra, India, 57-66. Gupta, L. M., Mahajan, M. M., Ronghe, G. N., Vyavahare, A. Y., Borghate, S. B., and Khatri, A. P. (2008). Team of structural engineering, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. Ingle, R. K., Jaiswal, O. R., Bakre, S. V., Sonparote, R. S., Datta, D., and Kumar, R. (2010). Team of structural dynamics and earthquake engineering. Probab. Eng. Mech., 15(4), 309-315.

Ingle, R. K., Jaiswal, O. R., Bakre, S. V., Sonparote, R. S., Datta, D., and Kumar, R. (2011). Team of structural dynamics and earthquake engineering. National level technical paper presentation contest for staff . (STHAPANA 2K11), VNRVJ Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, A.P. India, 309-315. Ingle, R. K., Jaiswal, O. R., Bakre, S. V., Sonparote, R. S., Datta, D., and Kumar, R. (2012). Team of structural dynamics and earthquake engineering, Imperial College Press, London, UK. IS 1893. (Part 1) (2002). Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures, Part 1 general provision and buildings (fifth revision), BIS, New Delhi, India. IS 456. (2000). Plain and reinforced concrete code of practice (fourth revision), BIS, New Delhi, India. Jaiswal, O. R., and Ingle, R. K. (2006). Analysis and design of water tank. Earthquake Engrg. and Struct. Dyn., 8, 425-432. Jaiswal, O. R., and Ingle, R. K. (2008). Analysis and design of water tank, TataMcGraw Hill Publishing Company, New Delhi, India. Jaiswal, O. R., and Ingle, R. K. (2009). Analysis and design of water tank. Proc., 14th Symposium on Earthquake Engineering. (14 SEE -2009), IIT Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India, 425-432. Mahajan, M. M. (1988). Analysis and design of well foundation. M. Tech. Thesis, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Mahajan, M. M. (2003). Parametric study of well foundation. Proc., 11th World Congress on Structural Engineering. (WCSE-2003), Washington D.C., USA, 385-393. Mahajan, M. M. (2007). Parametric study of well foundation. J. Eng. Mech., ASCE, 122, 385-393. Mahajan, M. M. (2009). Reinforces concrete analysis and design, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Bangkok, Singapore. Mahajan, M. M., Sonparote, R. S., and Vyavahare, A. Y. (2005). Numerical procedure for nonlinear analysis of building deep foundation. J. Sound Vib., 131(4), 1012-1025. Mahajan, M. M., Sonparote, R. S., and Vyavahare, A. Y. (2007a). Numerical procedure for nonlinear analysis of building deep foundation. Proc., International Conference on Innovations in Building Materials Structural Designs and Construction Practices, (IBMSCDP-2007), Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Erode, Tamilnadu , India, 1012-1025. Mahajan, M. M., Sonparote, R. S., and Vyavahare, A. Y. (2007b). Numerical procedure for nonlinear analysis of building deep foundation, Thomson Asia Private Limited, Singapore. Report on Jabalpur development plan (1999), Directorate of urban & rural development, Bhopal. Research need. (1991). Research Bulletin Board. Structural Engineers Association of Northern California (SEAONC) Res. Com., San Francisco, California, USA.

The Mathworks, Inc. (2007). Optimization Toolbox users guide: MATLAB Programming, <http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk/help/toolbox/optim/> (June 10, 2007). U.S. Dept. of the Army. (2002). Field manual: Military nonstandard fixed bridging, U.S. Dept. of the Army, Washington, D.C., <http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/3-34343/index.html > (March 8, 2009).

How to mention the references in paper


When same author have published more papers then, they should be written in year wise in the list of references, that means previous to current years like 2007 will come first then comes 2009 for the same author. List of references is totally alphabetical starting with letter A to Z. When there are more than two authors then write down et al while discussing that paper in the report. If particular author have published two or more papers in the same year, then write a, b or so after the year of publication in the rounded bracket in the list of references as well as in the discussion of papers in the report.

Following is the Paper in which various references are shown


Example for reference of single author Gupta (2003) have discussed the factors of safety regarding the buckling behavior of steel columns for eccentric loading. Example for reference of Two authors Whereas, Jaiswal and Ingle (2006) have investigated the various parameters which affects the design and analysis of water tank for seismic action.

Example for reference of More than Two authors Meanwhile, Gupta et al. (2006) have conducted various tests for safety of structures during construction and erecting . In the recent years, Mahajan et al. (2005) studies the non linear analysis of deep foundation and developed a numerical procedure for the same.

Extensive research has been conducted on well foundation considering the various parameters like some of studies presented by Mahajan (2007a, b). In the past, a study on factor of safety in construction have presented by Gupta (2003), Gupta (2005), and Gupta (2011). Example for book references used in the paper.
Several structural and material properties for composite steel structures are defined and used in the mid nineties (Gupta et al. 2008). Example of code references used in paper. A=B+C (15)

The equation 15 can be used for determining the shear strength of joints (AASHTO 2004) considering the Youngs modulus as 2e5 N/mm2.

Example for web link reference.

The primary potential failure mechanism for stability of bridge abutments as reported in U.S. Dept. of the Army (2002).
Example of documents. The need of research in the recent competing world is a major challenges to the developing countries like India (Research need.1991). Example of thesis. The previous work in the field of well foundation has been carried out by various researchers like Mahajan (1988).

Thank You