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Living in the Stone Age

“Lithos” = stone Paleolithic Age Neolithic Age  Greek “paleo” means  Greek “neo” means “old” “new”  Upper Paleolithic age  Neolithic Revolution was 50 000 – 10 000 occurred between years ago 9000 – 4000 BCE .

Cro-Magnon society NEOLITHIC  People abandoned seminomadic life and began farming  Agricultural revolution was a progression of the “Great Leap Forward”  planting of crops  domesticating of animals  Better tools & weapons .Comparing the Stone Ages PALEOLITHIC  People lived in small groups of 5-10 families  Nomadic to seminomadic (hunting and gathering)  Close relationships between bands of people  ie.

potatoes. bartering for raw materials)  Beginning of stratification= emergence of leadership and beginning of social classes (age. berries)  Women made clothing from animal hides and nurtured children . fruits. gender.Social Structure: Paleolithic Age  Beginnings of closer social relationships (arranged marriages with other bands. women captured small game  women & children were gatherers (approx. 60-70% of diet came from roots. experiences)  men were big game hunters.

sheep. goats. pigs)  More occupations emerged with more permanent cities and towns . wetter climate which brought new wild grasses and grains  As population grew. art) would be traded for farm produce  Development of hierarchical class system  Domestication animals (cattle.Social Structure: Neolithic Age  Increasing knowledge of plants and animals allowed more control of food supply  End of Ice Age brought a warmer. so did the competition for land  Shift from semi-nomadic to the building of permanent towns and cities (first city was Jericho. in Mesopotamia between 8000 – 7000 BCE)  Trade by barter system was a crucial factor in the origin of cities (obsidian – a volcanic glass was one of the most valued traded materials (tools. weapons.

Religion & Art in Paleolithic Age  The Paleolithic Age (Cro-Magnon) was the first to develop fine art as drawings  Over 100 European caves showcase CAVE PAINTINGS of deer. ivory jewellery and spears made of mammoth tusks buried with bodies = this suggests a ritual burial with a view of an afterlife . jewellery. and sculptures/ figurines of clay. ivory and stone emerged  More advanced spiritual practices emerged as graves were found containing beads. pendants. horses and animals which are now extinct  Beginnings of cultural explosion in art as more tools.

sacrifices of animals) .Caves at Lascaux [lass co]    Painting at Lascaux Caves (south central France) found in 15 000 BCE Painters used irregularities in cave walls to add a 3-D effect to figures Paintings portray an awe and reverence towards animals which shows that for the first time people were expressing religious beliefs (rituals related to hunting magic.

Venus of Willendorf  Small sculptures such as the Venus of Willendorf were common to the Paleolithic Age  Sculpture features exaggerated curves (large breasts and wide hips) on female figure  Venus figurines are symbolic of the importance of fertility of a mother goddess .

copper use) which helped farm and make weapons and tools  Domestication of animals to do manual work and the planting of crops freed people from the pursuit of food  New time for leisure activities (art. sewing clothes  Cro-Magnons stored food over winter showing more planning  Invention of the bow and arrow around 20 000 BCE made hunting more easy NEOLITHIC  More efficient tools (sickle made of flint blades and antler.Weapons & Technology PALEOLITHIC  Better hunting strategies due to co-operation and more lethal weapons  Better tools for skinning game. religion) . music. sports. axes. hoe. preparing food.

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agricultural markers or astronomical observatories? .STONEHENGE  Stonehenge is located on Salisbury Plain in England  Created 2800-1500 BCE  Stonehenge is an example of a Neolithic megalith (megalith = Greek for “big stones”)  Exact purpose is unknown: religious rituals.

45 t and Heel Stone is 31 t  Great debate over the positioning of the stones  stones reflect an understanding of astronomy and mathematics (positions reflect sunrise. eclipses of sun and moon  stones could be a religious ritual to sun or moon gods  Others believe stones were built to show changing seasons for agriculture . Battle Axe folk people  Megaliths stones approx. Beaker people.Mystery of Stonehenge  Stonehenge was built in 3 major stages over 1300 years (tribal people.

leisure time)  Development of social hierarchies  Development of alliances and cooperation  Marriage customs  Development of trade goods and routes  Religious rituals  Refined sense of artistic beauty .Major Innovations of the Stone Age  More complex human societies (from seminomadic to permanent cities. domestication of animals.

ALL THESE LEAD TO THE FIRST “CIVILIZATION” .