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It means securing the services of certain persons for a certain job. The general purpose is to provide a pool for potentially qualified job candidates. Proper recruitment helps to increase production and efficiency, lesser expenditure on their training and supervision which leads to lesser total cost

Need of recruitment
The need for recruitment may arise out of the following situations1. Vacancies due to promotions, transfers, terminations, permanent disability or death 2. Creation of vacancies due to business expansions, diversification, growth and so on

Characteristics of recruitment
1. First stage of appointment 2. It is a continue process 3. Tool for inspiration to the eligible person who is able for job 4. Tool for development and working for employees

. To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experiences that suit the present and future organisational strategies 2. To design entry process and remuneration on quality but not on quantum. To search for talent globally and not just within the corporate sector 4. To induct outsider with a new perspective to lead the organisation 3.Objectives of recruitment 1.

Methods Or Sources Of Recruitment Internal sources Methods Or Sources Of Recruitment External sources .

Internal advertisement 4. Promotions 2. Informal search .Internal recruitment It includes recruitment within the organisation. Transfers 3. Sources are1.

Improvement in morale and motivate to work hard Disadvantages of internal recruitment 1.Advantages of internal recruitment 1. Makes employees complacent 3. Best utilisation of internal resources 2. Reduction in the flow of new people and ideas . Conflict and inefficiency 2. Economical 3.

External Recruitment It includes recruitment outside the organisation. Recruitment through the recommendation of the existing employees . Recruitment through the Jobbers or intermediaries ( unskilled and illiterate workers) 3. Direct recruitment (technical and clerical staff) 2. Advertisement ( skilled. technical. managerial staff) 4. Sources are1.

5. Recruitment from collages. Contractors . universities or educational institutes 6. Recruitment through employment exchange 7.

Time consuming 3. Flow of new ideas Disadvantages of external sources 1. Conflicts 2.Advantages of external sources 1. Wide choice of selection 3. Uncertainty . Better skills and higher qualification 2.

the management has to perform the function of selecting the right employees at the right time. •In selection intention is to choose the best qualified and suitable job candidate for each unfilled job. •The objective of the selection decision is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool qualified candidates .Selection •After recruitment .

•The selection procedure is the system of functions and devices adopted in a given organisation to ascertain whether the candidate specifications are matched with the job specification and requirements or not .

2.Characteristics of selection 1. health. . which begins after recruitment. 3. It is an evaluation of applicant's qualification. skills. 4. It is a process for selecting the qualified and suitable person. intelligence and working capacity. It is a negative process. Selection is the process. because unqualified persons can be rejected. experience.

Receipt of application Screening of applications Sending the blank application form Preliminary interview Administering tests Main interview Reference check Medical test Selection and appointment .

4. 5. 3.Administering tests 1. 2. 6. Achievement test Aptitude test Trade test Interest test Intelligence test Dexterity test Temperament test . 7.

Cost involved 8. Length of process . Meaning 2. Process Begins with seeking of new recruits and ends with submission of application 3. Nature of function Positive function 1. Sequence 6. Services of experts 7.Nature of function Expensive activity 3. Services of experts 7. Sequence 6. Purpose To select the best candidate 5. Length of process 5. of suitable candidates 4.Recruitment and selection 1. Cost involved 8. Purpose To attract maximum no. Process Beings with screening of applications and ends with hiring decision and placement 4.Meaning 2.

companies are making their recruitment processes more robust. . •Employing a new candidate for a company is very difficult for the interviewer. •To ensure the availability of best talent for recruitment. many new interviewing methods have come into existence. As such.Interview •An interview is a conversation between two people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee.

Different types of Interviews
1. The Screening Interview It is the first round of selection where candidates are shortlisted on the basis of their skill set. Computer programs select the right resumes based on a keyword search. In some companies, this is done manually.

Traditional Face-to-Face Interview
•Most of the interviews are face to face interviews. This is also known traditional interview in which job seekers meet the employers in face to face. •Whether you are fresher or experienced you are in need to attend the interview. •The advantage of the traditional interview is that the employer and job seekers can get to know each other about their environment. •In face to face interview, they may ask questions like the strengths and weakness of the candidates, expecting salary etc.,

•Before interview the candidates should have knowledge about the company, their products and financial positions. Also the candidates must be prepared with their resumes. Most employers will ask questions from the resumes. • Focus should be on the person asking questions. Maintain eye contact, listen and respond once a question has been asked. • Goal is to establish rapport with the interviewer and show them that your qualifications will benefit their organization

• The front-runner candidates are gathered together in an informal. .Group interview: • A group interview is usually designed to uncover the leadership potential of prospective managers and employees who will be dealing with customers. discussion type interview. A subject is introduced and the interviewer will start off the discussion. • The goal of the group interview is to see how you interact with others and how you use your knowledge and reasoning to influence others.

.The group interview will show the candidates•Knowledge level •Leadership qualities •Communication skill •Team work •Listening Capacity •Reaction under stress In group interview. Don't interfere while other candidates speaks. express your opinion confidently and allow others to speak.

Questions may be asked by all panel members and one can expect any type of critical questions from them. . The Panel members may be * The supervisor * The manager * The human resource officer * The union representative * Employees who are in recruiting team Candidates will meet several higher authorities and this method is used to hire for advanced positions. three to ten members of a panel may conduct this part of the selection process.Panel/Committee Interview In this situation. Typically. there is more than one interviewer.

• As quickly as possible. try to 'read' the various personality types of each interviewer and adjust to them. • Remember to take your time in responding to questions. but also seek eye contact with other members of the panel as you give your response. . Maintain primary eye contact with the panel member who asked the question. Find a way to connect with each interviewer.

Panel interview .

family life . activities.anything really . . hobbies. candidates are asked to explain their examples of their past behavior. experience. •In behavioral interviews. instead of what you can do in the future. willingness to travel.Behavioral Interview •The basic idea behind this type of interview is that “your past behavior is the best predictor of your future actions” •The interviewer will want to know about your ability to deal with certain situations. self-confidence and Creativity. school projects. •This interview shows the candidates willingness in learning.

Have you handled a difficult situation with a co-worker? How?. the interviewer is looking for results.What do you do if you disagree with your boss?.With a behavioral question. dates. Tell me about how you worked effectively under pressure? . e. places.. They are listening for names. the outcome and especially what your role was in achieving that outcome.g.

. •The main purpose of conducting telephone interview is to reduce the expenses of the out of state or out of town candidates. •Telephone interview is also conducted in professional manner as like other interviews.Telephone Interview •Telephone interview is a technique used to recruit the candidates for employment through phone.

education etc.•During telephone interview you have to sell yourself only through your voice and confidence in speech. Candidates who are capable for the required position will attend the next level face to face interview. You never know when a company is going to call and you may not be prepared for the interview at that time. •Most of the companies use this method to eliminate the candidates who don't have essential skills. . This will become one of the advantage for the company to know your capability and this situation makes them to judge you. knowledge. This method is used to obtain additional information about a candidate’s skills and experience that can be obtain from the application or resume. •In this method.



3.Stress Interview 1. The interviewer might openly challenge your believes or judgment. Starting you might be asked to wait in the waiting room for an hour before the interview. Stress interview creates discomfort in you and the main purpose of stress interview is to give you stress and difficult situation. 5. The interviewer's may try to introduce stress by asking continuous questions without giving time to think and answer the questions. Answer each question in calm as it comes . This type of interview is to test the candidates ability in stress situations. You might be called upon to perform an impossible task on convincing the interviewer to exchange. 4. 2.

•The stress interviewing technique is typically used for positions in which the job-seeker will be facing stress on the job .•Stress interviews are appropriate for certain types of jobs such as public safety and customer complaint-handling.

• Stay calm.• stress interviews can be beneficial • Stress interviews are not meant to hurt your feelings. • The interviewers also should try not to make the stress interviews a brutal experience for the candidate. • Keep your main message in mind. . and don’t let the interviewer shake you from your goal of expressing that point. do not respond with rudeness • The best remedy is balance • In to days highly competitive markets firms need to acquire dynamic individuals who can go beyond their job specification and handle time to time panic and stress related to work. They are just meant to test your mental strength. and stress interviews are a good tool. No matter what happens.

Patterned interview •It is an interview using questions set in advance and following a fixed pattern •Ideal answers to these questions are also determined in advance. . •Answers given by candidate are checked with the ideal answers to assess the suitability of candidate for the job.


•It is a process which tries to increase the knowledge and skills of the employee making him better equipped to perform his job or to take on greater responsibilities.TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT •Training is a tool to improve effectiveness •It is a planned and deliberate learning process. the next logical step is to train him for better performance. •After selection of an employee. .

•Training should enable the trainee to adapt himself to the changing environment and serve the organisational objectives in an effective manner. •Training could be in.he gets a better employee.•It is such an area of management where employer and employee both have mutual interest •For Employees. •For Employer. .house or it could be through outside centers.increases efficiency which enables him to avail of better opportunities provided within the organisation.

Process of training Follow up Evaluation Conduct of training programme Organising training programme Identifying the needs of training .

Objectives of Training &Development 1. electronic data processing etc 3. To establish a sound relationship between the worker and his job. To upgrade skills -to keep pace with changing technology. To develop healthy constructive attitudestraining programme in companies are aimed at moulding employee attitude to achieve support for company activities and to obtain better co-operation and greater loyalty . mechanisation . automation. 2.

the most effective and cost effective ways of performing job are taught under training which naturally leads to enhanced productivity.with the help of training unnecessary repetition.4. 5. To increase productivity. . 6. deficiencies in methods of doing work are ironed out reducing hazards of accidents. To minimise operational errors. To prepare employees for future – training provide an opportunity to climb up the promotional ladder. wastage and spoilage of materials is brought down.

it creates sense of pride and belonging which contributes to reducing labour as well as absenteeism.To bring down cost of better cost effective methods are taught under training 9. To enhance employee confidence and morale with greater knowledge 8. .the problems faced by such employees are age and previous education. Aiding displaced employees. To bring down labour turnover and absenteeism. 10.

Helpful in extension programmes of enterprises . Increase mobility(flexibility) of employees 6. Increase in productivity 2. absenteeism and accidents 8. Reduction in labour turnover. Development of employee’s morale 4.Importance of training and development 1. Self development 7. Reduction in the cost of supervision and direction 5. Better use of raw materials and plant and machinery 3.

TYPES OF TRAINING Induction training Job training Training for promotion Refresher training .

Induction training •Initial orientation or training of the employees when they are admitted to an organisation •It familiarise him with task and provide him with information about company rules. personnel policies. •It helps the new employee to identify with the organisation and gives him some feeling for the significance of the work he will be doing and helps to overcome the fears for new job .

.Job Training •Main purpose is to enhance or increase the knowledge of workers about their respective jobs. •Helps to avoid accidents and waste. handling of machines and equipments and the best possible use of machines. •It enables the workers to learn each process and technique of production.

Training for Promotion •Also known as training for advancement •The key element in such programmes is the opportunity provided for highly motivated individuals to attain more responsible and more highly paid positions. .

Refresher Training •It helps to provide knowledge of modern methods of production. . •It is given to the employees to keep them alert with the machines and techniques.

Methods of training On the job OFF THE JOB .

Apprenticeship training Job Rotation Coaching ON THE JOB Internship training Training within company .

On the job Training •A specific job is given to the new worker under the guidance of a supervisor or instructor •A work is explained to him. he is allowed to learn the task along with an experienced worker. •He is expected to learn the whole process himself .

No expert guidance 2. Cheaper method 2. Defective method 3.Advantages 1. Work spoilage . to fully understand the organization’s products and services and how they are developed and carried out. Disadvantages 1. Helps particularly to develop the occupational skills necessary to manage an organization. Less time consuming 3.

1. innovative. • Make individuals more self-motivated. adaptable.Job Rotation • Job rotation is the systematic movement of employees from job to job or project to project within an organization • Excellent job rotation program can decrease the training cost. eager to learn and able to communicate effectively and better understanding of strategic issues. flexible. .

develop an action plan. .Coaching • Coaching is the process of one-on-one guidance and instruction to improve knowledge. skills and work performance. • Coaching is becoming a very popular means of development.2. and often includes working one-on-one with the learner to conduct a needs assessment. set major goals to accomplish. and support the learner to accomplish the plan.

. welders. electricians etc Under this method organisation selects candidates. Training period may be 2-6 years.Apprenticeship training It is a popular method in specific trades and crafts.carpenters.3. Exp:. They are paid stipend during the working period.

real life job experience and the organization often get skilled. .Internship • Internship are opportunities for students to get real world experience. highly dedicated service.4. • Internship are offered usually by organization to college students wanting to find work experience. • The internship offer precious. often during summer vacations as a part of fulfilling requirements for degree programs.

employing thousands of workers and requiring hundreds of skilled workers suited to their particular needs •Exp:. •Helps to give clear understanding of the work to be done 5. Training within company .steel mills.•It is employed by very large corporations. machinery manufacturing companies.

• Transfer of skills and knowledge to the workplace is not required since the classroom is a model of the working environment. • Classes are small so that the learners received immediate feedback and ask questions more easily than in a large classroom.6.Vestibule training • New employee is trained in a separate training centre within a plant itself • Mechanical tools arranged and training is given by experienced job inspector • The workers are trained as if on the job. but it does not interfere with the more vital task of production. • Its main disadvantage is that it is quite expensive as it duplicates the production. .

Discussion or conference Computer based Role playing training Off the job Lectures Case studies Simulation .

LECTURES •This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to influence behaviour. attitudes through lecture. .1. •Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. •A lecture can be in printed or oral form.

•Discussion methods are effec tive in getting the trainees to think constructively.Discussion method •Discussion is defined as a group work using different instructional techniques to attain predetermined objectives. .2.

Advantages • Interest level is high in well planned discussions. . • Trainees can express own opinions freely and hear those of others • Trainees participation is high and hence acceptance of decisions and solutions is also high.

Disadvantages • Demands highly skilled and well informed instructors. • Effective only for small groups . • Quality of discussion depends on thoroughness of preparation.

•Implies an imitation of a real-life process.Simulation •In this method the trainee work in closely ‘duplicated’ real job conditions. usually via a computer or other technological device. •Commonly used in corporate situations to improve business awareness and management skills. ..3.

Demerits of simulation • This type of training is usually involve huge cost. • This type of training is very useful to avoid any costly errors or the destruction of valuable resources. .Merits of Simulation • Creates interest in the trainees and motivates them.

4. Description of the role 2. etc. • Example -Situation could be strike in factory. a general description of the situation. • Then. Managing conflict between two parties Scheduling vacation days. Responsibilities 5. is given. Concerns 3.Role playing •Role play is a simulation in which each participant is given a role to play. etc. •Information is given to Trainees related to: 1. . and the problem that each one of them faces. Objectives 4. Emotions.

•It develops the decision making ability in trainee. and the some complex situations of a real or imaginary organization. •The trainee is expected to study the information given in the case & make decision based on the situation.5. . Case study •The trainee is given with some written material.

•CBT does not require face-to-face interaction with a human trainer.6. .Computer based training •Providing training to employees through Intranet or Internet.

plans. .7. procedures.Business games • These are based on the set of rules. • In business games. relationships. trainees are given some information that describes a particular situation and are then asked to make decisions that will best suit in the favour of the company. principles derived from the research.