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INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

Md. Mortuza Ahmmed

Applications of Statistics
Agriculture
Business and economics

Marketing Research
Education

Medicine

Variable
Qualitative Variable

Independen t variable

Dependent variable

Discrete variable Quantitative Variable

Continuous variable

Scales of Measurement

Nominal scale

Ordinal Scale

Ratio scale

Interval scale

FREQUENCY TABLE
Rating of Drink
P G E Total

Tally marks
IIII IIII IIII II IIII III

Frequency
05 12 08 25

Relative Frequency
05 / 25 = 0.20 12 / 25 = 0.48 08 / 25 = 0.32 1.00

SIMPLE BAR DIAGRAM
160
150

140

120
100
100

80
60 40
25 56

20 0 Muslim Hindu Christians Others

COMPONENT BAR DIAGRAM

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Section D Section C Section B Section A

Male

Female

MULTIPLE BAR DIAGRAM
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Section A Section B Section C Section D

Male

Female

PIE CHART
Religion of students
Muslim Hindu Christians Others

8% 15% 46%

31%

LINE GRAPH
Share price of BEXIMCO
7000 6400 6000 5000 5000 4000 3000 3000 2000 1000 0 5600

4500

July

August

September

October

November

HISTOGRAM
20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4

2
0

BAR DIAGRAM VS. HISTOGRAM
Histogram Bar diagram

Area gives frequency

Height gives frequency

Bars are adjacent to each others Constructed for quantitative data

Bars are not adjacent to each others Constructed for qualitative data

STEM AND LEAF PLOT
Stem
1 2 3 4 5 6

Leaf
1479 13479 1379 1347 1349 1347

SCATTER DIAGRAM
300 250

Supply

200
150 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Price

COMPARISON AMONG THE GRAPHS
Graph
Pie chart Histogram Bar diagram

Advantages
Shows percent of total for each category

Disadvantages
Use only discrete data

Can compare to normal curve Use only continuous data

Compare 2 or 3 data sets easily Compare 2 or 3 data sets easily

Use only discrete data

Line graph
Scatter plot

Use only continuous data

Shows a trend in the data
relationship

Use only continuous data

Stem and Leaf
Plot

Handle extremely large data
sets

Not visually appealing

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY
A measure of central tendency is a single value that attempts to describe a set of data by identifying the central position within that set of data.

mean (AM)  Geometric mean (GM)  Harmonic mean (HM)  Median  Mode

 Arithmetic

ARITHMETIC MEAN
It is equal to the sum of all the values in the data set divided by the number of values in the data set.

PROBLEMS

Find the average of the values 5, 9, 12, 4, 5, 14, 19, 16, 3, 5, 7. The mean weight of three dogs is 38 pounds. One of the dogs weighs 46 pounds. The other two dogs, Eddie and Tommy, have the same weight. Find Tommy’s weight. On her first 5 math tests, Zany received scores 72, 86, 92, 63, and 77. What test score she must earn on her sixth test so that her average for all 6 tests will be 80?

AFFECT OF EXTREME VALUES ON AM

Staff

1

2 3 4

5

6

7

8

9 10

Salary 15 18 16 14 15 15 12 17 90 95

CALCULATION OF AM FOR GROUPED DATA x 0 1 2 3 4 10 Total AM = f 05 10 05 10 05 02 N = 37 90 / 37 = f.x 00 10 10 30 20 20 90 2.43

MEDIAN
1 1 1 3 2 4 2
MEDIAN = 2

3 3 2
MEDIAN = (2 + 3) / 2 = 2.5

1

2

3

4

MODE

WHEN TO USE THE MEAN, MEDIAN AND MODE
Type of Variable Nominal Ordinal Interval/Ratio (not skewed) Interval/Ratio (skewed) Best measure of central tendency Mode Median

Mean
Median

WHEN WE ADD OR MULTIPLY EACH VALUE
BY SAME AMOUNT

Data
Original data Set Add 3 to each value Multiply 2 to each value 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 14, 15, 16, 20 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 17, 18, 19, 23 12, 14, 16, 20, 24, 28, 28, 30, 32, 40

Mean Mode Median
12.2 15.2 24.4 14 17 28 13 16 26

MEAN, MEDIAN AND MODE FOR SERIES DATA

For a series 1, 2, 3 ….n, mean = median = mode = (n + 1) / 2 So, for a series 1, 2, 3 ….100, mean = median = mode = (100 + 1) / 2 = 50.5

GEOMETRIC MEAN

HARMONIC MEAN

AM X HM = (GM) 2
For any 2 numbers a and b, AM = (a + b) / 2 GM = (ab) ^ ½ HM = 2 / (1 / a + 1 / b) = 2ab / (a + b) AM X HM = (a + b) / 2 . 2ab / (a + b) = ab = (GM) 2

EXAMPLE
For any two numbers, AM = 10 and GM = 8. Find out the numbers.
(ab)^ ½ = 08 ab = 64 (a + b) / 2 = 10 a + b = 20 . . . . .(1)
(a - b)2 = (a + b)2 – 4ab

= (20)2 – 4 .64 = 144 => a - b = 12 . . . .(2)

Solving (1) and (2) (a, b) = (16, 4)

EXAMPLE
For any two numbers, GM = 4√3 and HM = 6. Find out AM and the numbers. (a - b)2 AM √ab = 4√3 = (GM)2/ =8
HM

=>ab = 48 (a + b) / 2 = 8 => a + b = 16 …(1)

= (a + b)2 – 4ab

= (4√3) 2 / 6

= (16)2 – 4 . 48
= 64 a - b = 8 ...(2)

Solving (1) & (2) (a, b) = (12, 4)

CRITERIA FOR GOOD MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

Clearly defined Readily comprehensible Based on all observations Easily calculated
Less affected by extreme values Capable of further algebraic treatment

AM ≥ GM ≥ HM
For any two numbers a & b

(√a - √b) 2 ≥ 0 a + b – 2(ab)^1/2 ≥ 0 a + b
=> AM

AM = (a + b) / 2
GM = (ab)^1/2 HM = 2 / (1 / a + 1 / b)

≥ 2(ab)^1/2

(a + b) / 2 ≥ (ab)^1/2

= 2ab / (a + b)

≥ GM

Multiplying both sides by 2(ab)^1/2 / (a + b) (ab)^1/2 ≥ 2ab / (a + b)

GM ≥ HM

So, AM ≥ GM ≥ HM