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# Basic Signal Operations-2

Recap..
• Definition
• Size
• Classification of Signals
• Analog and digital signals
• Continuous-time and continuous-discrete signals
• Periodic and aperiodic signals
• Energy and power signals
• Causal and Non-causal
• Deterministic and probabilistic signals
• Even and odd signals
Outline..
• Operations
• Unit Impulse Function
• Unit step function
• Unit Impulse vs. Unit Step

1.Operations
• Time Shifting
• Magnitude Shifting:
• Time Scaling and Time Inversion
• Magnitude Scaling and Mag. Inversion

• a).Time Shifting:
• given the signal f(t),
• the signal f(t–t0) is a time-shifted version of f(t) that
is shifted
– to the left if t0 is positive and
– to the right if t0 is negative.

f(t)
f(t-to)
to
f(t+to)
to
• b).Magnitude Shifting:
• Given the signal f(t),
• the signal c +f(t) is a magnitude-shifted version
of f(t) that is
– shifted up if c is positive and
– shifted down if c is negative.
f(t)
t
t
f(t)
c
f(t)
t
c
• c). i. Time Scaling :
– Given f(t),
– the signal f(a·t) is a time-scaled version of f(t),
– where a is a constant, such that
• f(a·t) is an expanded version of f(t) if 0<|a|<1,
• and f(a·t) is a compressed version of f(t) if |a|>1.

• Time scaling compresses or dilates a signal by
multiplying the time variable by some quantity.
• If that
– quantity is greater than one, the signal becomes narrower
and the operation is called compression, while if
– quantity is less than one, the signal becomes wider and is
called dilation.

The recommended approach to sketching time-scaled signals is
simply to evaluate y(t) for a selection of values of t until the result becomes clear. For
example,

• Notice that in addition to compression or dilation, the `beginning time’ or `ending
time’ of a pulse-type signal will be changed in the new time scale.
• ii.Time Inversion:

– Given f(t),

– the signal f(a·t) is a time-scaled version of f(t), where a is
a constant,

• If a is negative, the signal f(a·t) is also a time-inverted version
of f(t).

• What happens when the time variable is multiplied by
a negative number?
• The answer to this is time reversal.
• This operation is the reversal of the time axis, or
flipping the signal over the y-axis.

a= -1
• d). i. Magnitude Scaling :
• Given f(t),
• the signal b·f(t) is a magnitude-scaled version of
f(t), where b is a constant, such that
– b·f(t) is an attenuated version of f(t) if 0<|b|<1, and
– b·f(t) is an amplified version of f(t) if |b|>1.

attenuated
amplified f(t)
• ii. Mag. Inversion:
• Given f(t),
• the signal b·f(t) is a magnitude inversion of f(t), where b
is a constant,
– if b is negative
– the signal b·f(t) is also a magnitude-flipped version of f(t).

f(t)
f(-t)
• Example:
• Given f (t) we would like to plot f (at-b)
(a) Begin with f (t) (b) Then replace t with ‘at’ to get f (at) (c) Finally, replace t
with t-b/a to get f(a(t-b/a))
Ex. : Given f(t), sketch 4–3f(–2t–6)
-2
2
-1
6
f(t)
t
2.Unit Impulse Function (Dirac delta
function)
• Mathematical Definition:
The unit impulse function o(t) satisfies the following conditions:

1. o(t) = 0 if t = 0,

2.

• The unit impulse is not defined in terms of its values, but is
defined by how it acts inside an integral when multiplied by a
smooth function f(t).

1 ) ( =
}
·
· ÷
dt t o
• Graphical Definition:
The rectangular pulse
shape approaches the
unit impulse function
as c approaches 0
(notice that the area
under the curve is
always equal to 1).
o(t)
t
1/c
÷c/2 c/2
c 0
• Since it is quite difficult
to draw something that
is infinitely tall, we
represent the Dirac with
an arrow centered at the
point it is applied.
• The dirac delta function
and unit impulse are
shown in Figure (a) and
(b) respectively.

o(t)
t
1/c
÷c/2 c/2
c 0
(a)
(b)
Unit Impulse (cont.)
 The unit impulse is a valuable idealization and is used widely in
science and engineering.
 Impulses in time are useful idealizations.
 Impulse of current in time delivers a unit charge instantaneously
to a network.
 Impulse of force in time delivers an instantaneous momentum to
a mechanical system.
 Impulse of mass density in space represents a point mass.
 Impulse of charge density in space represents a point charge.
 Impulse of light intensity in space represents a point of light.

Impulse of light intensity in space and time represents a brief
flash of light at a point in space.
Properties of Delta Function
1.Multiplication of a Function by an Impulse
• Φ(t)o(t) = Φ(0)o(t)
• Similarly

2. Sampling property of the Unit Impulse function

• It means area under the product of a function with an impulse o(t) is equal to
value of that function at the instant where the impulse is located.
• It is known as sampling or sifting property.

) 0 ( ) ( ) ( | o | = ·
}
·
· ÷
dt t t
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( T t T dt T t t ÷ = ÷ ·
}
·
· ÷
o | o |
3.Unit Impulse as a generalized Function
• non unique function
o(t) is not a true function in ordinary sense
• an ordinary function is specified by its values for all time t.
• range is undefined
• defined not as an ordinary fn but as a generalized fn
• defined in terms of the effect it has on the test function Φ(t) .

We define an unit impulse as a fn for which the area under its product with
a function Φ(t) is equal to value of the function Φ(t) at the instant where
the impulse is located.
3.Unit step function
• u(t) = 1 t ≥ 0
= 0 t < 0

• If it is desired to start a signal at t=0, multiply it
by u(t).
• A signal that does start before t=0 is called
causal signal. e.g.
• g(t) = 0 t < 0
1
u(t)
0
t

• area from –∞ to t of o(t) = 0 if t < 0 and unity if
t ≥ 0.
• consequently

) (
0 , 1
0 , 0
) ( t u
t
t
d
t
=
¹
´
¦
>
<
=
}
· ÷
t t o
) (
) (
therefore, t
dt
t du
o =
 Definition
Integration of the unit impulse yields the unit step function

which is defined as

Unit Step (cont…)
 As an example of the method for dealing with generalized
functions consider the generalized function

 Since u(t) is discontinuous, its derivative does not exist as an
ordinary function, but it does as a generalized function. To see
what x(t) means, put it in an integral with a smooth testing
function

and apply the usual integration-by-parts theorem

4.Unit Impulse vs. Unit Step
 The result is that

which, from the definition of the unit impulse, implies that

That is, the unit impulse is the derivative of the unit step in a
generalized function sense.

Unit Impulse vs. Unit Step (cont.)

•“Love yourself; you are a
wonderful creation of God”.

Recap..
• Definition • Size • Classification of Signals
• • • • • • • Analog and digital signals Continuous-time and continuous-discrete signals Periodic and aperiodic signals Energy and power signals Causal and Non-causal Deterministic and probabilistic signals Even and odd signals

• • • • Operations Unit Impulse Function Unit step function Unit Impulse vs. Unit Step .Outline..

Inversion .1.Operations • • • • Time Shifting Magnitude Shifting: Time Scaling and Time Inversion Magnitude Scaling and Mag.

Time Shifting: • given the signal f(t). f(t) f(t-to) f(t+to) to to . • the signal f(t–t ) is a time-shifted version of f(t) that is shifted 0 – to the left if t0 is positive and – to the right if t0 is negative.• a).

• b). • the signal c +f(t) is a magnitude-shifted version of f(t) that is – shifted up if c is positive and – shifted down if c is negative.Magnitude Shifting: • Given the signal f(t). f(t) f(t) f(t) c t t c t .

Time Scaling : – Given f(t).• c). – where a is a constant. • and f(at) is a compressed version of f(t) if |a|>1. i. . – the signal f(at) is a time-scaled version of f(t). such that • f(at) is an expanded version of f(t) if 0<|a|<1.

while if – quantity is less than one.• Time scaling compresses or dilates a signal by multiplying the time variable by some quantity. • If that – quantity is greater than one. the signal becomes wider and is called dilation. the signal becomes narrower and the operation is called compression. .

The recommended approach to sketching time-scaled signals is simply to evaluate y(t) for a selection of values of t until the result becomes clear. • Notice that in addition to compression or dilation. the `beginning time’ or `ending time’ of a pulse-type signal will be changed in the new time scale. For example. .

– the signal f(at) is a time-scaled version of f(t). where a is a constant. • If a is negative. .• ii.Time Inversion: – Given f(t). the signal f(at) is also a time-inverted version of f(t).

or flipping the signal over the y-axis.• What happens when the time variable is multiplied by a negative number? • The answer to this is time reversal. • This operation is the reversal of the time axis. a= -1 .

and – bf(t) is an amplified version of f(t) if |b|>1.• d). where b is a constant. Magnitude Scaling : • Given f(t). i. f(t) attenuated amplified . such that – bf(t) is an attenuated version of f(t) if 0<|b|<1. • the signal bf(t) is a magnitude-scaled version of f(t).

where b is a constant. f(t) f(-t) . Mag. • the signal bf(t) is a magnitude inversion of f(t). Inversion: • Given f(t). – if b is negative – the signal bf(t) is also a magnitude-flipped version of f(t).• ii.

• Example: • Given f (t) we would like to plot f (at-b) (a) Begin with f (t) (b) Then replace t with ‘at’ to get f (at) (c) Finally. replace t with t-b/a to get f(a(t-b/a)) .

Ex. : Given f(t). sketch 4–3f(–2t–6) f(t) 2 -2 -1 6 t .

Unit Impulse Function (Dirac delta function) • Mathematical Definition: The unit impulse function (t) satisfies the following conditions: 1.    (t )dt  1 • The unit impulse is not defined in terms of its values. 2. (t) = 0  if t  0.2. but is defined by how it acts inside an integral when multiplied by a smooth function f(t). .

• Graphical Definition: The rectangular pulse shape approaches the unit impulse function as  approaches 0 (notice that the area under the curve is always equal to 1). (t)   t    .

(t)   t    (a) (b) . we represent the Dirac with an arrow centered at the point it is applied. • The dirac delta function and unit impulse are shown in Figure (a) and (b) respectively.• Since it is quite difficult to draw something that is infinitely tall.

 Impulse of light intensity in space represents a point of light. Impulses in time are useful idealizations. Impulse of mass density in space represents a point mass. Impulse of charge density in space represents a point charge. Impulse of current in time delivers a unit charge instantaneously to a network. Impulse of force in time delivers an instantaneous momentum to a mechanical system.)       The unit impulse is a valuable idealization and is used widely in science and engineering. .Unit Impulse (cont. Impulse of light intensity in space and time represents a brief flash of light at a point in space.

   (t )  (t )dt   (0) .Properties of Delta Function 1. Sampling property of the Unit Impulse function  • • It means area under the product of a function with an impulse (t) is equal to value of that function at the instant where the impulse is located. It is known as sampling or sifting property.Multiplication of a Function by an Impulse • • Φ(t)(t) = Φ(0)(t) Similarly     (t )  (t  T )dt   (T ) (t  T ) 2.

• range is undefined • defined not as an ordinary fn but as a generalized fn • defined in terms of the effect it has on the test function Φ(t) .3. . We define an unit impulse as a fn for which the area under its product with a function Φ(t) is equal to value of the function Φ(t) at the instant where the impulse is located.Unit Impulse as a generalized Function • non unique function  (t) is not a true function in ordinary sense • an ordinary function is specified by its values for all time t.

3. • A signal that does start before t=0 is called causal signal.g. multiply it by u(t). e.Unit step function • u(t) = 1 =0 t≥0 t<0 1 u(t) 0 t • If it is desired to start a signal at t=0. • g(t) = 0 t<0 .

du(t )   (t ) dt . t  0  u(t )   t therefore. t  0  ( )d  1. • consequently 0.• area from –∞ to t of (t) = 0 if t < 0 and unity if t ≥ 0.

Unit Step (cont…)  Definition Integration of the unit impulse yields the unit step function which is defined as .

put it in an integral with a smooth testing function and apply the usual integration-by-parts theorem . To see what x(t) means. its derivative does not exist as an ordinary function. but it does as a generalized function.4.Unit Impulse vs. Unit Step  As an example of the method for dealing with generalized functions consider the generalized function  Since u(t) is discontinuous.

the unit impulse is the derivative of the unit step in a generalized function sense. Unit Step (cont. implies that That is.)  The result is that which.Unit Impulse vs. from the definition of the unit impulse. .

. you are a wonderful creation of God”.•“Love yourself.