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Recap..

• Definition

• Size

• Classification of Signals

• Analog and digital signals

• Continuous-time and continuous-discrete signals

• Periodic and aperiodic signals

• Energy and power signals

• Causal and Non-causal

• Deterministic and probabilistic signals

• Even and odd signals

Outline..

• Operations

• Unit Impulse Function

• Unit step function

• Unit Impulse vs. Unit Step

1.Operations

• Time Shifting

• Magnitude Shifting:

• Time Scaling and Time Inversion

• Magnitude Scaling and Mag. Inversion

• a).Time Shifting:

• given the signal f(t),

• the signal f(t–t0) is a time-shifted version of f(t) that

is shifted

– to the left if t0 is positive and

– to the right if t0 is negative.

f(t)

f(t-to)

to

f(t+to)

to

• b).Magnitude Shifting:

• Given the signal f(t),

• the signal c +f(t) is a magnitude-shifted version

of f(t) that is

– shifted up if c is positive and

– shifted down if c is negative.

f(t)

t

t

f(t)

c

f(t)

t

c

• c). i. Time Scaling :

– Given f(t),

– the signal f(a·t) is a time-scaled version of f(t),

– where a is a constant, such that

• f(a·t) is an expanded version of f(t) if 0<|a|<1,

• and f(a·t) is a compressed version of f(t) if |a|>1.

• Time scaling compresses or dilates a signal by

multiplying the time variable by some quantity.

• If that

– quantity is greater than one, the signal becomes narrower

and the operation is called compression, while if

– quantity is less than one, the signal becomes wider and is

called dilation.

The recommended approach to sketching time-scaled signals is

simply to evaluate y(t) for a selection of values of t until the result becomes clear. For

example,

• Notice that in addition to compression or dilation, the `beginning time’ or `ending

time’ of a pulse-type signal will be changed in the new time scale.

• ii.Time Inversion:

– Given f(t),

– the signal f(a·t) is a time-scaled version of f(t), where a is

a constant,

• If a is negative, the signal f(a·t) is also a time-inverted version

of f(t).

• What happens when the time variable is multiplied by

a negative number?

• The answer to this is time reversal.

• This operation is the reversal of the time axis, or

flipping the signal over the y-axis.

a= -1

• d). i. Magnitude Scaling :

• Given f(t),

• the signal b·f(t) is a magnitude-scaled version of

f(t), where b is a constant, such that

– b·f(t) is an attenuated version of f(t) if 0<|b|<1, and

– b·f(t) is an amplified version of f(t) if |b|>1.

attenuated

amplified f(t)

• ii. Mag. Inversion:

• Given f(t),

• the signal b·f(t) is a magnitude inversion of f(t), where b

is a constant,

– if b is negative

– the signal b·f(t) is also a magnitude-flipped version of f(t).

f(t)

f(-t)

• Example:

• Given f (t) we would like to plot f (at-b)

(a) Begin with f (t) (b) Then replace t with ‘at’ to get f (at) (c) Finally, replace t

with t-b/a to get f(a(t-b/a))

Ex. : Given f(t), sketch 4–3f(–2t–6)

-2

2

-1

6

f(t)

t

2.Unit Impulse Function (Dirac delta

function)

• Mathematical Definition:

The unit impulse function o(t) satisfies the following conditions:

1. o(t) = 0 if t = 0,

2.

• The unit impulse is not defined in terms of its values, but is

defined by how it acts inside an integral when multiplied by a

smooth function f(t).

1 ) ( =

}

·

· ÷

dt t o

• Graphical Definition:

The rectangular pulse

shape approaches the

unit impulse function

as c approaches 0

(notice that the area

under the curve is

always equal to 1).

o(t)

t

1/c

÷c/2 c/2

c 0

• Since it is quite difficult

to draw something that

is infinitely tall, we

represent the Dirac with

an arrow centered at the

point it is applied.

• The dirac delta function

and unit impulse are

shown in Figure (a) and

(b) respectively.

o(t)

t

1/c

÷c/2 c/2

c 0

(a)

(b)

Unit Impulse (cont.)

The unit impulse is a valuable idealization and is used widely in

science and engineering.

Impulses in time are useful idealizations.

Impulse of current in time delivers a unit charge instantaneously

to a network.

Impulse of force in time delivers an instantaneous momentum to

a mechanical system.

Impulse of mass density in space represents a point mass.

Impulse of charge density in space represents a point charge.

Impulse of light intensity in space represents a point of light.

Impulse of light intensity in space and time represents a brief

flash of light at a point in space.

Properties of Delta Function

1.Multiplication of a Function by an Impulse

• Φ(t)o(t) = Φ(0)o(t)

• Similarly

2. Sampling property of the Unit Impulse function

• It means area under the product of a function with an impulse o(t) is equal to

value of that function at the instant where the impulse is located.

• It is known as sampling or sifting property.

) 0 ( ) ( ) ( | o | = ·

}

·

· ÷

dt t t

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( T t T dt T t t ÷ = ÷ ·

}

·

· ÷

o | o |

3.Unit Impulse as a generalized Function

• non unique function

o(t) is not a true function in ordinary sense

• an ordinary function is specified by its values for all time t.

• range is undefined

• defined not as an ordinary fn but as a generalized fn

• defined in terms of the effect it has on the test function Φ(t) .

We define an unit impulse as a fn for which the area under its product with

a function Φ(t) is equal to value of the function Φ(t) at the instant where

the impulse is located.

3.Unit step function

• u(t) = 1 t ≥ 0

= 0 t < 0

• If it is desired to start a signal at t=0, multiply it

by u(t).

• A signal that does start before t=0 is called

causal signal. e.g.

• g(t) = 0 t < 0

1

u(t)

0

t

• area from –∞ to t of o(t) = 0 if t < 0 and unity if

t ≥ 0.

• consequently

) (

0 , 1

0 , 0

) ( t u

t

t

d

t

=

¹

´

¦

>

<

=

}

· ÷

t t o

) (

) (

therefore, t

dt

t du

o =

Definition

Integration of the unit impulse yields the unit step function

which is defined as

Unit Step (cont…)

As an example of the method for dealing with generalized

functions consider the generalized function

Since u(t) is discontinuous, its derivative does not exist as an

ordinary function, but it does as a generalized function. To see

what x(t) means, put it in an integral with a smooth testing

function

and apply the usual integration-by-parts theorem

4.Unit Impulse vs. Unit Step

The result is that

which, from the definition of the unit impulse, implies that

That is, the unit impulse is the derivative of the unit step in a

generalized function sense.

Unit Impulse vs. Unit Step (cont.)

•“Love yourself; you are a

wonderful creation of God”.

Recap..

• Definition • Size • Classification of Signals

• • • • • • • Analog and digital signals Continuous-time and continuous-discrete signals Periodic and aperiodic signals Energy and power signals Causal and Non-causal Deterministic and probabilistic signals Even and odd signals

• • • • Operations Unit Impulse Function Unit step function Unit Impulse vs. Unit Step .Outline..

Inversion .1.Operations • • • • Time Shifting Magnitude Shifting: Time Scaling and Time Inversion Magnitude Scaling and Mag.

Time Shifting: • given the signal f(t). f(t) f(t-to) f(t+to) to to . • the signal f(t–t ) is a time-shifted version of f(t) that is shifted 0 – to the left if t0 is positive and – to the right if t0 is negative.• a).

• b). • the signal c +f(t) is a magnitude-shifted version of f(t) that is – shifted up if c is positive and – shifted down if c is negative.Magnitude Shifting: • Given the signal f(t). f(t) f(t) f(t) c t t c t .

Time Scaling : – Given f(t).• c). – where a is a constant. • and f(at) is a compressed version of f(t) if |a|>1. i. . – the signal f(at) is a time-scaled version of f(t). such that • f(at) is an expanded version of f(t) if 0<|a|<1.

while if – quantity is less than one.• Time scaling compresses or dilates a signal by multiplying the time variable by some quantity. • If that – quantity is greater than one. the signal becomes wider and is called dilation. the signal becomes narrower and the operation is called compression. .

The recommended approach to sketching time-scaled signals is simply to evaluate y(t) for a selection of values of t until the result becomes clear. • Notice that in addition to compression or dilation. the `beginning time’ or `ending time’ of a pulse-type signal will be changed in the new time scale. For example. .

– the signal f(at) is a time-scaled version of f(t). where a is a constant. • If a is negative. .• ii.Time Inversion: – Given f(t). the signal f(at) is also a time-inverted version of f(t).

or flipping the signal over the y-axis.• What happens when the time variable is multiplied by a negative number? • The answer to this is time reversal. • This operation is the reversal of the time axis. a= -1 .

and – bf(t) is an amplified version of f(t) if |b|>1.• d). where b is a constant. Magnitude Scaling : • Given f(t). i. f(t) attenuated amplified . such that – bf(t) is an attenuated version of f(t) if 0<|b|<1. • the signal bf(t) is a magnitude-scaled version of f(t).

where b is a constant. f(t) f(-t) . Mag. • the signal bf(t) is a magnitude inversion of f(t). Inversion: • Given f(t). – if b is negative – the signal bf(t) is also a magnitude-flipped version of f(t).• ii.

• Example: • Given f (t) we would like to plot f (at-b) (a) Begin with f (t) (b) Then replace t with ‘at’ to get f (at) (c) Finally. replace t with t-b/a to get f(a(t-b/a)) .

Ex. : Given f(t). sketch 4–3f(–2t–6) f(t) 2 -2 -1 6 t .

Unit Impulse Function (Dirac delta function) • Mathematical Definition: The unit impulse function (t) satisfies the following conditions: 1. (t )dt 1 • The unit impulse is not defined in terms of its values. 2. (t) = 0 if t 0.2. but is defined by how it acts inside an integral when multiplied by a smooth function f(t). .

• Graphical Definition: The rectangular pulse shape approaches the unit impulse function as approaches 0 (notice that the area under the curve is always equal to 1). (t) t .

(t) t (a) (b) . we represent the Dirac with an arrow centered at the point it is applied. • The dirac delta function and unit impulse are shown in Figure (a) and (b) respectively.• Since it is quite difficult to draw something that is infinitely tall.

Impulse of light intensity in space represents a point of light. Impulses in time are useful idealizations. Impulse of mass density in space represents a point mass. Impulse of charge density in space represents a point charge. Impulse of current in time delivers a unit charge instantaneously to a network. Impulse of force in time delivers an instantaneous momentum to a mechanical system.) The unit impulse is a valuable idealization and is used widely in science and engineering. .Unit Impulse (cont. Impulse of light intensity in space and time represents a brief flash of light at a point in space.

(t ) (t )dt (0) .Properties of Delta Function 1. Sampling property of the Unit Impulse function • • It means area under the product of a function with an impulse (t) is equal to value of that function at the instant where the impulse is located. It is known as sampling or sifting property.Multiplication of a Function by an Impulse • • Φ(t)(t) = Φ(0)(t) Similarly (t ) (t T )dt (T ) (t T ) 2.

• range is undefined • defined not as an ordinary fn but as a generalized fn • defined in terms of the effect it has on the test function Φ(t) .3. . We define an unit impulse as a fn for which the area under its product with a function Φ(t) is equal to value of the function Φ(t) at the instant where the impulse is located.Unit Impulse as a generalized Function • non unique function (t) is not a true function in ordinary sense • an ordinary function is specified by its values for all time t.

3. • A signal that does start before t=0 is called causal signal.g. multiply it by u(t). e.Unit step function • u(t) = 1 =0 t≥0 t<0 1 u(t) 0 t • If it is desired to start a signal at t=0. • g(t) = 0 t<0 .

du(t ) (t ) dt . t 0 u(t ) t therefore. t 0 ( )d 1. • consequently 0.• area from –∞ to t of (t) = 0 if t < 0 and unity if t ≥ 0.

Unit Step (cont…) Definition Integration of the unit impulse yields the unit step function which is defined as .

put it in an integral with a smooth testing function and apply the usual integration-by-parts theorem . To see what x(t) means. its derivative does not exist as an ordinary function. but it does as a generalized function.4.Unit Impulse vs. Unit Step As an example of the method for dealing with generalized functions consider the generalized function Since u(t) is discontinuous.

the unit impulse is the derivative of the unit step in a generalized function sense. Unit Step (cont. implies that That is.) The result is that which.Unit Impulse vs. from the definition of the unit impulse. .

. you are a wonderful creation of God”.•“Love yourself.

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