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Environmental Quiz

Most recent update January 26, 2010

The population of the world in 1950 was 2.6 billion. The world population is currently about:

3.4 billion • 6.8 billion • 9.3 billion • 11.5 billion

The population of the world in 1950 was 2.6 billion. The world population is currently about:

3.4 billion • 6.8 billion • 9.3 billion • 11.5 billion

World Population 1850-2010
8 7 6 5 Billions 4 3 2 1 0

1850

1860

1870

1880

1890

1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

Year

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Programs Center, 2010.

2010

The population of the world is currently increasing at a rate of about 8.600 people per: • month • week • day • hour .

The population of the world is currently increasing at a rate of about 8.600 people per: • month • week • day • hour .

2010 Time Unit Year Month Week Day Population Increase 75. Census Bureau.Rate of Population Increase . . 2010.395.4 Source: U.941 206.948 1.378 6.445. International Division.282.S.563 Hour Minute 8.607 143 Second 2.

The estimated world population in the year 2050 is about: • 3.4 billion • 6.2 billion • 9.3 billion • 11.5 billion .

3 billion • 11.5 billion .4 billion • 6.The estimated world population in the year 2050 is about: • 3.2 billion • 9.

Census Bureau.World Population 1850-2050 (Medium Projection of Growth Assumed After 2000) 10 9 8 7 6 Billions 5 4 3 2 1 0 18 50 18 70 18 90 19 10 19 30 19 50 19 70 19 90 20 10 20 30 Year Source: U. International Programs Center.S. 20 50 . 2010.

The U.The population of the United States in 1960 was 181 million.S. population is currently about: • • • • 187 million 220 million 308 million 459 million .

The population of the United States in 1960 was 181 million. population is currently about: • • • • 187 million 220 million 308 million 459 million .S. The U.

with the population expected to stabilize by about 2025.True (T) or False (F): United States population growth is near zero. .

True (T) or False (F): United States population growth is near zero. with the population expected to stabilize by about 2025. .

S.2100 600 500 400 300 200 Projection 100 0 History 17 80 18 00 18 20 18 40 18 60 18 80 19 00 19 20 19 40 19 60 19 80 20 00 20 20 20 40 20 60 20 80 21 00 Source: U. Population. 1776. Population Division (2010) .S. Census Bureau.Growth of U.

Assuming a growth rate of 5% annually. . the population of the United States would surpass the current population of China by 2040.True (T) or False (F).

Assuming a growth rate of 5% annually.S. the population of the United States would surpass the current population of China by 2040.2 billion.True (T) or False (F). bringing the number of U. population would quadruple in only 28 years. residents to over 1. .S. At a 5% annual growth rate the U.

8 billion). population were to continue its current rate of growth for the next 700 years. the population would increase to over 315 billion! (The current world population is 6. .If the U.S.

.True (T) or False (F): The United States is a net exporter of most raw materials used by industry today.

.True (T) or False (F): The United States is a net exporter of most raw materials used by industry today.

the U. is a net importer of most categories of raw materials used to support our economy and lifestyle.S.  Most metals  Portland and masonry cement  Petroleum (the basis for plastics)  Wood and wood products .Due in part to domestic environmental concerns.

Japan. France Russia. Japan. Gabon. Russia UK. Japan . Australia China. Mexico. Germany Jamaica. and by Major Foreign Sources Material % Imported Niobium 100 Manganese 100 Graphite 100 Strontium 100 Bauxite/Alumina 100 Fluorspar 100 Yttrium 100 Thallium 100 Rubidium 100 Asbestos 100 Quartz (crystal) 100 Thorium 100 Tantalum 100 Principal Foreign Sources (2004-07) Brazil. China. Africa. Brazil. Guinea. Mexico. Canada. Belgium Canada Canada China. Mongolia China.S. Brazil Mexico. France Australia.2008. Africa.Net U. Estonia S. Canada. S. Netherlands. Australia China. Brazil. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption . China.

Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption . Africa. Swaziland. Canada. and by Major Foreign Sources Material % Imported Arsenic (trioxide) 100 Indium 100 Rare earth metals 100 Cesium 100 Vanadium 100 Gallium 99 Gemstones 99 Bismuth 97 Diamond (industrial) 92 Platinum Group 91 Stone (dimension) 89 Rhenium 87 Antimony 86 Principal Foreign Sources (2004-07) China. Ukraine. France. Canada. Korea China. Belgium . Hong Kong. Japan. Mexico China. Mexico. Morocco. Russia Canada Czech Rep. Canada Italy. Canada Israel. Germany. Germany. Mexico. Turkey.2008. Netherlands China. S. Belgium. S. Africa Belgium.S. China Chile. Belgium China. UK.Net U. Ireland S. Brazil. S. Africa. Germany. Nambia.. China Botwsana. Japan. India. UK.

Mexico. Peru. Russia. Peru. Belgium. Ukraine Chile. Germany. Germany. Africa.S. Canada. Japan. Germany Peru. Ireland Russia. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption . Bolivia. and by Major Foreign Sources Material % Imported Mica (natural) 86 Germanium 85 Cobalt 81 Potash 81 Tin 80 Barium (Barite) 79 Titanium concentrates 77 Iodine 74 Zinc 73 Palladium 72 Tungsten 61 Silver 60 Peat 58 Principal Foreign Sources (2004-07) China. India. Russia. Brazil Belgium. Belgium China. Russia Canada. Canada. S.2008. China. Africa. China Norway. Canada Canada. Canada. UK. Bolivia Mexico. India S. Australia. Canada. Chile Canada . Belarus.Net U. Indonesia China. China.

S. China Trinidad and Tobago. Mexico Diamond (indust) Silicon Chromium Titanium (sponge) Magnesium Cpds Lithium Magnesium Metal Nitrogen (fixed) Garnet (industrial) Vermiculite Nickel Copper . Canada S. Canada. S. Russia. Venezuela. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption . Austria. Russia. Russia. Nigeria. Russia China. and by Major Foreign Sources Material Petroleum % Imported 57 56 60 54 54 52 >50 50 48 40 35 33 32 Principal Foreign Sources (2004-07) Canada. Canada S. Peru. China. China Canada. Russia. Ireland. Australia Chile. India. Argentina Canada. Africa. Saudi Arabia. Russia. Africa.Net U. Canada. Norway. Zimbabwe Kazakhstan. Mexico China. Australia Chile. Venezuela. Russia Australia. Japan. Korea China. Israel.2008. Canada. Kazakhstan.

Mexico.2008. Mexico. Mexico Canada. Chile. Korea Morocco Canada. The Bahamas. and by Major Foreign Sources Material Lumber (softwood) % Imported 29 26 27 19 17 16 12 9 8 6 1 1 Sulfur Gypsum Perlite Salt Mica (scrap/flake) Cement (Portland/msry) Phosphate rock Iron and steel Pumice Lime Stone (crushed) Principal Foreign Sources (2004-07) Canada. S. .S. Germany. Turkey. Mexico Canada. Brazil Greece.Net U. China. Mexico Canada. China. Mexico. Dominican Rep Greece Canada. Finland Canada. Mexico. EU. Venezuela Canada. Italy. The Bahamas Also significant import dependency for Leather. Brazil. Thailand. New Zealand Canada. Wool. Chile. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption . Natural Rubber. India. Spain.

True (T) or False (F): The raw material that is used in the greatest quantity in the U. and which accounts for almost one-third (by weight) of the total raw materials used annually is steel. today.S. .

and which accounts for almost one-third (by weight) of the total raw materials used annually is steel. today. .True (T) or False (F): The raw material that is used in the greatest quantity in the U.S.

Annual U. . the difference is firewood.S. for cement.7 Aluminum 5. Source: Data for wood from USFS (2008). Consumption of Various Raw Materials.S. and aluminum from the U. Geological Survey (2008).9 * Roundwood is the volume of all wood harvested. and for plastics from the American Plastics Council (2008). Industrial roundwood is the volume of wood used in making forest products.3 Million m3 473 427 104 139 40. 2007 Million Metric tons Roundwood 210 Industrial roundwood* 188 Cement 115 Steel 110 Plastics 45.3 1. steel.

every year than all metals and all plastics combined! . more wood is used in the U.In fact.S.

True (T) or False (F): Consumption of mineral resources globally has increased sharply over the past 30years. .

True (T) or False (F): Consumption of mineral resources globally has increased sharply over the past 30years. .

.True (T) or False (F): Energy consumption per capita (per person) in the United States is twice that of the European Union.

.True (T) or False (F): Energy consumption per capita (per person) in the United States is twice that of the European Union.

Average 7885. Countries.4 .U. and the E.0 3894.9 6555.0 4396.8 4187. 2008 Energy Consumption (kilograms of oil equivalent per person) United States Finland (EU highest) France Germany UK E.U.Per Capita Energy Consumption in the U.S.6 3773.

• gathering of firewood. • building of roads and cities. .The number one cause of tropical deforestation worldwide is: • commercial logging. • clearing of lands for agricultural use. • wildfire.

• gathering of firewood. . Various estimates indicate that 60 to 85% of tropical deforestation today is due to permanent and shifting agriculture. • clearing of lands for agricultural use. • wildfire. • building of roads and cities.The number one cause of tropical deforestation worldwide is: • commercial logging.

The area covered by forests in the U. • • • • 72 percent 50 percent 33 percent 17 percent . today is approximately ____ of the forested area that existed in 1600.S.

The area covered by forests in the U. • • • • 72 percent 50 percent 33 percent 17 percent . today is approximately ____ of the forested area that existed in 1600.S.

that they did at the time of European settlement 1600 Forest 1.S.Forest Service .100 million acres 2007 Forest 751 million acres Source: USDA .Forests now cover 72% of the land area in the U.

The geographic area that encompasses the United States today has about the same forest coverage as the same geographic area did in 1907.True (T) or False (F). .

True (T) or False (F). . The geographic area that encompasses the United States today has about the same forest coverage as the same geographic area did in 1907.

(2009). General Technical Report WO-78. .Forest Area in the United States 1630-2007 1200 1045 1000 Thousand Acres 800 600 400 200 0 1630 759 760 756 761 744 738 747 749 751 1907 1938 1953 1963 1977 1987 1997 2002 2007 Source: USDA-Forest Service.

. Growing trees capture carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen.True (T) or False (F).

True (T) or False (F). CO2 O2 Carbon . Growing trees capture carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen.

forests: • • • • • Forest harvest exceeds growth by 20 percent. . Forest harvest exceeds growth by 5 percent. Forest growth exceeds harvest by 29 percent.Which of the following statements most accurately describes U. Forest harvest roughly equals growth. Forest growth exceeds harvest by 72 percent.S.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes U. forests: • • • • • Forest harvest exceeds growth by 20 percent. Forest harvest exceeds growth by 5 percent. Forest growth exceeds harvest by 72 percent.S. Forest harvest roughly equals growth. Forest growth exceeds harvest by 29 percent. .

5 2 1. ..0. USDA-Forest Service. (2009). et al. Hardwoods Softwoods All Species Source: Smith.S. 1952-2006 2. General Technical Report WO-78. timber inventories are neither expanding or declining..5 1 0.Net Growth/Removals Ratios – U.5 0 1952 1962 1976 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 When net forest growth divided by removals = 1. 2004.

48 1.71 2.50 1..17 1.33 1. et al. 1952-2006 Year 1952 1962 1970 1976 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 Softwoods 1.55 Hardwoods 1. General Technical Report WO-78.92 1.00 1. USDA-Forest Service.47 1.72 Source: Smith..19 1.25 1.54 1.S.15 1.33 1.75 1. 2004.42 1.23 1.Growth/Removals Ratios – U.25 1.65 2. (2009).33 1. .25 1.71 1.47 1.03 Total 1.55 1.01 2.

it was never intended that the National Forests of the U. .True (T) or False (F): As originally established.S. would be periodically harvested to obtain timber that would be used in meeting the nation’s need for wood.

it was never intended that the National Forests of the U.True (T) or False (F): As originally established. .S. would be periodically harvested to obtain timber that would be used in meeting the nation’s need for wood.

True (T) or False (F). At current rates of deforestation.S. will be lost by the middle of this century. forty (40) percent of current forests in the U. .

In fact.S. At current rates of deforestation. . will be lost by the middle of this century.S. is increasing. forty (40) percent of current forests in the U. the area covered by forests in the U.True (T) or False (F).

more species of plants and animals have been driven to extinction by logging activity than any other activity of mankind.S.True (T) or False (F): In the U. and globally. .

S. . and globally.True (T) or False (F): In the U. more species of plants and animals have been driven to extinction by logging activity than any other activity of mankind.

.There is no evidence that even one plant or animal species has been driven to extinction as a result of logging activity in the United States.

Under current United States law.True (T) or False (F). . forest harvesting is allowed in federally designated wilderness areas.

No harvesting is allowed in wilderness areas . Under current United States law.True (T) or False (F). forest harvesting is allowed in federally designated wilderness areas.

pronghorn antelope.S.True (T) or False (F). . Populations of elk. and wild turkey have declined significantly in the U. over the past 60 years.

S. Populations of elk. and wild turkey have declined significantly in the U.True (T) or False (F).000 percent over the past 50 years.S. over the past 60 years. . In fact. populations of each of these species within the U. have increased by at least 800 to 1. pronghorn antelope.

Elk Populations 1930-1990 600 500 Trends in U.S. 1992 . 1992 Trends in U.S. Wild Turkey Populations 1900-1990 450 400 350 (Thousands) 400 300 200 100 0 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Millions 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Year Source: MacCleery.S. 1992 Year Source: MacCleery.Trends in U. Pronghorn Populations 1910-1990 600 500 (Thousands) 400 300 200 100 0 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Year Source: MacCleery.

True (T) or False (F): Considering the total annual harvest of forests in the United States and the total consumption of wood and fiber products within our country. the U.S. is a net importer of wood and wood products. .

.S.True (T) or False (F): Considering the total annual harvest of forests in the United States and the total consumption of wood and fiber products within our country. the U. is a net importer of wood and wood products.

S. . imports of wood and wood products amounted to 15-20 percent of total wood consumption and 29 percent of construction lumber consumed in 2008.The United States is a Net Importer of Wood and Wood Products Net U.

.S. net import figure for wood and wood products drops to 2-3 percent.When waste paper exports are included in the net import calculation. the U.

As a percentage of all the paper used in the United States in 2008 _____ was recovered for reuse. • 14 percent • 36 percent • 57 percent • 92 percent .

• 14 percent • 36 percent • 57 percent • 92 percent .As a percentage of all the paper used in the United States in 2008 _____ was recovered for reuse.

S.Recovered paper provided _____ of the U. • 12 percent • 34 percent • 51 percent • 86 percent . paper industry’s fiber in 2008.

S.Recovered paper provided _____ of the U. • 12 percent • 34 percent • 51 percent • 86 percent . paper industry’s fiber in 2008.

True (T) or False (F).S. . More extensive recycling of paper could reduce harvesting of forests in the U. by 60 percent or more.

.S. by 60 percent or more.True (T) or False (F). More extensive recycling of paper could reduce harvesting of forests in the U.

Were paper recycling in the U.S. to go to the limit of technology worldwide the domestic timber harvest could be reduced by about 12-13%.

True (T) or False (F). The manufacture of wood construction materials generally results in far lower environmental impacts than when similar construction materials are manufactured from steel, aluminum, plastic, or concrete.

True (T) or False (F). The manufacture of wood construction materials generally results in far lower environmental impacts than when similar construction materials are manufactured from steel, aluminum, plastic, or concrete.

At a time when Society is seeking to more effectively harness solar energy, it turns out that one of our major raw materials – wood – is totally produced using solar energy.

very little additional energy is required to convert wood into useful products. .And.

The impacts. . however.The manufacture and use of all construction materials results in environmental impacts. differ considerably.

an interior wall of a house is constructed using steel rather than wood studs. the result is a large increase in energy consumption and emissions to air and water. . for example.If.

8 Steel* 11.0X * 30% recycled content.5 Difference 3. Wood vs. Source: Athena Sustainable Materials Institute. .Interior Non-Load Bearing Wall. Steel Comparative Energy Use (GJ) Wood 3. 1993.

2X 4.6X 11.4X 4.1X Source: Athena Sustainable Materials Institute.3X 1.700 1.Comparative Emissions in Manufacturing Wood vs.8X 9.150 100 390 . .800 45 Difference 3.305 2.450 400 1. Steel-Framed Interior Wall Emission/Effluent CO2 (kg) CO (g) SOX (g) NOX (g) Particulates (g) VOCs (g) Methane (g) Wood Wall . Steel Wall 965 11.6X 3.800 335 1.4 .800 3. 1993.

222 507 41X 41X 39X Source: Athena Sustainable Materials Institute.310 Halogenated organics (mg) 507 Oil and grease (mg) 1.532 41X 4. .051 41X 725.Comparative Effluents in Manufacturing Wood vs. Steel-Framed Interior Wall Emission/Effluent Wood Wall Suspended solids (g) 12.994 41X 53.180 Non-ferrous metals (mg) 62 Cyanide (mg) 99 Phenols (mg) 17.758 58.421 Sulphides (mg) 13 Steel Wall Difference 495. 1993.665 41X 20.640 41X 2.715 Ammonia (mg) 1.