Tutorial 3 LFM, Coherent Train and Frequency Coding

Outline

More on LFM

Range sidelobe reduction

Coherent train of identical pulses

Large improvement in Doppler resolution

Frequency-modulated pulse (besides LFM)
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Costas code Nonlinear FM

LFM review .

LFM range sidelobe reduction  Amplitude weighting Square-root of Hamming window .

 To maintain matched filtering. the weight should be split between the transmitter and receiver  Yet a linear power amplifier is required .

LFM Hamming-weighted LFM Sidelobe suppression and mainlobe broadening .

A train of pulses  A coherent train of identical unmodulated pulses  Signal Complex envelop   Unmodulated pulse .

2 .6 pulses and duty cycle = 0.

Large improvement in Doppler resolution .

Resolutions and Ambiguities .

Frequency-modulated pulses  Previously discussed LFM    The volume of AF concentrates in a slowly decaying diagonal ridge An advantage when Doppler resolution is not expected from a single pulse Relatively high autocorrelation sidelobe  Other frequency-modulation schemes   Better Doppler resolution Lower autocorrelation sidelobes .

The AF can be predicted roughly by overlaying a copy of this binary matrix and shifting it to some (delay.Matrix representation of quantized LFM There is only one dot in each column and each row. Doppler). A coincidence of N points indicates a peak of N/M M contiguous time slices tb M frequency slices Δf .

A narrow peak at the origin and low sidelobes elsewhere .Costas coding (1984) The number of coinciding dots cannot be larger than one for all but the zero-shift case.

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 A Costas signal   Hopping frequency Complex envelope .

the signal is Costas.Check whether Costas If all elements in a row of the difference matrix are different from each other. .

Peak sidelobe is -13.7 dB .

Exhaustive search of Costas codes .

..p-1.1.. Let α be a primitive element in GF(p) Numbering the columns of the array j = 0..2. j) if and only if i = αj . Then we put a dot in position (i..p-2 and the rows i = 1..Construction of Costas code  Welch 1 (Golomb & Taylor... 1984)    Applicable for M = p – 1 where p can be any prime number larger than 2.

 M=4    p=M+1=5 GF(5) = {0 1 2 3 4} Use α = 2: {1 2 4 3}  Use α = 3: {1 3 4 2} .

Nonlinear Frequency Modulation  Stationary-phase concept  The energy spectral density at a certain frequency is relatively large if the rate of the change of this frequency is relatively small  Design the phase (frequency) to fit a good spectrum .

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Low auto-cor sidelobes High sidelobes at high Doppler cuts .

2009 .Future talks  Phase-coded pulse    Barker codes Chirplike phase codes Our codes Thank you Sep.