Erwin Schrodinger developed the wave equations describing the probabilities of where the electrons are located in an atom

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An electron could not be accurately located, so he just assumed a possible location of an electron. He used sets of integers to describe the electron which was called “Quantum Numbers”

The Pauli exclusion principle is formulated by the Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925.
In its simplest form for electrons in a single atom, it states that no two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers.

May have an integer starting with one which represents the energy level. It tells what energy level the electron could be located.
1st energy level = 1 2nd energy level = 2 3rd energy level = 3 4th energy level = 4 6th energy level = 6 7th energy level = 7

This designates the subshells s, p ,d, f. It also describes the shape of the orbitals. Value is always positive. QN s (sharp) = 0 spherical p (principal) = 1 dumbbell/twin lobes d (diffused) = 2 four lobes f (fundamental) = 3 various shapes

May be an integer ranges from -3 to 3 depending of the subshell. s = has only 0 (1 orbital) 0 +1 has 3 orbitals p = -1 d = -2 -1 0 +1 +2 has 5 orbitals f = -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 has 7 orbitals

Identify the element given the QN of the last electron 1. (3, 1, 0, -1/2) 2. (6, 1, 0, +1/2) Write the set of Quantum Numbers of the last electron of the following elements 1. P 2. Sn 3. Br

Represents the spin of the electron. Remember that the + spin electrons enters the orbital first then when all orbitals are filled up the – spin electron occupies the remaining space =+½ =-½

Sodium (Na) = 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s1 QN of the last electron = (3, 0, 0, +1/2) Cobalt, (Co) = 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d7 = 3d7 (3, 2, -1, -1/2)
-2 -1 0 +1 +2

3 = 3rd energy level 2 = d subshell

-1= orbital location -1/2 = down/- spin