# COLUMNS & STRUTS

Submitted to:

Submitted By:

Divya Kumar Jain Gaurav Gupta Mechanical -A

CONTENTS
          

INTRODUCTION DEFINITIONS HISTORY OF COLUMNS CLASSIFICATION OF COLUMNS FAILURE OF COLUMNS SIGN CONVENTIONS STM TYPES OF STRUTS EULERS FORMULA DERIVATIONS RANKINE FORMULA EULERS FORMULA UNDER ECCENTRIC LOADING

INTRODUCTION COLUMNS STRUTS .

is called a strut. subjected to axial compressive force. COLUMNS : The vertical struts which are being used in buildings and frames are more precisely called as columns. inclined or even vertical. . These may be horizontal.DEFINITIONS: STRUTS: A structural member .

In the very beginning wood was used as column material which has advanced to concrete and even Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) discovered about twenty years ago.HISTORY The use of columns has been done from ancient times . . Later as the time proceeded the techniques of column making and materials .C. few thousands of years B. The most ancient traces of columns have been found in Greece.

. They serve as the compression chord of the truss mechanism which resists moment 2.STRUTS STRUT AND TIE MODEL (STM) FUNCTIONS OF STRUTS: 1. They help in the transfer shear to the supports.

TYPES OF STRUTS a) PRISM type(having constant width) b) BOTTLE type(width expand and contract along with length) c) FAN type(an array of struts with varying inclination meet at or radiate from a single node) .

LADDER .USES OF STRUTS TO SUPPORT ROOFS AS SUSPENSIONS IN AUTOMIBILES IN MAKING FRAMES Eg.

Critical slenderness ratio (SRc ): SRc corresponds to the case when the stress due to the axial load reaches the proportional limit and the critical load at the same time. .TYPES OF COLUMNS Columns are basically of two types: o LONG o SHORT / INTERMEDIATE Slenderness ratio( Leff / r): It is the ratio of the effective length of column to the least radius of gyration of its cross section.

the column is considered short/intermediate. the column is considered long. If Leff / r > SRc.If Leff / r < SRc. .

Column failures  Material failure (crushing)  Elastic buckling P (Euler)  Inelastic buckling Leff Δ (combination of buckling and material failure) P .

SIGN CONVENTIONS POSITIVE BENDING NEGATIVE BENDING .

) r = radius of gyration (in.) r I A .Eulers Formula Sir Leonhard Euler (1707 – 1783) Euler Buckling (elastic buckling) Pcr   AE 2  KL     r  2      A = Cross sectional area (m2) E = Modulus of elasticity of the material (N/m2) K = Stiffness (curvature mode) factor L = Column length between pinned ends (in.

The material of the column is perfectly homogenous and isotropic. The column is initially straight & of uniform lateral dimensions.Assumptions  The following assumptions are made while deriving the Euler’s Formula. The compressive load is exactly axial & it passes through the centroid of the column section. Pin joints are frictionless and fixed joints are perfectly rigid. .

Limit of proportionality is not exceeded.The weight of column itself is neglected. The column fails by buckling alone. .

Derivation of Euler’s formula (for different end conditions) .

.

.

.

.

KHURMI  STRENGTH OF MATERIAL BY R.S.K. RAJPUT .BIBLIOGRAPHY WEBSITES:  GOOGLE BOOKS  WIKIPEDIA  USTUDY BOOKS REFERED  STRENGTH OF MATERIAL BY R.