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Ethical issues in nursing practice

Professional commitment is shown through


A desire to help, A sense of obligation, Efforts to enhance competence. Professional accountability depends upon an individual sense of responsibility and personal integrity.

ICN code for nurses was formed in 1933. While the international code of nursing ethics accepted in 1953. In 1973 the new ICN code of ethics was approved. It identifies four major responsibilities of the nurse: Promote health. Prevent illness. Restore health. Alleviate suffering.

Ethical decision making:


Society is rapidly changing its attitude about major ethical issues. New emphasis on equal rights and individual rights bring up issues such as changes in the role of women. Changes in health care from remedies to preventive medicine. Expand in the role of patient or client in making a decision toward his health. Changing social attitudes about birth control, sterilization, abortion, and the possibility of genetic manipulation Having to make decisions on ethical issues is a contributing factor to stress in nurses work . Ethics is a personal matter because every person has an individual concept of what is good and what is evil.

Bioethical issues

Are concerned with problems associated with biology or the field of medicine, mainly that are related to birth and to death, and life supporting measures. ..To birth: Involve: Processes that prevent conception. Terminate pregnancy maturity. Process that enable conception and pregnancy to occur through direct intervention rather than through normal developments.( Sterilization, contraception, and abortion on the one hand, and test-tube conception and artificial insemination.)

Sterilization
The reason for elective sterilization. Meaning of eugenic sterilization> A couple who fears giving birth to a defective baby because of a genetic trait. The choice in front of the male to do vasectomy or the female to do tuballigation.

( Some state still permit compulsory eugenic sterilization of certain prison and mental hospital inmates to prevent conception of children with various disorders who might become a finical burden to society)

Abortion Elective abortions performed has increased and the procedure has become a major bioethical issues. Abortion is a deliberate termination of the life of a fetus before the end of the sixth month of gestation.

(Contraversery exists about whether the fetus is actually a human being before that time)

(In 1973, the united state supreme court ruled that it was unconstitutional to prohibit a women from having an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy) " Until that ruling was made, Physicians Generally were called upon to offer a medical judgment as to whether a dangerous pregnancy should be terminated by therapeutic abortion"

"The federal government now permits abortions to be performed until the end of six month" the consent of a spouse is not required for an abortion to be performed. Age of consent of a spouse is not required for an abortion to be performed. Age of consent and parental consent are issues in this procedure when minors are involved.

Contraception
The contraversery questions around are 1.Whether individuals have a right to control parenthood? 2.Which type of contraceptive method is best? 3. Who should practice contraceptive? 4.At what age contraception would be used?

Age of consent Children who are under the age of eighteen years may be sexually active and require health care because of pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. Some student ask the physician or school nurse for birth control devices.

Artificial insemination

Because Various reasons, including impotence or an inability to carry a child, alternative means of conception may be pursued. The donor of the sperm may be the woman's husband or another man; the woman in whom the sperm fertilized egg is implanted may be the donors wife or another woman (surrogate mother).

1.The legitimacy of the child produced. 2. The paternal/ maternal rights of the man and woman who participate in this alternative form of conception. 3. If the couple is later separated or divorced, custody and visiting rights of the child may also be a problem.

Genetic research

How much power should present generations assume in making decisions about the nature and characteristics of future generation? Who should regulate genetic research and its uses? cloning of human being gives rise to many unanswered question

Genetic screening discovered the potential parents are carriers of recessive genes that could cause disorders, in future offspring. Nurses must remember that in this area, as in all other situations, they are ethically committed to a nonjudgmental attitude, to honest, and to protecting the confidentiality and right to privacy of the client.

Test tube conception

A conception in between the woman ovum and the husband sperm in the test tube . The fertilized ovum was then implanted in her uterus. 1. It is a medical-scientific achievement. 2. The others, including theologians, expressed great concern about the unnatural method of uniting the fathers sperm with the mothers ovum.