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Alan Sam Baby Roll no:02 S7 EEE MBCET


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Important changes must be incorporated into the nature of electricity supply, as demand rises and traditional resources are depleted. Todays grids are predominantly based on large central power stations connected to high voltage transmission systems which, in turn, supply power to medium and low-voltage local distribution systems.
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Fault detection is difficult. It converts only one-third of fuel energy into electricity, without recovering the waste heat. Almost 8% of its output is lost along its transmission lines In addition to that, due to the hierarchical topology of its assets, the existing electricity grid suffers from domino effect failures.
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Smart grids is an intelligent digitized energy network delivering energy in an optimum way from source to consumption.

Includes an intelligent monitoring system that keeps track of all electricity flowing in the system
Allows customer to take an active role in the supply of electricity. Demand management becomes an indirect source of generation and savings are rewarded. Smart meters may be part of a smart grid, but alone do not constitute ALAN SAM BABY 6 a9/1/2012 grid. smart

Load adjustment Demand response support Price signaling to consumers Decentralization of power generation

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Using real-time information from embedded sensors and automated controls to anticipate, detect, and respond to system problems. Can automatically avoid or mitigate power outages, power quality problems, and service disruptions. Networks can be designed (through the use of interconnected topologies) such that failure of one part of the network will result in no loss of supply to end users.
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Interconnect fuel cells, renewable, microturbines, and other distributed generation technologies at local and regional levels.

Allows commercial and industrial customers to self-generate and sell excess power to the grid with minimal technical or regulatory barriers.

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Creating an open market where alternative energy sources can be sold to customers regardless of location.
Micro generation is a viable source of energy and will potentially contribute a good source of income to local economies
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Power outages and quality issues cost businesses billions a year. Stable power provided by smart grid technologies will reduce downtime and prevent such high losses.

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Just like the internet, the electricity grid will be interactive for both power generation sources and power consumption sinks. Wide area monitoring and protection (WAM & WAP) systems will be applied to manage the congestions in the transmission systems in a way that improves the security and reliability of grid operation. One possible model for the electricity network of the future would be analogous to the internet, in the sense that decision-making is distributed and that flows are bi9/1/2012 ALAN SAM BABY 13 directional.

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Phasor measurement units

SMART METER

A wide-area measurement systems

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A Phasor is a complex number that represents both the magnitude and phase angle of the sine waves found in electricity. PMUs measure voltage, current and frequency at speeds of typically 30 observations per second.

The measurements taken by PMUs in different locations can be synchronized with each other to provide a comprehensive view of the entire grid. Synchrophasor technology provides a tool for system operators and planners to measure the state of the electrical system and manage power quality.
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A smart meter is usually an electrical meter that records consumption


of electric energy in intervals of an hour or less and communicates that information at least daily back to the utility for monitoring and billing purposes.

Smart Meters usually involve a real-time or near real-time sensors, power


outage notification, and power quality monitoring.

Smart meters mark an end to estimate bills, which are a major source of
complaints for many customers .

A tool to help consumers better manage their energy use - smart meters
with a display can provide up to date information on gas and electricity consumption in the currency of that country and in doing so help people to better manage their energy use and reduce their energy bills and carbon emissions. 9/1/2012 ALAN SAM BABY

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Helps reduce energy consumption and cost Helps reduce carbon footprint Opens up new opportunities for tech companies meaning more jobs Helps reduce Blackouts and Power outages

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Biggest concern: privacy & security Some type of meters can be hacked Hackers gain control of thousands of meters Can increase or decrease the demand for power Huge initial investment

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The importance ,advantages, disadvantages of smart grid technology have been presented in this seminar. However this technology is more advantageous compared to present system.Hence we conclude saying that this technology improves economy of a country by reducing electrical losses and giving way for alternate sources of energy.
Smart Grid is a journey, not a single destination.
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Siming Li; Yunhui Chen; Jing He; Yongding Fu; Bangfeng Li; Hui Hou; Jianzhong Zhou; Yongchuan Zhang; Sanya Grid Co., Sanya, China Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), 2011 Asia-Pacific

2-Fangxing Li; Wei Qiao; Hongbin Sun; Hui Wan; Jianhui Wang; Yan Xia; Zhao Xu; Pei Zhang; Dept. of Electr. Eng. & Comput. Sci., Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions On Issue Date : Sept. 2010 Slootweg, H.; Enexis B.V., Netherlands Smart Metering - Making It Happen, 2009 IET, Issue Date: 19-19 Feb. 2009, On page(s): 1 S. Massoud Amin and Bruce F. Bollenberg, Toward A Smart Grid in IEEE Power and Energy Magazine in September/October 2005. www.ibm.com/think

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