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Teams and Team Buildings

Organizational Context for teams


1) Classical Concept The process of starting with the total amount of work to be done & dividing it into divisions, department, work clusters, jobs & assignments of responsibilities to people. How to achieve efficiency & integration of effort? Division of work- Creating levels of authority & responsibility to others. End Result: An operating hierarchy consisting of multiple levels of authority Work: Carefully scheduled, tasks are specified, roles are defined strictly & most formal communications flows along the lines of hierarchy. Mechanistic- To get people to act as efficiently & predictably as machines. Task Support Support & Suppress Decline the use of structure? Down-sizing & elimination of some middle mgt. position Flexibility with the structure by changing them rapidly according to the needs of their environment Horizontal relations between chains of command

2) Modern organization More Flexible, organic & open Tasks and Roles are less rigidly defined- to allow people to adjust to situational requirements Communication- multidirectional More info, advice & joint problem solving VS. instructions & decisions Decision making is decentralized Employees seek autonomy, openness, variety, change & opportunities to try new approaches. 3) Matrix organization An overlay of one type of organization to one another so that 2 chains of commands are directing individual employees. Used for large specialized projects that temporarily requires large numbers of technical people of different skills to work in project teams. i.e. Fund drive- Could be handled through the traditional hierarchy but often it is assigned to a temporary hierarchy of people as a part-time duty. o Outcome: Separating some of the organizations activities into projects o Objective: Team focus on a single project, permitting better planning & control to meet budgets & deadlines. Repetitive projects Members gain valuable experience Team develop strong identity o Structure: Open, Flexible, better distribution of authority Creates Cross-functional Teams: o Teams that draw their members from more than one specialty area & often several. o Intrinsically high element of diversity o Quickly constructed o May pose special problems in the process of becoming true teams.

4) Team Work Individual perform operating tasks, but the vast majority of them work in regular small groups, where their efforts must fit together. Small pieces of picture puzzle Interdependent, develop cooperative state. Task Team: Cooperative small group Know their objectives, contribute responsibly & enthusiastically to the task, supports one another, exhibiting TEAMWORK! Key Differences between Groups & Teams
Dimensions for comparison Work Products Performance monitoring source Focus of activity Leadership GROUP Individual External Collective Internal TEAM

Efficient task performance Single

Problem solving Shared

View of Conflict

Dysfunctional & discouraged

Functional & encouraged

Lifecycle of a team

Associated questions & issues faced at each stage 1. Forming

Developmental Stage

Who are these people? What are their unique competence? What information should I share with them? Will they accept me? Will I be doing all the work? What is our mission? How do we develop team spirit? What resources are available to us? What problems do we foresee with the team? Why can't we agree on anything? What do we believe in? What behaviours do we expect of each other? What should we be doing? How will we control each other's actions? How do we handle conflicts?

2. Storming

3. Norming

4. Performing

What actions will contribute to our success? Should we take risks? Have we been empowered to succeed? How can we change and grow? Why aren't all groups like this one?

How can we celebrate our successes? What connections should we maintain? What have we learned from our experience? 5. Adjourning Where do we go from here? How do I resolve my conflicting emotions?

Potential Team Problems

Study ; experience of 245 team developers o Problems: Goal Clarity Communications Role issues Problem solving & decision making Conflict Mgt. etc

Most prevalent: 1. Changing composition Too many membership changes & personnel transfers interfere with group relationship & prevent the growth of teamwork. Learn to manage internal turn-over: Anticipate & accept Develop plan for managing team turnover from the start Most Critical. How best to integrate new members Recognize a new member as an opportunity for improvement and not as treat to the teams cohesiveness

Briefly return to earlier stages of team development process

2. Social Loafing (Free Rider effect)


When employees think their contribution to a group cannot be measured, they may lessen their output.
Perception when unfair division of labor, a low achievement motivation, belief that co-worker are lazy, a perception of a meaningless/largely invisible task, the feeling of being able to hide in a crowd & therefore not be able to be singled out for blame. Sucker Effect: one believes, others intend to withhold their efforts & thus he or she would be foolish not to do the same. Feeling of anger towards low performer/empathy/complain. 3. Lack of trust

5 Major Impediments towards a Cohesive team Inattentiveness to team results Failure to hold individual accountable to their goals Lack of commitment to group effort. Reluctance to engage in debate& conflict Absence of trust-insecure, stressed& reserved.
Slow decision making, low morale & damaged customer relations. 4. Other distractions: Splitting hairs, non-stop talking, side conversations putdowns, uncontrolled anger, interrupting & doodling during discussions.

Ingredient Effective Team


4 Major Factors
1. Supportive environment Encourage members to think like a team, provide adequate time for meetings, faith in members capacity to achieve.

2. Skills & Role clarity


Reasonably qualified to perform their job & desire to cooperate. All the members of the group knows the roles of all the others Can act immediately as a team

3. Super ordinate goals


Oriented towards their overall tasks A higher goal that integrates the efforts of 2 or more persons 4. Team rewards Can stimulate teamwork Financial / Non-financial (innovative) Valued by team members, perceived as possible to earn, administered contingent on the groups task performance Authority to select new members of the group; recommendations Empowerment

Team Building

Encourages team members to examine how they work together Identify their weakness Develop more effective ways of cooperating

Goal?
To make the team more effective Team coaching

Vital to team success; new teams Leaders intentional efforts & interaction with the team to help its members make appropriate use of their collective resources.

When is Team Building needed?

Interpersonal conflicts among team members or between the team and its leader

Low degree of team morale or low team cohesiveness


Confusion/disagreement about roles within the team Large influx of new members Disagreement over the teams purpose & tasks Negative climate within the team, evidenced by criticism & bickering Stagnation within the team, with members resisting change & new ideas.

The Process of Team Building


Highly participative process Team member providing DATA

Skilled Facilitator may assist in diagnosing & addressing their problems


Develops an ACTION PLAN(S) End-result: High performance team with high levels of future morale & cooperation The best team building approach is the one that is carefully built upon a database uncovered during the 2nd stage & then tailored to fit the specific team & team problem.

Skills used in Team Building Consultation skills Interpersonal skills Research skills Presentation skills Process Consultation Feedback Process Consultation Utilizes facilitating behavior to help teams function more effectively A set of activities that help others focus on what is currently happening around the team Feedback A useful data on which to base decisions Encourage them to understand how they are seen by others within their team and to take self-correcting action. The need for continuous improvement is a cornerstone of total quality mgt. programs & a focus on teams is a critical structural element of many organizations as they operate in the 21st century.

Characteristics of Mature Teams

Exhibit several attitudinal & behavioural characteristics that organizational value, as well as achieve desirable org. outcomes.
Members take pride in their achievements & contributions of their colleagues They feel comfortable asking questions when they dont understand something No one dominates the team or is a wallflower/non-contributors Members know how to criticize others constructively & accept feedback Theres an atmosphere of respect & trust The group is not threatened by instability / change

The atmosphere is relatively informal & tension free


Members encourage & assist each other Team consistently achieves its goals & sets progressively higher standards for itself.

Ethical dilemmas within Teams


Team member appraisals Member assistance Team Selection

Team perfection

Self-Managing Teams

Self-Reliant / Self-directed Advantages: Improved flexibility of staff More efficient operations through the reduced numbers of job description

Lower absenteeism & turnover rates


Higher levels of organizational commitment & job satisfaction Multi-Skilling: Learn a wide range of relevant skills

Disadvantages:

Extended time to implement them (several yrs)


High training investment as members learn new skills Early inefficiencies due to job rotation Inability / Unwillingness to adapt to a team structure

Powerful example of the application of OB knowledge & Successful participative methods.

Virtual Teams

Groups of individual from around the globe that meet through the use of technical aids without all of their members being present in the same location.