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INTERACTIVE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

Flowering Plants
The answers are provided. Explanations of why the alternatives are unsatisfactory are also offered

These multiple choice questions are similar to the ones set by the GCSE and IGCSE Examination Boards except that, in some cases, there may be more than one acceptable answer. For this reason, even if you select a correct answer at your first attempt, it is worth looking at all the alternatives (a) to see if there is a better answer and (b) to see why some of the alternatives are unacceptable Question 1

Question 1
In a flowering plant, the spongy mesophyll is to be found in
(a) the roots

(b) the stem


(c) the leaf

(d) the fruit


Question 2

No

No

Yes
palisade mesophyll 1mm spongy mesophyll

Vertical section through leaf

No

Question 2
In a flowering plant, sugars are transported
(a) upwards in the xylem

(a) upwards in the phloem


(c) upwards or downwards in the phloem

(d) upwards or downwards in the xylem


Question 3

No
Water and mineral ions are transported in the xylem but not sugars

Yes and No
Sugars are transported in the phloem but not exclusively in an upward direction

Yes
Sugars are transported in the phloem. The direction may be upwards, e.g. from the leaves to the growing point or the fruits, or downwards, e.g. from the leaves to the roots or storage organs.

No
Water and mineral ions are transported in the xylem but not sugars

Question 3
The root of a flowering plant absorbs water and mineral ions mainly through (a) the epidermis

(b) the root hairs


(c) the phloem (d) the xylem Question 4

No
The epidermis is largely impermeable except in the region where root hairs develop

root hair

Yes
The root hairs are extensions from some of the epidermal cells. They have very thin cell walls and absorb water and mineral ions.

epidermis

phloem xylem

Transverse section through a root root hair 0.05 mm

Root hair cell

No
The phloem conducts sugars and amino acids to the root but is not involved in the uptake of water

No
The xylem carries water from the root to the rest of the plant but it is not the structure involved in the entry of water

Question 4
The force responsible for water travelling up a tree is generated mainly by (a) evaporation from the leaves

(b) root pressure


(c) active transport (d) osmosis Question 5

evaporation

Yes
Evaporation of water from the leaves creates a tension which draws water up the trunk

No
Root pressure can force water some distance up the trunk but is insufficient to take it all the way

No
Active transport enables the roots to take up dissolved substances against a diffusion gradient. It is not responsible for the flow of water up the trunk

No
Osmosis generates root pressure but this is insufficient to force water all the way up the trunk

Question 5
Which of the following are the reproductive organs of a flowering plant? (a) Petals and sepals (b) Style and stigma (c) Pollen nucleus and egg cell (d) Stamens and ovary Question 6

No
The sepals protect the flower when it is in bud. The colour and scent of the petals (in insect-pollinated plants) attract insects which pollinate the flower

No
The style and stigma are attached to the ovary and play a part in the transfer of the pollen nucleus to the egg cell in the ovule

No
The pollen nucleus and the egg cell are the gametes. The pollen nucleus is the male gamete and the egg cell is the female gamete

Yes
Stamens are the male organs and the ovary is the female organ
stamen sepal ovary

petal

style and stigma

Flower structure of Stitchwort

Question 6
The seeds in this fruit will be dispersed by (a) an explosive method (b) water (c) wind (d) animals Question 7

Yes
The pod (fruit) wall dries out, splits and curls back suddenly, flicking out the seeds.
Examples are gorse and lupin

No
If the seeds landed in a stream they might be dispersed by the current, provided they did not sink, but they are not adapted for water dispersal

No
The seeds are smooth with no feathery or fluffy structures which would be expected for wind dispersal. Also they are too heavy

No
Seeds dispersed by mammals have tiny hooks which catch in the animals fur. Sometimes the hooks are on the fruit, and the seeds fall out as the animal moves about. Seeds dispersed by birds are usually contained in an edible fruit.

Question 7
Which of the following statements is the most accurate? In order to germinate most seeds need (a) water, carbon dioxide, sunlight and a suitable temperature (b) water, oxygen, nitrates, and a suitable temperature (c) water, oxygen and a suitable temperature (d) water, oxygen and light Question 8

No
Carbon dioxide and sunlight are not needed for germination but they will be needed when photosynthesis begins in the seedling.

No
Nitrates are not needed for germination, but they will be when the seedling grows and starts to make amino acids and proteins

Yes
Most seeds need only these three conditions although some seeds need to undergo a period of low temperature before they will germinate.

It depends
Most seeds do not need light to germinate but a few do. e.g. some species of lettuce.These seeds need a light stimulus only in order to get started. Once germination has begun, light is not needed

Question 8
The drawing shows a bean seed germinating. Which of the structures is the hypocotyl A B C D Question 9 D A

B C

No

This is the cotyledon being withdrawn from the testa

Yes
The hypocotyl is the part of the stem below the cotyledons

No
This is the root which has developed from the radicle

No
This is a lateral root

Question 9
A group of plants derived by vegetative reproduction from a single parent is called

(a) a population (b) a colony (c) a clone (d) a community

No
A population is made up of all the members of the same species in a habitat. It does not matter whether they are derived sexually or asexually.

No
The plants may well form a colony but this could be produced from seed as well as vegetatively

Yes
Any population of organisms derived asexually from a single parent is called a clone. The organisms will be genetically identical.

No
A community consists of all the living organisms occupying the same habitat

End of questions
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