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Nature, Concepts & Purposes of Curriculum

Components of Curriculum and Curricular Approaches

Elements/Components of Curriculum
Aims, Goals & Objectives Subject Matter/Content Learning Experiences

Evaluation approaches

The Schools Vision

A clear concept of what the institution of what the institution would like to be in the future the focal point Guiding post Ambitious
Commits to the Exemplary Christian Education for Life and responsive to the needs of the total person and the world

The Schools Mission

Spells how it intends to carry out its vision Targets to produce the kind of persons the students will become after education

To produce globally competitive lifelong learners

Broad statements or intents to be accomplished Sources: learners, society & fund of knowledge

Build a strong foundation of skills and concepts

Educational Objectives Bloom & Mager

Explicit formulations of the ways in which students are expected to be changed by the educative process Intent communicated by statement describing a proposed change in all learners

Educational Objectives
Direct the change in behaviour Provide for the bases for the selection of learning content & learning experiences Set the criteria against which learning outcomes will be evaluated

Curriculum Content or Subject Matter

Communication Arts Mathematics Science Social Studies

Physical Education Vocational Education

Curriculum Content or Subject Matter

Criteria in the selection of Subject Matter Content

1. Self-sufficiency 2. Significance 3. Validity 4. Interest 5. Utility 6. Learnability 7. Feasibility

Other considerations
a.Frequently and commonly used in daily life b. Suited to the maturity levels and abilities of students c. Valuable in meeting the needs and competencies of a future carrer d. Related with other subject areas e. Important in the transfer of learning

Principles in organizing learning contents Palma 1992

Balance Articulation Sequence Integration Continuity

Curriculum Experiences
Translates objectives into action No single best method Stimulate the learners desire to learn Consider learning styles Develop the three learning domains Flexibility

Curriculum Evaluation
Formal determination of the quality, effectiveness or value of the program, process, product of the curriculum Meeting the goals & matching them with the intended outcome Tuckman

Curriculum Evaluation
PROCESS refers to the ways and means of how the curriculum has been implemented; looks into the entire operation of the curriculum PRODUCT indicates if the curriculum accomplishes its goals

CIPP Evaluation Model

A useful approach to educational evaluation is known as the CIPP, or Context, Input, Process, Product approach developed by Stufflebeam (1983).

CIPP Evaluation Model

provides a systematic way of looking at many different aspects of the curriculum a guide for learning which integrates the philosophy and orientation of a training programme, expected learning outcomes, key content, methodology and evaluation for the teaching and learning process curriculum evelopment process.

What is the relation of the course to other courses Is the time adequate? What are critical or important external factors (network, ministries) Should courses be integrated or separate? What are the links between the course and research/extension activities? Is there a need for the course? Is the course relevant to job needs?

What is the entering ability of students? What are the learning skills of students? What is the motivation of students? What are the living conditions of students?

What is the students existing knowledge A complex construction of information and individual experience with an interrelated social and environmental dimension. N.B. many different interpretations of knowledge exist

Are the aims suitable? Do the objectives derive from aims? Are the objectives smart? Is the course content clearly defined? Does the content (KSA Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes) match student abilities? Is the content relevant to practical problems?

What is the students existing knowledge A What is the theory/practice balance? What resources/equipment are available? What books do the teachers have? What books do the students have? How strong are the teaching skills of teachers? What time is available compared with the workload, for preparation?

What knowledge, skills and attitudes, related to the subject, do the teachers have? How supportive is the classroom envir How many students are there? How many teachers are there? How is the course organized? What regulations relate to the training?

What is the workload of students? How well/actively do students participate? Are there any problems related to teaching? Are there any problems related to learning? Is there effective 2-way communication?

Process Is knowledge only transferred to students, or do they use and apply it?
Are there any problems which students face in using/applying/analysing the knowledge and skills?

Is the teaching and learning process continuously evaluated? Is teaching and learning affected by practical/institutional problems? What is the level of cooperation /interpersonal relations between teachers/students? How is discipline maintained?

Is there one final exam at the end or several during the course? Is there any informal assessment? What is the quality of assessment? What are the students KSA levels after the course?

Is the evaluation carried out for the whole PCD Participatory Curriculum Development process? How do students use what they have learned? How was the overall experience for the teachers and for the students? What are the main lessons learned? Is there an official report? Has the teachers reputation improved as a result (or been ruined!)?

Some ways of evaluating curriculum

discussion with class informal conversation or observation individual student interviews observation in class/session of teacher/trainer by colleagues video-tape of own teaching (microteaching)

Some ways of evaluating curriculum organizational documents participant contract performance test questionnaire self-assessment written test

Interrelationship of the Components of the Curriculum